Expression of p21 protein predicts clinical outcome in DLBCL patients older than 60 years treated with R-CHOP but not CHOP: a prospective ECOG and Southwest Oncology Group correlative study on E4494.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To prospectively investigate the prognostic significance of p21 and p53 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the context of the U.S. Intergroup trial comparing conventional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy to rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) induction, with or without maintenance rituximab. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Immunohistochemical staining of 197 paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens was scored by an independent panel of experts. RESULTS:The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, was expressed in 55% of cases examined. In a multivariable analysis adjusting for International Prognostic Index score and BCL2 status, p21 expression was a significant, independent, favorable predictive factor for failure-free survival (relative risk, 0.3; P = 0.001) and overall survival (relative risk, 0.3; P = 0.003) for patients treated with R-CHOP. Expression of p21 was not predictive of outcome for CHOP-treated patients. Only p21-positive cases benefited from the addition of rituximab to CHOP. Among p21-positive patients, treatment with R-CHOP was associated with a higher failure-free survival rate at 5 years compared with CHOP (61% versus 24%; P = 0.01). In contrast, no significant differences were detected in failure-free survival according to treatment arm for p21-negative patients. Expression of p53, alone or in combination with p21, did not predict for outcome in univariable or multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, p21 protein expression emerged as an important independent predictor of a favorable clinical outcome when rituximab was added to CHOP therapy. These data suggest that rituximab-related effects on lymphoma survival pathways may be functionally linked to p21 activity.
Project description:Survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients has improved by inclusion of rituximab. Refractory/recurrent disease caused by treatment resistance is, however, a major problem. Determinants of rituximab sensitivity are not fully understood, but effect of rituximab are enhanced by antagonizing cell surface receptor CXCR4. In a two-step strategy, we tested the hypothesis that prognostic value of CXCR4 in DLBCL relates to rituximab treatment, due to a hampering effect of CXCR4 on the response of DLBCL cells to rituximab. First, by investigating the prognostic impact of CXCR4 mRNA expression separately for CHOP (n=181) and R-CHOP (n=233) cohorts and, second, by assessing the interaction between CXCR4 and rituximab in DLBCL cell lines. High CXCR4 expression level was significantly associated with poor outcome only for R-CHOP-treated patients, independent of IPI score, CD20 expression, ABC/GCB and B-cell-associated gene signature (BAGS) classifications. s. For responsive cell lines, inverse correlation was observed between rituximab sensitivity and CXCR4 surface expression, rituximab induced upregulation of surface-expressed CXCR4, and growth-inhibitory effect of rituximab increased by plerixafor, supporting negative impact of CXCR4 on rituximab function. In conclusion, CXCR4 is a promising independent prognostic marker for R-CHOP-treated DLBCL patients, possibly due to inverse correlation between CXCR4 expression and rituximab sensitivity.
Project description:We report the outcome of patients included in the LNH-98.5 study, which compared cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) to rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) therapy in 399 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) aged 60 to 80 years, with a median follow-up time of 10 years. Clinical event information was updated in all living patients (with the exception of 3 patients) in 2009. Survival end points were improved in patients treated with R-CHOP: the 10-year progression-free survival was 36.5%, compared with 20% with CHOP alone, and the 10-year overall survival was 43.5% compared with 27.6%. The same risk of death due to other diseases, secondary cancers, and late relapses was observed in both study arms. Relapses occurring after 5 years represented 7% of all disease progressions. The results from the 10-year analysis confirm the benefits and tolerability of the addition of rituximab to CHOP. Our findings underscore the need to treat elderly patients as young patients, with the use of curative chemotherapy.
