The transcription factor GATA3 actively represses RUNX3 protein-regulated production of interferon-gamma.
ABSTRACT: The transcription factor GATA3 is crucial for the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Here, we show that deletion of Gata3 allowed the appearance of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing cells in the absence of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IFN-gamma. Such IFN-gamma production was transcription factor T-bet independent. Another T-box-containing transcription factor Eomes, but not T-bet, was induced both in GATA3-deficient CD4(+) T cells differentiated under Th2 cell conditions and in Th2 cells with enforced Runx3 expression, contributing to IFN-gamma production. GATA3 overexpression blocked Runx3-mediated Eomes induction and IFN-gamma production, and GATA3 protein physically interacted with Runx3 protein. Furthermore, we found that Runx3 directly bound to multiple regulatory elements of the Ifng gene and that blocking Runx3 function in either Th1 or GATA3-deficient "Th2" cells results in diminished IFN-gamma production by these cells. Thus, the Runx3-mediated pathway, actively suppressed by GATA3, induces IFN-gamma production in a STAT4- and T-bet-independent manner.
Project description:Activation of naive CD8(+) T cells with antigen induces their differentiation into effector cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs). CTLs lyse infected or aberrant target cells by exocytosis of lytic granules containing the pore-forming protein perforin and a family of proteases termed granzymes. We show that effector CTL differentiation occurs in two sequential phases in vitro, characterized by early induction of T-bet and late induction of Eomesodermin (Eomes), T-box transcription factors that regulate the early and late phases of interferon (IFN) gamma expression, respectively. In addition, we demonstrate a critical role for the transcription factor Runx3 in CTL differentiation. Runx3 regulates Eomes expression as well as expression of three cardinal markers of the effector CTL program: IFN-gamma, perforin, and granzyme B. Our data point to the existence of an elaborate transcriptional network in which Runx3 initially induces and then cooperates with T-box transcription factors to regulate gene transcription in differentiating CTLs.
Project description:A transcription factor network that includes STAT4, T-bet, and Runx3 promotes the differentiation of Th1 cells and inflammatory immune responses. How additional transcription factors regulate the function of Th1 cells has not been defined. In this study we show that the negative regulatory factor Twist1 decreases expression of T-bet, Runx3, and IL-12R?2 as it inhibits IFN-? production. Ectopic expression of Runx3, but not T-bet or IL-12R?2, compensates for the effects of Twist1 on IFN-? production, and Twist1 regulation of Ifng depends on complex formation with Runx3. Twist1 decreases Runx3 and T-bet binding at the Ifng locus, and it decreases chromatin looping within the Ifng locus. These data define an IL-12/STAT4-induced negative regulatory loop that impacts multiple components of the Th1 transcriptional network and provide further insight into regulation of Th1 differentiation.
Project description:T helper 2 cells regulate inflammatory responses to helminth infections while also mediating pathological processes of asthma and allergy. IL-4 promotes Th2 development by inducing the expression of the GATA3 transcription factor, and the Th2 phenotype is stabilized by a GATA3-dependent autoregulatory loop. In this study, we found that type I IFN (IFN-alpha/beta) blocked human Th2 development and inhibited cytokine secretion from committed Th2 cells. This negative regulatory pathway was operative in human but not mouse CD4(+) T cells and was selective to type I IFN, as neither IFN-gamma nor IL-12 mediated such inhibition. IFN-alpha/beta blocked Th2 cytokine secretion through the inhibition of GATA3 during Th2 development and in fully committed Th2 cells. Ectopic expression of GATA3 via retrovirus did not overcome IFN-alpha/beta-mediated inhibition of Th2 commitment. Thus, we demonstrate a novel role for IFN-alpha/beta in blocking Th2 cells, suggesting its potential as a promising therapy for atopy and asthma.
