Common variation in KITLG and at 5q31.3 predisposes to testicular germ cell cancer.
ABSTRACT: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have been expected to have a strong underlying genetic component. We conducted a genome-wide scan among 277 TGCT cases and 919 controls and found that seven markers at 12p22 within KITLG (c-KIT ligand) reached genome-wide significance (P < 5.0 x 10(-8) in discovery). In independent replication, TGCT risk was increased threefold per copy of the major allele at rs3782179 and rs4474514 (OR = 3.08, 95% CI = 2.29-4.13; OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 2.29-4.13, respectively). We found associations with rs4324715 and rs6897876 at 5q31.3 near SPRY4 (sprouty 4; P < 5.0 x 10(-6) in discovery). In independent replication, risk of TGCT was increased nearly 40% per copy of the major allele (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.14-1.64; OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.16-1.66, respectively). All of the genotypes were associated with both seminoma and nonseminoma TGCT subtypes. These results demonstrate that common genetic variants affect TGCT risk and implicate KITLG and SPRY4 as genes involved in TGCT susceptibility.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Familial testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) and bilateral TGCTs comprise 1-2% and 5% of all TGCTs, respectively, but their genetic basis remains largely unknown. AIM:To investigate the contribution of known testicular cancer risk variants in familial and bilateral TGCTs. METHODS AND RESULTS:The study genotyped 106 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four regions (BAK1, DMRT1, KITLG, TERT-CLPTM1L) previously identified from genome-wide association studies of TGCT, including risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs210138 (BAK1), rs755383 (DMRT1), rs4635969 (TERT-CLPTM1L) in 97 cases with familial TGCT and 22 affected individuals with sporadic bilateral TGCT as well as 871 controls. Using a generalised estimating equations method that takes into account blood relationships among cases, the associations with familial and bilateral TGCT were analysed. Three previously identified risk SNPs were found to be associated with familial and bilateral TGCT (rs210138: OR 1.80, CI 1.35 to 2.41, p=7.03×10(-5); rs755383: OR 1.67, CI 1.23 to 2.22, p=6.70×10(-4); rs4635969: OR 1.59, CI 1.16 to 2.19, p=4.07×10(-3)). Evidence for a second independent association was found for an SNP in TERT (rs4975605: OR 1.68, CI 1.23 to 2.29, p=1.24×10(-3)). Another association with an SNP was identified in KITLG (rs2046971: OR 2.33, p=1.28×10(-3)); this SNP is in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with reported risk variant rs995030. CONCLUSION:This study provides evidence for replication of recent genome-wide association studies results and shows that variants in or near BAK1, DMRT1, TERT-CLPTM1L, and KITLG predispose to familial and bilateral TGCT. These findings imply that familial TGCT and sporadic TGCT share a common genetic basis.
Project description:Recent genomic studies have identified risk SNPs in or near eight genes associated with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Mouse models suggest a role for Dnd1 epigenetics in TGCT susceptibility, and we have recently reported that transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic events may be associated with familial TGCT risk. We now investigate whether aberrant promoter methylation of selected candidate genes is associated with familial TGCT risk. Pyrosequencing assays were designed to evaluate CpG methylation in the promoters of selected genes in peripheral blood DNA from 153 TGCT affecteds and 116 healthy male relatives from 101 multiple-case families. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between promoter methylation and TGCT. We also quantified gene product expression of these genes, using quantitative PCR. We observed increased PDE11A, SPRY4 and BAK1 promoter methylation, and decreased KITLG promoter methylation, in familial TGCT cases versus healthy male family controls. A significant upward risk trend was observed for PDE11A when comparing the middle and highest tertiles of methylation to the lowest [odds ratio (OR) =1.55, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.82-2.93, and 1.94, 95% CI 1.03-3.66], respectively; P(trend)=0.042). A significant inverse association was observed for KITLG when comparing the middle and lowest tertiles to the highest (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.12-4.11, and 2.15, 95% CI 1.12-4.14, respectively; P(trend)=0.031). There was a weak inverse correlation between promoter methylation and KITLG expression. Our results suggest that familial TGCT susceptibility may be associated with promoter methylation of previously-identified TGCT risk-modifying genes. Larger studies are warranted.