Project description:PURPOSE:We have previously shown the prognostic significance of BCL2 expression in the activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) patients treated with cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like therapy. However, after the inclusion of rituximab (R) in the CHOP regimen, several conflicting observations about the prognostic value of BCL2 expression have been reported. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We evaluated the R-CHOP cohort of 221 DLBCL cases with gene expression profiling data. BCL2 protein (n = 169), mRNA (n = 221) expression, and t(14;18) (n = 144) were correlated with clinical outcome. The CHOP cohort (n = 181) was used for comparative analysis. RESULTS:BCL2 protein expression has significant impact on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) in DLBCL (OS, P = 0.009; EFS, P = 0.001) and GCB-DLBCL (OS, P = 0.03; EFS, P = 0.002) but not in ABC-DLBCL in the R-CHOP cohort. The survival differences for EFS in GCB-DLBCL were still observed in multivariate analysis. At the mRNA level, this correlation was observed in EFS in DLBCL (P = 0.006), but only a trend was observed in GCB-DLBCL (P = 0.09). The t(14;18) was detected in 34% of GCB-DLBCL but was not associated with significant differences in survival. Gene enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment of the DLBCL "stromal-1" signatures and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1-?) signature in BCL2(-)GCB-DLBCL, whereas T(FH) cell signatures were enriched in BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL. CONCLUSION:The prognostic significance of BCL2 has changed after inclusion of rituximab in the treatment protocol and is observed in the GCB-DLBCL rather than the ABC-DLBCL. Although rituximab has benefited patients in both DLBCL subgroups, the BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL seems to receive less benefit from this treatment and may require other novel therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Gene expression profiles have been associated with clinical outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Using Affymetrix HU133A microarrays, we analyzed the lymphoma transcriptional profile of 30 patients treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) and 23 patients treated with rituximab (R)-CHOP in the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte clinical centers. We used this data set to select transcripts showing an association with progression-free survival in all patients or showing a differential effect in the two treatment groups. We performed real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in the 23 R-CHOP samples of the screening set and an additional 44 R-CHOP samples set to evaluate the prognostic significance of these transcripts. In these 67 patients, the level of expression of 16 genes and the cell-of-origin classification were significantly associated with overall survival, independently of the International Prognostic Index. A multivariate model comprising four genes of the cell-of-origin signature (LMO2, MME, LPP and FOXP1) and two genes related to immune response, identified for their differential effects in R-CHOP patients (APOBEC3G and RAB33A), demonstrated a high predictive efficiency in this set of patients, suggesting that both features affect outcome in DLBCL patients receiving immunochemotherapy.
Project description:PURPOSE:Rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone administered every 3 weeks (R-CHOP-21) is the standard care for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is unknown whether the dose-dense R-CHOP (R-CHOP-14) could improve the outcome of the disease in Asian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Newly diagnosed DLBCL patients were centrally, randomly assigned (1:1) to receive R-CHOP- 14 or R-CHOP-21. R-CHOP-14 was administered every 2 weeks, and R-CHOP-21 was administered every 3 weeks. Primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), response rate and toxicities. RESULTS:Seven hundred and two patients were randomly assigned to receive R-CHOP-14 (n=349) or R-CHOP-21 (n=353). With a median follow-up of 45.6 months, the two groups did not differ significantly in 3-year DFS (79.6% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 83.2% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.311), 3-year OS (77.5% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 77.6% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.903), or 3-year PFS (63.2% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 66.1% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.447). Patients with an International Prognostic Index (IPI) score ? 2 had a poorer prognosis compared to those with an IPI score < 2. Grade 3/4 hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities were manageable and similar between R-CHOP-14 and R-CHOP-21. CONCLUSION:R-CHOP-14 did not improve the outcome of DLBCL compared to R-CHOP-21 in Asian population. With manageable and similar toxicities, both of the two regimens were suitable for Asian DLBCL patients. For high-risk patients with IPI ? 2, new combination regimens based on R-CHOP deserve further investigation to improve efficacy.
Project description:We used gene expression profiling and pathway impact analyses to search signaling pathways, which mediate crosstalk between lymphoma cells and tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells and contribute to the outcome of follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. 24 FL patients treated with rituximab and CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy were classified into groups of favorable or adverse outcomes, and the transcripts differentially expressed in the pretreatment FL tissues between the groups were analyzed.
Project description:Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone plus rituximab (R-CHOP) is the standard treatment for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, rituximab cannot be popularly applied in a considerable number of patients with DLBCL because of economic reasons. To develop a new regimen to improve the outcome of these patients is extremely important. In our study, sixty five patients with DLBCL were randomly assigned to thalidomide plus CHOP group (n=32) or to CHOP alone group (n=33). Objective response rates (ORR) and complete remission rates (CRR) were 96.7% and 80.6% in T-CHOP group versus 78.9 % and 57.8 % in CHOP group, respectively (P <0.05). At a median follow-up of 96 months, median PFS for T-CHOP group was still not reached yet, and in CHOP group it was 22.9 months (95% CI [0-50.4]). (P=0.163). Median overall survival (OS) for T-CHOP group was also not reached, and the estimated median OS for CHOP group was 83.5 months, the difference of OS between the two groups is not significant (p=0.263). But, in patients with Bcl-2 positive and Bcl-6 negative, the median PFS in T-CHOP group was longer than that in CHOP group (111.0 vs 8.5 months (P=0.017). In addition, thalidomide did not significantly increase the grade 3/4 toxicity of CHOP. We concluded that the addition of thalidomide to the CHOP regimen significantly improved the CRR and showed a trend of improving clinical outcome in patients with DLBCL, especially for patients with Bcl-2 positive and Bcl-6 negative B-cell phenotype, without increased toxicity.
