Genotype-phenotype correlation in X-linked Alport syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the COL4A5 gene cause X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS). Understanding the correlation between clinical manifestations and the underlying mutations adds prognostic value to genetic testing, which is increasingly available. Our aim was to determine the association between genotype and phenotype in 681 affected male participants with XLAS from 175 US families. Hearing loss and ocular changes were present in 67 and 30% of participants, respectively. Average age of participants at onset of ESRD was 37 years for those with missense mutations, 28 years for those with splice-site mutations, and 25 years for those with truncating mutations (P < 0.0001). We demonstrated a strong relationship between mutation position and age at onset of ESRD, with younger age at onset of ESRD associated with mutations at the 5' end of the gene (hazard ratio 0.766 [95% confidence interval 0.694 to 0.846] per 1000 bp toward the 3' end; P < 0.0001). Affected participants with splice mutations or truncating mutations each had two-fold greater odds of developing eye problems than those with missense mutations; development of hearing impairment showed a similar trend. Hearing loss and ocular changes associated with mutations located closer to the 5; end of the gene. These strong genotype-phenotype correlations could potentially help in the evaluation and counseling of US families with XLAS.
Project description:Alport syndrome (AS) is one of the most frequent hereditary nephritis leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although X-linked (XLAS) inheritance is the most common form, cases with autosomal recessive inheritance with mutations in COL4A3 or COL4A4 are being increasingly recognized. A systematic review was conducted on autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (ARAS). Electronic databases were searched using related terms (until Oct 10th, 2018). From 1601 articles searched, there were 26 eligible studies with 148 patients. Female and male patients were equally affected. About 62% of patients had ESRD, 64% had sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and 17% had ocular manifestation. The median at onset was 2.5 years for hematuria (HU), 21 years for ESRD, and 13 years for SNHL. Patients without missense mutations had more severe outcomes at earlier ages, while those who had one or two missense mutations had delayed onset and lower prevalence of extrarenal manifestations. Of 49 patients with kidney biopsy available for electron microscopy (EM) pathology, 42 (86%) had typical glomerular basement membrane (GBM) changes, while 5 (10%) patients showed GBM thinning only. SNHL developed earlier than previously reported. There was a genotype phenotype correlation according to the number of missense mutations. Patients with missense mutations had delayed onset of hematuria, ESRD, and SNHL and lower prevalence of extrarenal manifestations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) is a progressive hereditary nephropathy caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene. Genotype-phenotype correlation in male XLAS is relatively well established; relative to truncating mutations, nontruncating mutations exhibit milder phenotypes. However, transcript comparison between XLAS cases with splicing abnormalities that result in a premature stop codon and those with nontruncating splicing abnormalities has not been reported, mainly because transcript analysis is not routinely conducted in patients with XLAS. METHODS:We examined transcript expression for all patients with suspected splicing abnormalities who were treated at one hospital between January of 2006 and July of 2017. Additionally, we recruited 46 males from 29 families with splicing abnormalities to examine genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with truncating (n=21, from 14 families) and nontruncating (n=25, from 15 families) mutations at the transcript level. RESULTS:We detected 41 XLAS families with abnormal splicing patterns and described novel XLAS atypical splicing patterns (n=14) other than exon skipping caused by point mutations in the splice consensus sequence. The median age for developing ESRD was 20 years (95% confidence interval, 14 to 23 years) among patients with truncating mutations and 29 years (95% confidence interval, 25 to 40 years) among patients with nontruncating mutations (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:We report unpredictable atypical splicing in the COL4A5 gene in male patients with XLAS and reveal that renal prognosis differs significantly for patients with truncating versus nontruncating splicing abnormalities. Our results suggest that splicing modulation should be explored as a therapy for XLAS with truncating mutations.
Project description:Optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of temporal macular thinning are important in the diagnosis and prognosis of X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS).To report OCT findings and severity of temporal macular thinning in a cohort with XLAS and to correlate these and other ocular findings with mutation genotype.Patients with XLAS underwent genotyping for COL4A5 mutations and complete eye examinations with retinal imaging using spectral domain OCT and fundus photography. Temporal macular thinning was calculated from OCT measurements by comparing the ratio of the retinal thickness of the temporal to the nasal subfields with a published normative database.University departments of ophthalmology and nephrology.Thirty-two patients from 24 families.Temporal thinning index calculated from spectral domain OCT scans.All study patients had a mutation associated with the X-linked COL4A5 gene. Eleven different mutations were identified. Eleven of 32 patients (34%) expressed the L1649R mutation. Of a total of 63 eyes with available OCT scans, 44 (70%) had severe pathological temporal macular thinning. The L1649R mutation was associated with the least amount of severe temporal macular thinning and later onset of renal failure.Temporal macular thinning is a prominent sign associated with XLAS, suggesting that OCT measurements are essential in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. The L1649R mutation in the COL4A5 gene causes a relatively mild form of XLAS characterized by late-onset renal failure and less frequent, severe temporal macular thinning relative to other COL4A5 mutations. The pathological basis for the retinal abnormalities of XLAS remains to be established.
