Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of glyoxalase I from Leishmania infantum.
ABSTRACT: Glyoxalase I (GLO1) is the first of the two glyoxalase-pathway enzymes. It catalyzes the formation of S-D-lactoyltrypanothione from the non-enzymatically formed hemithioacetal of methylglyoxal and reduced trypanothione. In order to understand its substrate binding and catalytic mechanism, GLO1 from Leishmania infantum was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Two crystal forms were obtained: a cube-shaped form and a rod-shaped form. While the cube-shaped form did not diffract X-rays at all, the rod-shaped form exhibited diffraction to about 2.0 A resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 130.03, b = 148.51, c = 50.63 A and three dimers of the enzyme per asymmetric unit.
Project description:Glyoxalase I forms part of the glyoxalase pathway that detoxifies reactive aldehydes such as methylglyoxal, using the spontaneously formed glutathione hemithioacetal as substrate. All known eukaryotic enzymes contain zinc as their metal cofactor, whereas the Escherichia coli glyoxalase I contains nickel. Database mining and sequence analysis identified putative glyoxalase I genes in the eukaryotic human parasites Leishmania major, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, with highest similarity to the cyanobacterial enzymes. Characterization of recombinant L. major glyoxalase I showed it to be unique among the eukaryotic enzymes in sharing the dependence of the E. coli enzyme on nickel. The parasite enzyme showed little activity with glutathione hemithioacetal substrates but was 200-fold more active with hemithioacetals formed from the unique trypanosomatid thiol trypanothione. L. major glyoxalase I also was insensitive to glutathione derivatives that are potent inhibitors of all other characterized glyoxalase I enzymes. This substrate specificity is distinct from that of the human enzyme and is reflected in the modification in the L. major sequence of a region of the human protein that interacts with the glycyl-carboxyl moiety of glutathione, a group that is conjugated to spermidine in trypanothione. This trypanothione-dependent glyoxalase I is therefore an attractive focus for additional biochemical and genetic investigation as a possible target for rational drug design.
Project description:The glyoxalase system is a highly specific enzyme system existing in all mammalian cells that is responsible for the detoxification of dicarbonyl species, primarily methylglyoxal (MG). It has been implicated to play an essential role in preventing the increased formation of advanced glycation end products under certain pathological conditions. We have established the first glyoxalase 1 knock-out model (GLO1-/-) in mammalian Schwann cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to investigate compensatory mechanisms. Neither elevated concentrations of MG nor associated protein modifications were observed in GLO1-/- cells. Alternative detoxification of MG in GLO1-/- is achieved by increased catalytic efficiency of aldose reductase toward hemithioacetal (product of glutathione and MG), which is most likely caused by S-nitrosylation of aldose reductase. The hemithioacetal is mainly converted into lactaldehyde, which is paralleled by a loss of reduced glutathione. Inhibition of aldose reductase in GLO1-/- cells is associated with an increased sensitivity against MG, elevated intracellular MG levels, associated modifications, as well as increased oxidative stress. Our data suggest that aldose reductase can compensate for the loss of GLO1. This might be of clinical importance within the context of neuronal diseases caused by an impaired glyoxalase system and elevated levels of dicarbonyl species, such as MG.
