The signalling pathway of CaMKII-mediated apoptosis and necrosis in the ischemia/reperfusion injury.
ABSTRACT: Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays an important role mediating apoptosis/necrosis during ischemia-reperfusion (IR). We explored the mechanisms of this deleterious effect. Langendorff perfused rat and transgenic mice hearts with CaMKII inhibition targeted to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR-AIP) were subjected to global IR. The onset of reperfusion increased the phosphorylation of Thr(17) site of phospholamban, without changes in total protein, consistent with an increase in CaMKII activity. Instead, there was a proportional decrease in the phosphorylation of Ser2815 site of ryanodine receptors (RyR2) and the amount of RyR2 at the onset of reperfusion, i.e. the ratio Ser2815/RyR2 did not change. Inhibition of the reverse Na(+)/Ca(2+)exchanger (NCX) mode (KBR7943) diminished phospholamban phosphorylation, reduced apoptosis/necrosis and enhanced mechanical recovery. CaMKII-inhibition (KN-93), significantly decreased phospholamban phosphorylation, infarct area, lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH) (necrosis), TUNEL positive nuclei, caspase-3 activity, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling (apoptosis), and increased contractile recovery when compared with non-treated IR hearts or IR hearts pretreated with the inactive analog, KN-92. Blocking SR Ca(2+) loading and release (thapsigargin/dantrolene), mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (ruthenium red/RU360), or mitochondrial permeability transition pore (cyclosporine A), significantly decreased infarct size, LDH release and apoptosis. SR-AIP hearts failed to show an increase in the phosphorylation of Thr(17) of phospholamban at the onset of reflow and exhibited a significant decrease in infarct size, apoptosis and necrosis respect to controls. The results reveal an apoptotic-necrotic pathway mediated by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylations at the SR, which involves the reverse NCX mode and the mitochondria as trigger and end effectors, respectively, of the cascade.
Project description:To explore whether CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation events mediate reperfusion arrhythmias, Langendorff perfused hearts were submitted to global ischemia/reperfusion. Epicardial monophasic or transmembrane action potentials and contractility were recorded. In rat hearts, reperfusion significantly increased the number of premature beats (PBs) relative to pre-ischemic values. This arrhythmic pattern was associated with a significant increase in CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of Ser2814 on Ca(2+)-release channels (RyR2) and Thr17 on phospholamban (PLN) at the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These phenomena could be prevented by the CaMKII-inhibitor KN-93. In transgenic mice with targeted inhibition of CaMKII at the SR membranes (SR-AIP), PBs were significantly decreased from 31±6 to 5±1 beats/3min with a virtually complete disappearance of early-afterdepolarizations (EADs). In mice with genetic mutation of the CaMKII phosphorylation site on RyR2 (RyR2-S2814A), PBs decreased by 51.0±14.7%. In contrast, the number of PBs upon reperfusion did not change in transgenic mice with ablation of both PLN phosphorylation sites (PLN-DM). The experiments in SR-AIP mice, in which the CaMKII inhibitor peptide is anchored in the SR membrane but also inhibits CaMKII regulation of L-type Ca(2+) channels, indicated a critical role of CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of SR proteins and/or L-type Ca(2+) channels in reperfusion arrhythmias. The experiments in RyR2-S2814A further indicate that up to 60% of PBs related to CaMKII are dependent on the phosphorylation of RyR2-Ser2814 site and could be ascribed to delayed-afterdepolarizations (DADs). Moreover, phosphorylation of PLN-Thr17 and L-type Ca(2+) channels might contribute to reperfusion-induced PBs, by increasing SR Ca(2+) content and Ca(2+) influx.
Project description:Ca(2+)-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) activation is deleterious in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Moreover, inhibition of CaMKII-dependent phosphorylations at the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) prevents CaMKII-induced I/R damage. However, the downstream targets of CaMKII at the SR level, responsible for this detrimental effect, remain unclear. In the present study we aimed to dissect the role of the two main substrates of CaMKII at the SR level, phospholamban (PLN) and ryanodine receptors (RyR2), in CaMKII-dependent I/R injury. In mouse hearts subjected to global I/R (45/120min), phosphorylation of the primary CaMKII sites, S2814 on cardiac RyR2 and of T17 on PLN, significantly increased at the onset of reperfusion whereas PKA-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 and PLN did not change. Similar results were obtained in vivo, in mice subjected to regional myocardial I/R (1/24h). Knock-in mice with an inactivated serine 2814 phosphorylation site on RyR2 (S2814A) significantly improved post-ischemic mechanical recovery, reduced infarct size and decreased apoptosis. Conversely, knock-in mice, in which CaMKII site of RyR2 is constitutively activated (S2814D), significantly increased infarct size and exacerbated apoptosis. In S2814A and S2814D mice subjected to regional myocardial ischemia, infarct size was also decreased and increased respectively. Transgenic mice with double-mutant non-phosphorylatable PLN (S16A/T17A) in the PLN knockout background (PLNDM) also showed significantly increased post-ischemic cardiac damage. This effect cannot be attributed to PKA-dependent PLN phosphorylation and was not due to the enhanced L-type Ca(2+) current, present in these mice. Our results reveal a major role for the phosphorylation of S2814 site on RyR2 in CaMKII-dependent I/R cardiac damage. In contrast, they showed that CaMKII-dependent increase in PLN phosphorylation during reperfusion opposes rather than contributes to I/R damage.