Project description:X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) is a hereditary disease characterized by progressive nephritis, hearing loss, and ocular abnormalities. Affected male patients usually progress to end-stage renal disease in early or middle adulthood, and disease severity is strongly correlated with genotype. However, the clinical course in female patients has rarely been reported.We conducted a retrospective analysis of females with genetically proven XLAS (n = 275) and their affected female family members (n = 61) from 179 Japanese families. Patients suspected to have Alport syndrome from pathologic findings or a family history who were referred from anywhere in Japan for genetic diagnosis between 2006-2015 were included in this study. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from medical records at the time of registration for genetic analysis.Proteinuria was detected in 175 genetically proven patients (72.6%), and the median age for developing proteinuria was 7.0 years. Fifty-two of 336 patients developed end-stage renal disease with a median renal survival age of 65.0 years. No obvious genotype-phenotype correlation was observed. Additionally, targeted sequencing for podocyte-related genes in patients with severe phenotypes revealed no obvious variants considered to be modifier genes except for 1 patient with a COL4A3 gene variant.This study revealed that phenotypes in female XLAS patients may be severe, but genotype does not help to predict the disease severity. Clinicians must therefore pay careful attention to the clinical course and appropriate treatment in females with XLAS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutations in podocyte and basement membrane genes are associated with a growing spectrum of glomerular disease affecting adults and children. Investigation of familial cases has helped to build understanding of both normal physiology and disease. METHODS:We investigated a consanguineous family with a wide clinical phenotype of glomerular disease using clinical, histological, and new genetic studies. RESULTS:We report striking variability in severity of nephropathy within an X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) family. Four siblings each carried a mutant COL4A5 allele, p.(Gly953Val) and p.(Gly1033Arg). Two boys had signs limited to hematuria and mild/moderate proteinuria. In striking contrast, a sister presented with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at 8 years of age and an infant brother presented with nephrotic syndrome, progressing to ESRD by 3 years of age. Both were subsequently found to have homozygous variants in MYO1E, p.(Lys118Glu) and p.(Thr876Arg). MYO1E is a gene implicated in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and it encodes a podocyte-expressed non-muscle myosin. Bioinformatic modeling demonstrated that the collagen IV-alpha3,4,5 extracellular network connected via known protein-protein interactions to intracellular myosin 1E. CONCLUSIONS:COL4A5 and MYO1E mutations may summate to perturb common signaling pathways, resulting in more severe disease than anticipated independently. We suggest screening for MYO1E and other non-COL4 'podocyte gene' mutations in XLAS when clinical nephropathy is more severe than expected for an individual's age and sex.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the main causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Genetic information is of the utmost importance in understanding pathogenesis of ADPKD. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the genetic characteristics of ADPKD and their effects on renal function in 749 Korean ADPKD subjects from 524 unrelated families. Genetic studies of PKD1/2 were performed using targeted exome sequencing combined with Sanger sequencing in exon 1 of the PKD1 gene and a multiple ligation probe assay. The mutation detection rate was 80.7% (423/524 families, 331 mutations) and 70.7% was novel. PKD1 protein-truncating (PKD1-PT) genotype was associated with younger age at diagnosis, larger kidney volume, lower renal function compared to PKD1 non-truncating and PKD2 genotypes. The PKD1 genotype showed earlier onset of ESRD compared to PKD2 genotype (64.9 vs. 72.9 years old, P?<?0.001). In frailty model controlled for age, gender, and familial clustering effect, PKD2 genotype had 0.2 times lower risk for reaching ESRD than PKD1-PT genotype (p?=?0.037). In conclusion, our results suggest that genotyping can contribute to selecting rapid progressors for new emerging therapeutic interventions among Koreans.