Project description:The glyoxalase system, comprizing glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II, is a ubiquitous pathway that detoxifies highly reactive aldehydes, such as methylglyoxal, using glutathione as a cofactor. Recent studies of Leishmania major glyoxalase I and Trypanosoma brucei glyoxalase II have revealed a unique dependence upon the trypanosomatid thiol trypanothione as a cofactor. This difference suggests that the trypanothione-dependent glyoxalase system may be an attractive target for rational drug design against the trypanosomatid parasites. Here we describe the cloning, expression and kinetic characterization of glyoxalase I from Trypanosoma cruzi. Like L. major glyoxalase I, recombinant T. cruzi glyoxalase I showed a preference for nickel as its metal cofactor. In contrast with the L. major enzyme, T. cruzi glyoxalase I was far less fast-idious in its choice of metal cofactor efficiently utilizing cobalt, manganese and zinc. T. cruzi glyoxalase I isomerized hemithio-acetal adducts of trypanothione more than 2400 times more efficiently than glutathione adducts, with the methylglyoxal adducts 2-3-fold better substrates than the equivalent phenylglyoxal adducts. However, glutathionylspermidine hemithioacetal adducts were most efficiently isomerized and the glutathionylspermidine-based inhibitor S-4-bromobenzylglutathionylspermidine was found to be a potent linear competitive inhibitor of the T. cruzi enzyme with a K(i) of 5.4+/-0.6 microM. Prediction algorithms, combined with subcellular fractionation, suggest that T. cruzi glyoxalase I localizes not only to the cytosol but also the mitochondria of T. cruzi epimastigotes. The contrasting substrate specificities of human and trypanosomatid glyoxalase enzymes, confirmed in the present study, suggest that the glyoxalase system may be an attractive target for anti-trypanosomal chemotherapy.
Project description:Anxiety and depression are common, highly comorbid psychiatric diseases that account for a large proportion of worldwide medical disability. Glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) has been identified as a possible target for the treatment of anxiety and depression. GLO1 is a Zn2+-dependent enzyme that isomerizes a hemithioacetal, formed from glutathione and methylglyoxal, to a lactic acid thioester. To develop active inhibitors of GLO1, fragment-based drug discovery was used to identify fragments that could serve as core scaffolds for lead development. After screening a focused library of metal-binding pharmacophores, 8-(methylsulfonylamino)quinoline (8-MSQ) was identified as a hit. Through computational modeling and synthetic elaboration, a potent GLO1 inhibitor was developed with a novel sulfonamide core pharmacophore. A lead compound was demonstrated to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, elevate levels of methylglyoxal in the brain, and reduce depression-like behavior in mice. These findings provide the basis for GLO1 inhibitors to treat depression and related psychiatric illnesses.
Project description:The glyoxalase system is a ubiquitous detoxification pathway that protects against cellular damage caused by highly reactive oxoaldehydes such as methylglyoxal which is mainly formed as a by-product of glycolysis. The gene encoding GLOII (glyoxalase II) has been cloned from Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis. DNA sequence analysis revealed an ORF (open reading frame) of approximately 888 bp that encodes a putative 295-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 32.5 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.0. The sequence identity between human GLOII and LdGLOII (L. donovani GLOII) is only 35%. The ORF is a single-copy gene on a 0.6-Mb chromosome. A approximately 38 kDa protein was obtained by heterologous expression of LdGLOII in Escherichia coli, and homogeneous enzyme was obtained after affinity purification. Recombinant L. donovani GLOII showed a marked substrate specificity for trypanothione hemithioacetal over glutathione hemithioacetal. Antiserum against recombinant LdGLOII protein could detect a band of anticipated size approximately 32 kDa in promastigote extracts. By overexpressing the GLOII gene in Leishmania donovani using Leishmania expression vector pspalphahygroalpha, we detected elevated expression of GLOII RNA and protein. Overexpression of the GLOII gene will facilitate studies of gene function and its relevance as a chemotherapeutic target. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of glyoxalase II from Leishmania spp. The difference in the substrate specificity of the human and Leishmania donovani glyoxalase II enzyme could be exploited for structure-based drug design of selective inhibitors against the parasite.
Project description:In trypanosomatids, trypanothione replaces glutathione in all glutathione-dependent processes. Of the two enzymes involved in the glyoxalase pathway, glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II, the latter shows absolute specificity towards trypanothione thioester, making this enzyme an excellent model to understand the molecular basis of trypanothione binding. Cloned glyoxalase II from Leishmania infantum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals belong to space group C222(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 65.6, b = 88.3, c = 85.2 angstroms) and diffract beyond 2.15 angstroms using synchrotron radiation. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the human glyoxalase II structure as a search model. These results, together with future detailed kinetic characterization using lactoyltrypanothione, should shed light on the evolutionary selection of trypanothione instead of glutathione by trypanosomatids.