Project description:Chronic activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been implicated in the deleterious effects of ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) signaling on the heart, in part, by enhancing RyR2-mediated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak. We used CaMKII? knockout (CaMKII?-KO) mice and knock-in mice with an inactivated CaMKII site S2814 on the ryanodine receptor type 2 (S2814A) to investigate the involvement of these processes in ?-AR signaling and cardiac remodeling. Langendorff-perfused hearts from CaMKII?-KO mice showed inotropic and chronotropic responses to isoproterenol (ISO) that were similar to those of wild type (WT) mice; however, in CaMKII?-KO mice, CaMKII phosphorylation of phospholamban and RyR2 was decreased and isolated myocytes from CaMKII?-KO mice had reduced SR Ca(2+) leak in response to isoproterenol (ISO). Chronic catecholamine stress with ISO induced comparable increases in relative heart weight and other measures of hypertrophy from day 9 through week 4 in WT and CaMKII?-KO mice, but the development of cardiac fibrosis was prevented in CaMKII?-KO animals. A 4-week challenge with ISO resulted in reduced cardiac function and pulmonary congestion in WT, but not in CaMKII?-KO or S2814A mice, implicating CaMKII?-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-S2814 in the cardiomyopathy, independent of hypertrophy, induced by prolonged ?-AR stimulation.
Project description:We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta(C) (CaMKII-TG) develop dilated cardiomyopathy associated with increased ryanodine receptors (RyR2) phosphorylation, enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak and lowering of SR Ca(2+) load. We hypothesized that phospholamban (PLN) ablation would restore SR Ca(2+) load and prevent the decreased ventricular contractility, dilation and mortality seen in CaMKII-TG.Our objectives were to generate CaMKII-TG mice lacking PLN, determine whether the maladaptive effects of cardiac CaMKIIdelta(C) expression were corrected, and establish the mechanistic basis for these changes.CaMKII-TG were crossed with PLN knockout (PLN-KO) mice to generate KO/TG mice. Myocytes from wild type (WT), CaMKII-TG, PLN-KO and KO/TG were compared. The decreased SR Ca(2+) load and twitch Ca(2+) transients seen in CaMKII-TG were normalized in KO/TG. Surprisingly the heart failure phenotype was exacerbated, as indicated by increased left ventricular dilation, decreased ventricular function, increased apoptosis and greater mortality. In KO/TG myocytes SR Ca(2+) sparks and leak were significantly increased, presumably because of the combined effects of restored SR Ca(2+) load and RyR2 phosphorylation. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading was increased in cardiomyocytes from KO/TG versus WT or CaMKII-TG mice and this was dependent on elevated SR Ca(2+) sparks. Cardiomyocytes from KO/TG showed poor viability, improved by inhibiting SR Ca(2+) release and mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading.Normalizing cardiomyocyte SR Ca(2+) loading in the face of elevated CaMKII and RyR2 phosphorylation leads to enhanced SR Ca(2+) leak and mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, associated with exacerbated cell death, heart failure and mortality.