Project description:Radiolabelled antiCD-20 antibodies have demonstrated single agent activity in relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The S0433 clinical trial enrolled patients with newly diagnosed, advanced stage or bulky stage II, histologically confirmed DLBCL. Patients received six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone), two cycles of CHOP, then iodine-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy consolidation 30-60 d after completion of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Eighty-four eligible patients were enrolled, and 56 patients completed the entire course of protocol treatment. Of the 84 patients evaluable for treatment response, 72 [86%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 76-92%] achieved a partial response (n = 21) or a confirmed (n = 41) or unconfirmed (n = 10) complete response to therapy. With a median follow-up of 3·9 years, the 2-year PFS estimate is 69% and the 2-year overall survival estimate is 77%. Rituximab levels at time of radioimmunotherapy did not correlate with toxicity or outcome. Twenty percent of patients had double hit features (MYC+; BCL2+) by immunohistochemistry, and had inferior outcome. These current results suggest that the incorporation of novel agents earlier in therapy may ultimately have greater impact in DLBCL, as early progressions, deaths and declining performance status during CHOP chemotherapy limited the number of patients who ultimately could benefit from radioimmunotherapy consolidation.
Project description:R-CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone) and R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone + rituximab) are immunochemotherapy regimens frequently used for remission induction of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHLs). Rituximab maintenance (RM) significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with complete/partial remission (CR/PR). Here we report the final results of a randomized study comparing R-CVP to R-CHOP both followed by RM. Untreated patients in need of systemic therapy with symptomatic and progressive iNHLs including follicular (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), small lymphocytic (SLL), and lymphoplasmacytic (LPL) lymphoma were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive R-CVP or R-CHOP for eight cycles or until complete response (CR). All patients with CR/PR (partial response) received RM 375 mg/m2 q 2 months for 12 cycles. Primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS). Two-hundred and fifty patients [FL 42%, MZL/MALT 38%, LPL/ Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia (WM) 11%, SLL 9%] were enrolled and randomized (R-CHOP: 127, R-CVP: 123). Median age was 56 years (21-85), 44% were male, 90% were in stage III-IV, 43% of FL patients had a Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score ?3, and 33·4% of all patients had an IPI score ?3. At the end of induction treatment, the CR/PR rate was 43·6/50·9% and 36·3/60·8% in the R-CHOP and R-CVP groups (P = 0·218) respectively. After a median follow-up of 67, 66, and 70 months, five-year EFS was 61% vs. 56% (not significant), progression-free survival (PFS) was 71% vs. 69% (not significant) and overall survival (OS) was 84% vs. 89% in the R-CHOP vs. the R-CVP arm respectively. Grade III/IV adverse events (65 vs. 22) occurred in 40 (33·1%) and 18 (15·3%) patients, P = 0·001; neutropenia in 16 (11·6%) and 4 (3·4%) patients, P = 0·017; infection in 14 (10·7%) and 3 (2·5%) patients,; P = 0·011; and a second neoplasm in three versus seven patients., in the R-CHOP and the R-CVP groups respectively. This multicentre randomized study with >five-year follow-up shows similar outcome in patients with indolent lymphoma in need of systemic therapy treated with R-CVP or R-CHOP immunochemotherapy and rituximab maintenance in both arms. The minor toxicity of the R-CVP regimen makes it a reasonable choice for induction treatment, leaving other active agents like doxorubicin or bendamustin for second-line therapy.
Project description:The benefit of radiotherapy (RT) after chemotherapy in limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains controversial. We conducted a randomized trial in patients with nonbulky limited-stage DLBCL to evaluate the benefit of RT after rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Patients were stratified according to the modified International Prognostic Index, including lactate dehydrogenase, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, age, and disease stage. The patients received 4 or 6 consecutive cycles of R-CHOP delivered once every 2 weeks, followed or not by RT at 40 Gy delivered 4 weeks after the last R-CHOP cycle. All patients were evaluated by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scans performed at baseline, after 4 cycles of R-CHOP, and at the end of treatment. The primary objective of the trial was event-free survival (EFS) from randomization. The trial randomly assigned 165 patients in the R-CHOP arm and 169 in the R-CHOP plus RT arm. In an intent-to-treat analysis with a median follow-up of 64 months, 5-year EFS was not statistically significantly different between the 2 arms, with 89% ± 2.9% in the R-CHOP arm vs 92% ± 2.4% in the R-CHOP plus RT arm (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-1.2; P = .18). Overall survival was also not different at 92% (95% CI, 89.5%-94.5%) for patients assigned to R-CHOP alone and 96% (95% CI, 94.3%-97.7%) for those assigned to R-CHOP plus RT (P = not significant). R-CHOP alone is not inferior to R-CHOP followed by RT in patients with nonbulky limited-stage DLBCL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00841945.