Project description:Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) is a critical enzyme responsible for the clearance of toxic dicarbonyls, which modify proteins to produce advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Glo1 has been recently implicated in the progression of metabolic disorders, however underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aim to investigate the role of Glo1 in metabolic perturbations and determine whether AGEs mediate the Glo1 activities in obesity and metabolic health. Overall design: Total RNA obtained from the gonadal adipose, aorta, kidney and liver tissue from 36 weeks old female Glo1 heterozygous knockout (Glo1+/-) mice (n=3/group), compared with wild type mice at the same age.
Project description:We have previously shown that TNF (tumour necrosis factor) induces phosphorylation of GLO1 (glyoxalase I), which is required for cell death in L929 cells. In the present paper, we show that the TNF-induced phosphorylation of GLO1 occurs primarily on the NO (nitric oxide)-responsive form of GLO1. In addition, analysis of several cysteine mutants of GLO1 indicated that Cys-138, in combination with either Cys-18 or Cys-19, is a crucial target residue for the NO-mediated modification of GLO1. Furthermore, the NO-donor GSNO (S-nitrosogluthathione) induces NO-mediated modification of GLO1 and enhances the TNF-induced phosphorylation of this NO-responsive form. GSNO also strongly promotes TNF-induced cell death. By the use of pharmacological inhibition of iNOS (inducible NO synthase) and overexpression of mutants of GLO1 that are deficient for the NO-mediated modification, we have shown that the NO-mediated modification of GLO1 is not a requirement for TNF-induced phosphorylation or TNF-induced cell death respectively. In summary, these data suggest that the TNF-induced phosphorylation of GLO1 is the dominant factor for cell death.
Project description:In previous study we found that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 promotes proliferation and metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and that the following microarray chip screening of MALAT1 target genes showed that Glyoxalase I (GLO1) was a potential downstream effector of MALAT1. In this study, we further confirmed that GLO1 was regulated by MALAT1. GLO1 belongs to the glyoxalase system, which encodes a ubiquitous detoxification pathway being implicated in the progression of multiple malignancies. However, currently, the role of GLO1 in human ESCC remains unclear. To explore the clinical significance of GLO1 in ESCC, we first determined the expression of GLO1 in 40 paired ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. We found that the expression level of GLO1 was higher in human ESCC tissues (P=0.0040). Knockdown of GLO1 by siRNA significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of ESCC cells. In vivo assays showed that knockdown of GLO1 decreased tumor growth. Overall, GLO1 might be an essential effector of lncRNA MALAT1 which promotes ESCC progression and can be identified as a potential therapeutic target for ESCC in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) and glyoxalase 2 (Glo2) are ubiquitously expressed cytosolic enzymes that catalyze the conversion of toxic alpha-oxo-aldehydes into the corresponding alpha-hydroxy acids using L-glutathione (GSH) as a cofactor. Human Glo1 exists in various isoforms; however, the nature of its modifications and their distinct functional assignment is mostly unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized native Glo1 purified from human erythrocytes by mass spectrometry. The enzyme was found to undergo four so far unidentified posttranslational modifications: (i) removal of the N-terminal methionine 1, (ii) N-terminal acetylation at alanine 2, (iii) a vicinal disulfide bridge between cysteine residues 19 and 20, and (iv) a mixed disulfide with glutathione on cysteine 139. Glutathionylation of Glo1 was confirmed by immunological methods. Both, N-acetylation and the oxidation state of Cys(19/20), did not impact enzyme activity. In contrast, glutathionylation strongly inhibited Glo1 activity in vitro. The discussed mechanism for enzyme inhibition by glutathionylation was validated by molecular dynamics simulation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: It is shown for the first time that Glo1 activity directly can be regulated by an oxidative posttranslational modification that was found in the native enzyme, i.e., glutathionylation. Inhibition of Glo1 by chemical reaction with its co-factor and the role of its intramolecular disulfides are expected to be important factors within the context of redox-dependent regulation of glucose metabolism in cells.