Project description:AIMS:Abnormal Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), associated with Ca2+-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser2814, has consistently been linked to arrhythmogenesis and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cell death. In contrast, the role played by SR Ca2+ uptake under these stress conditions remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in SR Ca2+ uptake is able to attenuate reperfusion arrhythmias and cardiac injury elicited by increased RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation. METHODS AND RESULTS:We used WT mice, which have been previously shown to exhibit a transient increase in RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation at the onset of reperfusion; mice with constitutive pseudo-phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser2814 (S2814D) to exacerbate CaMKII-dependent reperfusion arrhythmias and cardiac damage, and phospholamban (PLN)-deficient-S2814D knock-in (SDKO) mice resulting from crossbreeding S2814D with phospholamban knockout deficient (PLNKO) mice. At baseline, S2814D and SDKO mice had structurally normal hearts. Moreover none of the strains were arrhythmic before ischaemia. Upon cardiac I/R, WT, and S2814D hearts exhibited abundant arrhythmias that were prevented by PLN ablation. In contrast, PLN ablation increased infarct size compared with WT and S2814D hearts. Mechanistically, the enhanced SR Ca2+ sequestration evoked by PLN ablation in SDKO hearts prevented arrhythmogenic events upon reperfusion by fragmenting SR Ca2+ waves into non-propagated and non-arrhythmogenic events (mini-waves). Conversely, the increase in SR Ca2+ sequestration did not reduce but rather exacerbated I/R-induced SR Ca2+ leak, as well as mitochondrial alterations, which were greatly avoided by inhibition of RyR2. These results indicate that the increase in SR Ca2+ uptake is ineffective in preventing the enhanced SR Ca2+ leak of PLN ablated myocytes from either entering into nearby mitochondria and/or activating additional CaMKII pathways, contributing to cardiac damage. CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate that increasing SR Ca2+ uptake by PLN ablation can prevent the arrhythmic events triggered by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-induced SR Ca2+ leak. These findings underscore the benefits of increasing SERCA2a activity in the face of SR Ca2+ triggered arrhythmias. However, enhanced SERCA2a cannot prevent but rather exacerbates I/R cardiac injury.
Project description:Abstract Sepsis is associated with cardiac dysfunction, which is at least in part due to cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms are far from being understood. Using the colon ascendens stent peritonitis mouse model of sepsis (CASP), we examined the subcellular mechanisms that mediate sepsis?induced apoptosis. Wild?type (WT) CASP mice hearts showed an increase in apoptosis respect to WT?Sham. CASP transgenic mice expressing a CaMKII inhibitory peptide (AC3?I) were protected against sepsis?induced apoptosis. Dantrolene, used to reduce ryanodine receptor (RyR) diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release, prevented apoptosis in WT?CASP. To examine whether CaMKII?dependent RyR2 phosphorylation mediates diastolic Ca2+ release and apoptosis in sepsis, we evaluated apoptosis in mutant mice hearts that have the CaMKII phosphorylation site of RyR2 (Serine 2814) mutated to Alanine (S2814A). S2814A CASP mice did not show increased apoptosis. Consistent with RyR2 phosphorylation?dependent enhancement in diastolic SR Ca2+ release leading to mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity was reduced in mitochondria isolated from WT?CASP compared to Sham and this reduction was absent in mitochondria from CASP S2814A or dantrolene?treated mice. We conclude that in sepsis, CaMKII?dependent RyR2 phosphorylation results in diastolic Ca2+ release from SR which leads to mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and apoptosis.
Project description:Aberrant calcium signaling is considered one of the key mechanisms contributing to arrhythmias, especially in the context of heart failure. In human heart failure, there is significant down-regulation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein junctin, and junctin deficiency in mice is associated with stress-induced arrhythmias.The purpose of this study was to determine whether the increased SR Ca(2+) leak and arrhythmias associated with junctin ablation may be associated with increased calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity and phosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and whether pharmacologic inhibition of CaMKII activity may prevent these arrhythmias.Using a combination of biochemical, cellular, and in vivo approaches, we tested the ability of KN-93 to reverse aberrant CaMKII phosphorylation of RyR2. Specifically, we performed protein phosphorylation analysis, in vitro cardiomyocyte contractility and Ca(2+) kinetics, and in vivo ECG analysis in junctin-deficient mice.In the absence of junctin, RyR2 channels displayed CaMKII-dependent hyperphosphorylation. Notably, CaMKII inhibition by KN-93 reduced the in vivo incidence of stress-induced ventricular tachycardia by 65% in junctin null mice. At the cardiomyocyte level, KN-93 reduced the percentage of junctin null cells exhibiting spontaneous Ca(2+) aftertransients and aftercontractions under stress conditions by 35% and 37%, respectively. At the molecular level, KN-93 blunted the CaMKII-mediated hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 and phospholamban under stress conditions.Our data suggest that CaMKII inhibition is effective in preventing arrhythmogenesis in the setting of junctin ablation through modulation of both SR Ca(2+) release and uptake. Thus, it merits further investigation as promising molecular therapy.
