Presence of an in situ component is associated with reduced biological aggressiveness of size-matched invasive breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The metastatic propensity of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast correlates with axillary node involvement and with expression of the proliferation antigen Ki-67, whereas ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-metastasising. To clarify whether concomitant DCIS affects IDC prognosis, we compared Ki-67 expression and node status of size-matched IDC subgroups either with DCIS (IDC-DCIS) or without DCIS (pure IDC). METHODS: We analysed data from 1355 breast cancer patients. End points were defined by the association of IDC (with or without DCIS) with grade, nodal status, Ki-67, and ER/HER2. RESULTS: Size-matched IDC-DCIS was more likely than pure IDC to be screen detected (P=0.03), to occur in pre-menopausal women (P=0.002), and to be either ER-positive (P=0.002) or HER2-positive (P<0.0005), but less likely to be treated with breast-conserving surgery (P=0.004). Grade and Ki-67 were lower in IDC-DCIS than in pure IDC (P=0.02), and declined as the DCIS enlarged (P<0.01). Node involvement and lymphovascular invasion in IDC-DCIS increased with the size ratio of IDC to DCIS (P<0.01). A 60-month cancer-specific survival favoured IDC-DCIS over size-matched pure IDC (97.4 vs 96.0%). CONCLUSION: IDC co-existing with DCIS is characterised by lower proliferation and metastatic potential than size-matched pure IDC, especially if the ratio of DCIS to IDC size is high. We submit that IDC-DCIS is biologically distinct from pure IDC, and propose an incremental molecular pathogenesis of IDC-DCIS evolution involving an intermediate DCIS precursor that remains dependent for replication on upstream mitogens.
Project description:Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) often presents alone or with a co-existing ductal carcinoma in situ component (IDC + DCIS). Studies have suggested that pure IDC may exhibit different biological behavior than IDC + DCIS, but whether this translates to a difference in outcomes is unclear. Here, utilizing the National Cancer Database we identified 494,801 stage I-III breast cancer patients diagnosed with either IDC alone or IDC + DCIS. We found that IDC + DCIS was associated with significantly better overall survival (OS) compared to IDC alone (5-year OS, 89.3% vs. 85.5%, p < 0.001), and this finding persisted on multivariable Cox modeling adjusting for demographic, clinical, and treatment-related variables. The significantly superior OS observed for IDC + DCIS was limited to patients with invasive tumor size < 4 cm or with node negative disease. A greater improvement in OS was observed for tumors containing ≥25% DCIS component. We also found IDC + DCIS to be associated with lower T/N stage, low/intermediate grade, ER/PR positivity, and receipt of mastectomy. Thus, the presence of a DCIS component in patients with IDC is associated with favorable clinical characteristics and independently predicts improved OS. IDC + DCIS could be a useful prognostic factor for patients with breast cancer, particularly if treatment de-escalation is being considered for small or node negative tumors.
Project description:The heterogeneity among multiple ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions within the same patient also diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) has not been well evaluated, leaving research implications of intra-individual DCIS heterogeneity yet to be explored. In this study formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections from 36 patients concurrently diagnosed with DCIS and IDC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Ten DCIS lesions from each patient were then randomly selected and scored. Our results showed that expression of PR, HER2, Ki-67, and p16 varied significantly within DCIS lesions from a single patient (P<0.05 for PR; P<1×10(-8) for HER2, Ki-67 and p16). In addition, seventy-two percent of the individuals had heterogeneous expression of at least 2/6 markers. Importantly, by evaluating the expression of promising DCIS risk biomarkers (Ki-67, p53 and p16) among different DCIS subgroups classified by comparing DCIS molecular subtypes with those of adjacent normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) and IDC, our results suggest the existence of a highly-aggressive DCIS subgroup, which had the same molecular subtype as the adjacent IDC but not the same subtype as the adjacent normal TDLU. By using a systematic approach, our results clearly demonstrate that intra-individual heterogeneity in DCIS is very common in patients concurrently diagnosed with IDC. Our novel findings of a DCIS subpopulation with aggressive characteristics will provide a new paradigm for mechanistic studies of breast tumor progression and also have broad implications for prevention research as heterogeneous pre-invasive lesions are present in many other cancer types.