Project description:Susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) has a significant heritable component, and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified association with variants in several genes, including KITLG, SPRY4, BAK1, TERT, DMRT1 and ATF7IP. In our GWAS, we genotyped 349 TGCT cases and 919 controls and replicated top hits in an independent set of 439 cases and 960 controls in an attempt to find novel TGCT susceptibility loci. We identified a second marker (rs7040024) in the doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) gene that is independent of the previously described risk allele (rs755383) at this locus. In combined analysis that mutually conditions on both DMRT1 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, TGCT cases had elevated odds of carriage of the rs7040024 major A allele [per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23, 1.78; P = 2.52 × 10(-5)] compared with controls, while the association with rs755383 persisted (per allele OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.08, 1.47, P = 0.0036). In similar analyses, the association of rs7040024 among men with seminomatous tumors did not differ from that among men with non-seminomatous tumors. In combination with KITLG, the strongest TGCT susceptibility locus found to date, men with TGCT had greatly elevated odds (OR = 14.1, 95% CI 5.12, 38.6; P = 2.98 × 10(-7)) of being double homozygotes for the risk (major) alleles at DMRT (rs7040024) and KITLG (rs4474514) when compared with men without TGCT. Our findings continue to corroborate that genes influencing male germ cell development and differentiation have emerged as the major players in inherited TGCT susceptibility.
Project description:Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is one of the symptoms of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TM is particularly interesting as an informative marker of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). KIT ligand gene (KITLG), BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 (BAK1), and sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 4 (SPRY4) genes are associated with a high risk of TGCTs, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 7 gene (BMP7), transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 gene (TGFBR3), and homeobox D cluster genes (HOXD) are related to TDS. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, we investigated allele and genotype frequencies for KITLG (rs995030, rs1508595), SPRY4 (rs4624820, rs6897876), BAK1 (rs210138), BMP7 (rs388286), TGFBR3 (rs12082710), and HOXD (rs17198432) in 142 TGCT patients, 137 TM patients, and 153 fertile men (control group). We found significant differences in the KITLG GG_rs995030 genotype in TM (P = 0.01) and TGCT patients (P = 0.0005) compared with the control. We also revealed strong associations between KITLG_rs1508595 and TM (G allele, P = 0.003; GG genotype, P = 0.01) and between KITLG_rs1508595 and TGCTs (G allele, P = 0.0001; GG genotype, P = 0.0007). Moreover, there was a significant difference in BMP7_rs388286 between the TGCT group and the control (T allele, P = 0.00004; TT genotype, P = 0.00006) and between the TM group and the control (T allele, P = 0.04). HOXD also demonstrated a strong association with TGCTs (rs17198432 A allele, P = 0.0001; AA genotype, P = 0.001). Furthermore, significant differences were found between the TGCT group and the control in the BAK1_rs210138 G allele (P = 0.03) and the GG genotype (P = 0.01). KITLG and BMP7 genes, associated with the development of TGCTs, may also be related to TM. In summary, the KITLG GG_rs995030, GG_rs1508595, BMP7 TT_rs388286, HOXD AA_rs17198432, and BAK1 GG_rs210138 genotypes were associated with a high risk of TGCT development.
Project description:Germ cell tumors (GCT) are a rare form of childhood cancer that originate from the primordial germ cell. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified susceptibility alleles for adult testicular GCT (TGCT). We test whether these SNPs are associated with GCT in pediatric and adolescent populations. This case-parent triad study includes individuals with GCT diagnosed between ages 0 and 19. We evaluated 26 SNPs from GWAS of adult TGCT and estimated main effects for pediatric GCT within complete trios (N?=?366) using the transmission disequilibrium test. We used Estimation of Maternal, Imprinting and interaction effects using Multinomial modelling to evaluate maternal effects in non-Hispanic white trios and dyads (N?=?244). We accounted for multiple comparisons using a Bonferroni correction. A variant in SPRY4 (rs4624820) was associated with reduced risk of GCT (OR [95% CI]: 0.70 [0.57, 0.86]). A variant in BAK1 (rs210138) was positively associated with GCT (OR [95% CI]: 1.70 [1.32, 2.18]), with a strong estimated effect for testis tumors (OR [95% CI]: 3.31 [1.89, 5.79]). Finally, a SNP in GAB2 (rs948662) was associated with increased risk for GCT (OR [95% CI]: 1.56 [1.20, 2.03]). Nominal associations (P?<?0.05) were noted for eight additional loci. A maternal effect was observed for KITLG SNP rs4474514 (OR [95% CI]: 1.66 [1.21, 2.28]) and a paternal parent-of-origin effect was observed for rs7221274 (P?=?0.00007), near TEX14, RAD51C, and PPM1E. We observed associations between SNPs in SPRY4, BAK1, and GAB2 and GCTs. This analysis suggests there may be common genetic risk factors for GCT in all age groups.