Project description:Ionizing radiation (IR) is an integral part of modern multimodal anti-cancer therapies. IR involves the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in targeted tissues. This is associated with subsequent cardiac dysfunction when applied during chest radiotherapy. We hypothesized that IR (i.e., ROS)-dependently impaired cardiac myocytes' Ca handling might contribute to IR-dependent cardiocellular dysfunction. Isolated ventricular mouse myocytes and the mediastinal area of anaesthetized mice (that included the heart) were exposed to graded doses of irradiation (sham 4 and 20 Gy) and investigated acutely (after ~1 h) as well as chronically (after ~1 week). IR induced a dose-dependent effect on myocytes' systolic function with acutely increased, but chronically decreased Ca transient amplitudes, which was associated with an acutely unaltered but chronically decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load. Likewise, in vivo echocardiography of anaesthetized mice revealed acutely enhanced left ventricular contractility (strain analysis) that declined after 1 week. Irradiated myocytes showed persistently increased diastolic SR Ca leakage, which was acutely compensated by an increase in SR Ca reuptake. This was reversed in the chronic setting in the face of slowed relaxation kinetics. As underlying cause, acutely increased ROS levels were identified to activate Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Accordingly, CaMKII-, but not PKA-dependent phosphorylation sites of the SR Ca release channels (RyR2, at Ser-2814) and phospholamban (at Thr-17) were found to be hyperphosphorylated following IR. Conversely, ROS-scavenging as well as CaMKII-inhibition significantly attenuated CaMKII-activation, disturbed Ca handling, and subsequent cellular dysfunction upon irradiation. Targeted cardiac irradiation induces a biphasic effect on cardiac myocytes Ca handling that is associated with chronic cardiocellular dysfunction. This appears to be mediated by increased oxidative stress and persistently activated CaMKII. Our findings suggest impaired cardiac myocytes Ca handling as a so far unknown mediator of IR-dependent cardiac damage that might be of relevance for radiation-induced cardiac dysfunction.
Project description:Abnormal calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is considered an important trigger of atrial fibrillation (AF). Whereas increased Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity has been proposed to contribute to SR leak and AF induction, downstream targets of CaMKII remain controversial.To test the hypothesis that inhibition of CaMKII-phosphorylated type-2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) prevents AF initiation in FKBP12.6-deficient (-/-) mice.Mice lacking RyR2-stabilizing subunit FKBP12.6 had a higher incidence of spontaneous and pacing-induced AF compared with wild-type mice. Atrial myocytes from FKBP12.6-/- mice exhibited spontaneous Ca(2+) waves (SCaWs) leading to Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activation and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs). Mutation S2814A in RyR2, which inhibits CaMKII phosphorylation, reduced Ca(2+) spark frequency, SR Ca(2+) leak, and DADs in atrial myocytes from FKBP12.6-/-:S2814A mice compared with FKBP12.6-/- mice. Moreover, FKBP12.6-/-:S2814A mice exhibited a reduced susceptibility to inducible AF, whereas FKBP12.6-/-:S2808A mice were not protected from AF.FKBP12.6 mice exhibit AF caused by SR Ca(2+) leak, Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activation, and DADs, which promote triggered activity. Genetic inhibition of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation prevents AF induction in FKBP12.6-/- mice by suppressing SR Ca(2+) leak and DADs. These results suggest suppression of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation as a potential anti-AF therapeutic target.
Project description:Fight or flight heart rate (HR) increases depend on protein kinase A (PKA)- and calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated enhancement of Ca(2+) uptake and release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in sinoatrial nodal cells (SANC). However, the impact of specific PKA and CaMKII phosphorylation sites on HR is unknown.We systematically evaluated validated PKA and CaMKII target sites on phospholamban and the ryanodine receptor using genetically modified mice. We found that knockin alanine replacement of ryanodine receptor PKA (S2808) or CaMKII (S2814) target sites failed to affect HR responses to isoproterenol or spontaneous activity in vivo or in SANC. Similarly, selective mutation of phospholamban amino acids critical for enhancing SR Ca(2+) uptake by PKA (S16) or CaMKII (T17) to alanines did not affect HR in vivo or in SANC. In contrast, CaMKII inhibition by expression of AC3-I has been shown to slow SANC rate responses to isoproterenol and decrease SR Ca(2+) content. Phospholamban deficiency rescued SR Ca(2+) content and SANC rate responses to isoproterenol in mice with AC3-I expression, suggesting that CaMKII affects HR by modulation of SR Ca(2+) content. Consistent with this, mice expressing a superinhibitory phospholamban mutant had low SR Ca(2+) content and slow HR in vivo and in SANC.SR Ca(2+) depletion reduces HR and SR Ca(2+) repletion restores physiological SANC rate responses, despite CaMKII inhibition. PKA and CaMKII do not affect HR by a unique target site governing SR Ca(2+) uptake or release. HR acceleration may require an SR Ca(2+) content threshold.