Project description:Ductal carcinoma in situ with microinvasion (DCIS-Mi) is an early-stage breast cancer with long-term behavior, prognosis and treatment not fully understood. The aim of our study was to explore the clinicopathological and prognostic features of DCIS-Mi with pure DCIS and IDC-T1 (invasive ductal carcinoma with a tumor size ?2 cm) as control. We retrospectively reviewed 242 cases of DCIS-Mi, 280 cases of pure DCIS, and 347 cases of IDC-T1. The clinicopathological features, therapeutic schemes and survival status were compared among the three groups. After a median follow-up of 109 months, the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was lower for the DCIS-Mi patients than for the DCIS patients but higher than the IDC-T1 patients (100%, 96.89% and 87.86% respectively, P<0.001). The 5-year breast cancer specific survival for DCIS-Mi patients was also between that of DCIS and IDC-T1 patients (100%, 99.32%, and 95.42% respectively, P=0.001). Tumor size (P<0.001, HR=18.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.53-60.65) was identified as an independent prognostic factor for recurrence or metastasis. Furthermore, our study indicated that DCIS-Mi patients derived minimal, if any, benefit from chemotherapy treatment after mastectomy (P=0.63, HR=1.50, 95% CI 0.29-7.87). To our knowledge, this is the largest follow-up cohort study on Chinese DCIS-Mi patients. Our data suggested that DCIS-Mi exhibited worse clinical outcome than pure DCIS but better than that of IDC-T1. Tumor size was an independent prognostic factor. Post-mastectomy chemotherapy did not help for increasing DFS for DCIS-Mi patients.
Project description:Although ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) precedes invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), the related genomic alterations remain unknown. To identify the genomic landscape of DCIS and better understand the mechanisms behind progression to IDC, we performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling for six cases of pure DCIS and five pairs of synchronous DCIS and IDC. Pure DCIS harbored well-known mutations (e.g., TP53, PIK3CA and AKT1), copy number alterations (CNAs) and chromothripses, but had significantly fewer driver genes and co-occurrence of mutation/CNAs than synchronous DCIS-IDC. We found neither recurrent nor significantly mutated genes with synchronous DCIS-IDC compared to pure DCIS, indicating that there may not be a single determinant for pure DCIS progression to IDC. Of note, synchronous DCIS genomes were closer to IDC than pure DCIS. Among the clinicopathologic parameters, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative status was associated with increased mutations, CNAs, co-occurrence of mutations/CNAs and driver mutations. Our results indicate that although pure DCIS has already acquired some drivers, more changes are needed to progress to IDC. In addition, IDC-associated DCIS is more aggressive than pure DCIS at genomic level and should really be considered IDC. Finally, the data suggest that PR-negativity could be used to predict aggressive breast cancer genotypes.
Project description:Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is diagnosed with or without a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) component. Previous analyses have found significant differences in tumor characteristics between pure IDC lacking DCIS and mixed IDC with DCIS. We will test our hypothesis that pure IDC represents a form of breast cancer with etiology and risk factors distinct from mixed IDC/DCIS.We compared reproductive risk factors for breast cancer risk, as well as family and smoking history between 831 women with mixed IDC/DCIS (n = 650) or pure IDC (n = 181), and 1,620 controls, in the context of the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS), a case-control study of breast cancer in African-American and European-American women. Data on reproductive and lifestyle factors were collected during interviews, and tumor characteristics were abstracted from pathology reports. Case-control and case-case analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression.Most risk factors were similarly associated with pure IDC and mixed IDC/DCIS. However, among postmenopausal women, risk of pure IDC was lower in women with body mass index (BMI) 25 to <30 [odds ratio (OR) 0.66; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.35-1.23] and BMI ? 30 (OR 0.33; 95 % CI 0.18-0.67) compared to women with BMI < 25, with no associations with mixed IDC/DCIS. In case-case analyses, women who breastfed up to 12 months (OR 0.55; 95 % CI 0.32-0.94) or longer (OR 0.47; 95 % CI 0.26-0.87) showed decreased odds of pure IDC than mixed IDC/DCIS compared to those who did not breastfeed.Associations with some breast cancer risk factors differed between mixed IDC/DCIS and pure IDC, potentially suggesting differential developmental pathways. These findings, if confirmed in a larger study, will provide a better understanding of the developmental patterns of breast cancer and the influence of modifiable risk factors, which in turn could lead to better preventive measures for pure IDC, which have worse disease prognosis compared to mixed IDC/DCIS.
Project description:A substantial number of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) detected by mammography never progress to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and current approaches fail to identify low-risk patients not at need of adjuvant therapies. We aimed to identify the key miRNAs protecting DCIS from malignant evolution, that may constitute markers for non-invasive lesions. We studied 100 archived DCIS samples, including pure DCIS, DCIS with adjacent IDC and pure DCIS from patients with subsequent IDC in contralateral breast or no recurrence. A DCIS derived cell line was used for molecular and cellular studies. A genome wide study revealed that pure DCIS has higher miR-126 and miR-218 expression than DCIS with adjacent IDC lesions or than IDC. The down-regulation of miR-126 and miR-218 promoted invasiveness in vitro and, in patients with pure DCIS, was associated with later onset of IDC. Survival studies of independent cohorts indicated that both miRNAs play a protective role in IDC. The clinical findings are in agreement with the miRNAs' roles in cell adhesion, differentiation and proliferation. We propose that miR-126 and miR-218 have a protective role in DCIS and represent novel biomarkers for the risk assessment in women with early detection of breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in the development of breast cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the frequency and pattern of mutations in the D310 region, the most commonly mutated region in mtDNA, in a series of breast lesions. METHODS: Using capillary electrophoresis, we genotyped the D310 sequence of neoplastic epithelial cells from 23 patients with synchronous ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), 26 patients with IDC only and 29 patients with DCIS only. RESULTS: A majority of DCIS (68.4%) and IDC (71.4%) lesions harbour different D310 sequences compared with their matched normal control. Specific D310 sequences were more frequently identified in tumour samples (77.1% of DCIS and 75.5% of IDC) compared with normal tissues (35.3% of normal; P<0.0001). No difference was identified between DCIS lesions with synchronous IDC and those from pure DCIS cases. In five cases, histologically normal tissue adjacent to tumour was found to share D310 sequences with the tumour, while normal tissue taken further away did not. CONCLUSION: Although D310 alterations do not seem to be related to DCIS progression, they were found in histologically normal cells adjacent to tumour. This suggests a field of genetically altered cells, thus D310 mutations could represent a potential marker for the clonal expansion of premalignant breast cancer cells.