Project description:Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) is the most common cancer in young men in large parts of the world, but the aetiology is mainly unknown. Genome-wide association studies have so far identified about 50 susceptibility loci associated with TGCT, including SPRY4. SPRY4 has shown tumour suppressor activity in several cancer cells, such as lung and prostate, while it was found to act as an oncogene in ovarian cancer. An intronic region within the SPRY4 gene produces a long non-coding RNA, SPRY4-IT1, which has been reported to act as an oncogene in melanoma, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer, and as a tumour suppressor in lung cancer. The roles of SPRY4 and SPRY4-IT1 in TGCT development are yet unknown. We found higher expression levels of SPRY4, both mRNA and protein, and of SPRY4-IT1 in human TGCT than in normal adult testis. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated transient knockdown of SPRY4 and SPRY4-IT1 in two TGCT cell lines 833?K and NT2-D1 resulted in decreased cell growth, migration, and invasion. Knockdown of SPRY4 and SPRY4-IT1 also led to a significant reduction in the phosphorylation of Akt. Our findings indicate that SPRY4 and SPRY4-IT1 may act as oncogenes in TGCTs via activation of the PI3K / Akt signalling pathway.
Project description:We conducted a genome-wide association study for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT), genotyping 307,666 SNPs in 730 cases and 1,435 controls from the UK and replicating associations in a further 571 cases and 1,806 controls. We found strong evidence for susceptibility loci on chromosome 5 (per allele OR = 1.37 (95% CI = 1.19-1.58), P = 3 x 10(-13)), chromosome 6 (OR = 1.50 (95% CI = 1.28-1.75), P = 10(-13)) and chromosome 12 (OR = 2.55 (95% CI = 2.05-3.19), P = 10(-31)). KITLG, encoding the ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, which has previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of TGCT and the biology of germ cells, may explain the association on chromosome 12.
Project description:Malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most frequent cancers in Caucasian males (20-40 years) with an 70% increasing incidence the last 20 years, probably due to combined action of (epi)genetic and (micro)environmental factors. It is expected that TGCT have carcinoma in situ(CIS) as their common precursor, originating from an embryonic germ cell blocked in its maturation process. The overall cure rate of TGCT is more than 90%, however, men surviving TGCT can present long-term side effects of systemic cancer treatment. In contrast, men diagnosed and treated for CIS only continue to live without these long-term side effects. Therefore, early detection of CIS has great health benefits, which will require an informative screening method. This review described the etiology and early pathogenesis of TGCT, as well as the possibilities of early detection and future potential of screening men at risk for TGCT. For screening, a well-defined risk profile based on both genetic and environmental risk factors is needed. Since 2009, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been published, reporting on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant associations in or near the genes KITLG, SPRY4, BAK1, DMRT1, TERT, ATF7IP, HPGDS, MAD1L1, RFWD3, TEX14, and PPM1E, likely to be related to TGCT development. Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal environmental factors also influence the onset of CIS. A noninvasive early detection method for CIS would be highly beneficial in a clinical setting, for which specific miRNA detection in semen seems to be very promising. Further research is needed to develop a well-defined TGCT risk profile, based on gene-environment interactions, combined with noninvasive detection method for CIS.
Project description:Recently, a functional polymorphism in KITLG, rs4590952, was identified to be associated with testicular cancer susceptibility through increasing the p53-dependent KITLG expression and disrupting the function of p53. We performed a hospital-based case-control study, including 1241 breast cancer (BC) patients and 1259 cancer-free controls, to investigate the role of this polymorphism in the risk of BC in Chinese Han population. However, no significant association between rs4590952 and BC risk was identified in allelic model with the odds ratio (OR) of 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.73-1.46, P = 0.839) or in any other genetic models. When performed stratified analysis according to the Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) status, rs4590952 was neither associated with ER+/PR+ nor ER-PR- subgroups. Our results suggested that rs4590952 was not associated with the risk of BC in Chinese population, implying that heterogeneous distinct mechanisms might exist in the etiology of different cancers.
Project description:Three genome-wide association studies of testicular cancer have uncovered predisposition alleles in or near KITLG, BAK1, SPRY4, TERT, ATF7IP and DMRT1. We investigated whether testicular cancer-risk alleles can be utilized in the clinical setting. We employed the receiver operating characteristic curves for genetic risk models to measure the discriminatory power of a risk variant-based risk model, and found that the newly discovered variants provided a discriminatory power of 69.2%. This suggested that about 69.2% of the time, a randomly selected patient with testicular cancer had a higher estimated risk than the risk for a randomly selected control subject. Using a multiplicative model, we estimated that white men in the top 1% of genetic risk as defined by eight risk variants had a relative risk that was 10.5-fold greater than that for the general white male population. This risk differential does not appear to be clinically useful, given the relative rarity and highly curable nature of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT). In the authors' view, a stratified genetic risk assessment strategy might be useful, theoretically, for men who also have independent clinical risk factors for testicular cancer. Several established TGCT risk factors, such as cryptorchidism (RR=4.8) and male infertility (SIR=2.8) might prove useful in that context, but we currently do not know whether these testicular cancer-risk loci are associated with, or independent of, such clinical risk factors. More research is required before we can utilize testicular cancer-risk loci for clinically meaningful risk prediction.