Project description:The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor, which regulates melanocyte development and the biosynthetic melanin pathway. A notable relationship has been described between non-truncating mutations of its basic domain and Tietz syndrome, which is characterized by albinoid-like hypopigmentation of the skin and hair, rather than the patchy depigmentation seen in Waardenburg syndrome, and severe hearing loss. Twelve patients with new or recurrent non-truncating mutations of the MITF basic domain from six families were enrolled in this study. We observed a wide range of phenotypes and some unexpected features. All the patients had blue irides and pigmentation abnormalities that ranged from diffuse hypopigmentation to Waardenburg-like patches. In addition, they showed congenital complete hearing loss, diffuse hypopigmentation of the skin, freckling and ocular abnormalities, more frequently than patients with MITF mutations outside the basic domain. In conclusion, the non-truncating mutations of the basic domain do not always lead to Tietz syndrome but rather to a large range of phenotypes. Sun-exposed freckles are interestingly observed more frequently in Asian populations. This variability argues for the possible interaction with modifier loci.
Project description:Alport syndrome (AS) is an inherited disorder characterized by glomerulonephritis and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this study was to identify the gene responsible for the glomerulopathy in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant AS using exome sequencing.A 4-generation, 30-member Chinese Han family was enrolled in this study. Exome sequencing was conducted in the proband of the family, and then direct sequencing was performed in family members of the pedigree and 100 normal controls.A novel frameshift mutation, c.3213delA (p.Gly1072GlufsFNx0169), in the collagen type IV alpha-4 gene (COL4A4) was found to be the genetic cause. Neither sensorineural hearing loss nor ocular abnormalities were present in the patients of this family. Other clinical features, such as age of onset, age of ESRD occurring and disease severity, varied among the patients of this family.A novel frameshift mutation, c.3213delA (p.Gly1072GlufsFNx0169) in the COL4A4 gene, was identified in the Chinese pedigree with autosomal dominant AS. Our findings may provide new insights into the cause and diagnosis of AS and also have implications for genetic counselling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alport Syndrome (AS) is a progressive hereditary glomerular disease. It is often accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss and ocular abnormalities and can sometimes develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD), which is caused by mutations in the genes encoding the collagen type IV family of proteins. METHODS:This study analyzed the association between the clinical data of seven AS families and genes and the disease progression of different mutation types, including COL4A3 (OMIM 120070)?COL4A4 (OMIM 120131), and COL4A5 (OMIM303630). RESULTS:A total of six new pathogenic mutation sites, one complex heterozygous mutation at COL4A3, and a combined mutation of COL4A5 and INF2 (OMIM 610982) were identified in this study. It was revealed that the clinical manifestations of X-linked AS caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene were more severe in males than in females. In addition, the difference in patient phenotype can be attributed to the location of gene mutations affecting the protein domain or functional domain. Our data suggested that the gene deletion and nonsense mutations had a high risk for progression to ESRD. CONCLUSION:Our results revealed the spectrum of type IV collagen genes, which contribute to the enrichment of database resources and has important implications in the diagnosis, prognosis, and guiding treatment of AS.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Characterization of the structural and functional progression of ocular von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease and analysis of patient factors influencing disease progression. DESIGN:Retrospective analysis of a case series from a longitudinal, observational study. PARTICIPANTS:Two hundred forty-nine participants with clinically defined systemic VHL disease and more than 2 years of ophthalmic follow-up. METHODS:Standardized scoring of ocular phenotype and systemic characteristics was performed at each study visit and was analyzed longitudinally to determine progression of ocular VHL disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Measures evaluated include: visual acuity, features of ocular VHL disease (presence, location, number, and extent of retinal capillary hemangioblastomas [RCHs]), germline mutation in the VHL gene, demographics (age, gender, age at onset of ocular disease), and patient characteristics (smoking status, body mass index). RESULTS:Most participants demonstrated relative anatomic and functional stability in ocular VHL disease status over a mean follow-up of 8.2 ± 4.0 years. Approximately three quarters (73%) of participants without ocular VHL disease at baseline remained disease free at the end of follow-up. Among eyes with ocular VHL disease at baseline, 88% did not demonstrate RCHs in a new retinal location, 70% remained stable in RCH number, and 79% remained stable in the extent of RCH involvement. Mean visual acuity for all study eyes (n = 498) decreased by 5.1 ± 0.6 letters across follow-up, with 16.1% of study eyes decreasing by more than 10 letters in visual acuity. Among eyes affected at baseline, greater vision loss was associated with the presence of juxtapapillary RCHs, development of RCH in a new location, and increase in peripheral RCH number and extent. Younger baseline age, younger age at onset of ocular VHL disease, involvement of the fellow eye with ocular VHL disease, and missense or protein-truncating germline mutations were associated significantly with increased anatomic involvement and functional deterioration. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with ocular VHL disease maintain relative anatomic and functional stability, with only a minority demonstrating marked anatomic progression and vision loss. Systemic and ocular risk factors for anatomic progression and vision loss can help practitioners identify patients with a higher risk profile for counseling, closer follow-up, and proactive treatment. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S):The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.