Project description:Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a nonobligate precursor of invasive breast cancer. Its biological features, particularly its intratumoral heterogeneity, remain obscure. Moreover, mechanism of lymph node metastasis is unclear. To address this deficiency, we performed single-cell transcriptome profiling of DCIS, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and lymph node metastasis. Single-cell transcriptome analysis revealed that breast cancer exhibits intratumoral heterogeneity at the transcriptional level, defining specific functions, and that DCIS has similar heterogeneity to IDC. Overall design: Single-cell transcriptome profiling from 13 human breast cancer tissues, 6 lymph node metastasis and 1 normal breast tissue. 13 breast cancer tissues include 7 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 6 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). All cases of IDC are accompanied by lymph node metastasis, and lymph node metastasis was collected from each case of IDC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The upgrade rate of biopsy-confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is up to 50% on final pathology. We investigated MRI and clinicopathologic predictors of the invasive components of DCIS diagnosed by preoperative biopsy and then compared MRI features between patients with DCIS, microinvasive ductal carcinoma (mIDC), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) diagnosed on final pathology. METHODS:Two hundred and one patients with 206 biopsy-confirmed DCIS lesions were enrolled. MRI and clinicopathologic features were used to predict either mIDC or IDC via a cumulative logistic regression analysis. For the lesions detected on MRI, morphologic and kinetic analyses were performed using the Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS:Of all the lesions, 112 (54.4%) were diagnosed as DCIS, 50 (24.3%) were upgraded to mIDC, and 44 (21.4%) to IDC. The detection on MRI as mass (Odds ratio (OR)?=?8.84, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.05-74.04, P?=?0.045) or non-mass enhancement (NME; OR?=?11.17, 95% CI?=?1.35-92.36, P?=?0.025), negative progesterone receptor (PR; OR?=?2.40, 95% CI?=?1.29-4.44, P?=?0.006), and high Ki-67 level (OR?=?2.42, 95% CI?=?1.30-4.50, P?=?0.005) were significant independent predictors of histologic upgrade. On MRI, 87 (42.2%) lesions appeared as mass and 107 (51.9%) as NME. Irregularly shaped, not-circumscribed, heterogeneous, or rim-enhancing masses with intratumoral high signal intensity or peritumoral edema, clumped or clustered ring-enhancing NMEs, and high peak enhancement were significantly associated with histologic upgrade (P?<?0.001). CONCLUSION:MRI detection, negative PR, and high Ki-67 levels are associated with a histologic upgrade in patients with biopsy-confirmed DCIS. Suspicious MRI features are more frequent in such patients.
Project description:Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represents a heterogeneous disease in its histologic appearance and biological potential. Some women treated for DCIS subsequently develop invasive breast cancer. DCIS with microinvasion is considered as the interim stage in the progression from DCIS to invasive breast cancer. Analysis of the differences between DCIS and DCIS with microinvasion may aid in understanding the characteristic of DCIS with microinvasion and identifying biological factors determining progression of DCIS to invasive disease.Retrospective analysis of 219 cases between 2012 and 2018 was performed in our institution. The pathological results and axillary lymph nodes status were collected. Analysis of the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), and Ki-67 in pure DCIS (164 cases), and DCIS with microinvasion (55 cases) using immunohistochemistry.DCIS with microinvasion had a higher nuclear grade (P?<?.001) and was more likely to have sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) positivity (P?=?.039) than DCIS. Expression of ER, PR were significantly higher in DCIS compared with DCIS with microinvasion (P?<?.001, P?<?.001). While the expression of HER-2 in DCIS with microinvasion (56.4%) was significantly higher than in DCIS (36.6%, P?=?.01). Furthermore, DCIS with microinvasion was significantly more likely to have aggressive subtype (Triple-negative and HER2-enriched tumors, P?=?.005).Our results indicated that DCIS with microinvasion was different from pure DCIS in clinicopathologic characteristics and molecular alterations. It displayed a more aggressive biological nature than pure DCIS. It may be a distinct entity.