Project description:Th2 cells produce Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, but repress Th1 cytokine IFN?. Recent studies have revealed various distinct memory-type Th2 cell subsets, one of which produces a substantial amount of IFN? in addition to Th2 cytokines, however it remains unclear precisely how these Th2 cells produce IFN?. We herein show that phosphorylation of Gata3 at Ser308, Thr315 and Ser316 induces dissociation of a histone deacetylase Hdac2 from the Gata3/Chd4 repressive complex in Th2 cells. We also identify Akt1 as a Gata3-phosphorylating kinase, and the activation of Akt1 induces derepression of Tbx21 and Ifng expression in Th2 cells. Moreover, T-bet-dependent IFN? expression in IFN?-producing memory Th2 cells appears to be controlled by the phosphorylation status of Gata3 in human and murine systems. Thus, this study highlights the molecular basis for posttranslational modifications of Gata3 that control the regulation of IFN? expression in memory Th2 cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naïve T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we performed comprehensive transcriptome analyses of Jurkat T cells stimulated with various stimuli and pathway inhibitors. Results from these experiments were validated in a human experimental setting using whole blood and purified CD4+ Tcells. RESULTS: Calcium-dependent activation of T cells using CD3/CD28 and PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a Th1 expression profile reflected by increased expression of T-bet, RUNX3, IL-2, and IFN?, whereas calcium-independent activation via PMA/CD28 induced a Th2 expression profile which included GATA3, RXRA, CCL1 and Itk. Knock down with siRNA and gene expression profiling in the presence of selective kinase inhibitors showed that proximal kinases Lck and PKC? are crucial signaling hubs during T helper cell activation, revealing a clear role for Lck in Th1 development and for PKC? in both Th1 and Th2 development. Medial signaling via MAPkinases appeared to be less important in these pathways, since specific inhibitors of these kinases displayed a minor effect on gene expression. Translation towards a primary, whole blood setting and purified human CD4+ T cells revealed that PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a more pronounced Th1 specific, Lck and PKC? dependent IFN? production, whereas PMA/CD28 induced Th2 specific IL-5 and IL-13 production, independent of Lck activation. PMA/CD3-mediated skewing towards a Th1 phenotype was also reflected in mRNA expression of the master transcription factor Tbet, whereas PMA/CD28-mediated stimulation enhanced GATA3 mRNA expression in primary human CD4+ Tcells. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies stimulatory pathways and gene expression profiles for in vitro skewing of T helper cell activation. PMA/CD3 stimulation enhances a Th1-like response in an Lck and PKC? dependent fashion, whereas PMA/CD28 stimulation results in a Th2-like phenotype independent of the proximal TCR-tyrosine kinase Lck. This approach offers a robust and fast translational in vitro system for skewed T helper cell responses in Jurkat T cells, primary human CD4+ Tcells and in a more complex matrix such as human whole blood.
Project description:Th1-type immunity is considered to be required for efficient response to BCG in bladder cancer, although Th2 predisposition of BCG responders has recently been reported. The aim was to evaluate the relationship of Th1 and Th2 components in 23 patients undergoing BCG treatment. Peripheral blood, serum and urine samples were prospectively collected at baseline, during and after BCG. Th1 (neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR), IL-12, IFN-?, soluble TNF-R75 and IL-2R?) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) biomarkers as well as CD4 expression in T helper (Th), effector and regulatory T cells were determined. Local immune cell subsets were measured on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry to examine expression of transcription factors that control Th1 (T-bet) and Th2-type (GATA3) immunity. We confirmed a Th2 predisposition with a mean GATA3/T-bet ratio of 5.51. BCG responders showed significantly higher levels of urinary (p = 0.003) and serum neopterin (p = 0.012), kynurenine (p = 0.015), KTR (p = 0.005), IFN-? (p = 0.005) and IL-12 (p = 0.003) during therapy, whereas levels of IL-10 decreased significantly (p < 0.001) compared to non-responders. GATA3/T-bet ratio correlated positively with serum neopterin (p = 0.008), IFN-? (p = 0.013) and KTR (p = 0.018) after the first BCG instillation. We observed a significant increase in CD4 expression in the Th cell population (p < 0.05), with only a modest tendency toward higher frequency in responders compared to non-responders (p = 0.303). The combined assessment of GATA3/T-bet ratio, neopterin and KTR may be a useful biomarker in predicting BCG response. Th2-promoting factors such as GATA3 may trigger Th1-type immune responses and thus contribute to the BCG success.
Project description:CD4+ T cells can be instructed by nonantigen-specific signals to differentiate into functionally distinct lineages with mutually exclusive patterns of cytokine production. The molecular events that drive interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) production during Th1 development are well understood, but mechanisms that silence this cytokine during Th2 polarization are not clear. In this study, we find that the tbx21 gene encoding the Th1 master regulator T-bet is a direct target of the transcriptional repressor Ikaros. In Th2 cells, which do not express T-bet, strong Ikaros binding could be detected at the endogenous tbx21 promoter, whereas this gene was not occupied by Ikaros in T-bet-expressing Th1 cells. Inhibition of Ikaros DNA binding activity during Th2 polarization resulted in loss of Ikaros promoter occupancy, increased T-bet expression, and inappropriate T-bet-dependent production of IFN gamma. Ikaros was also required for epigenetic imprinting of the ifn gamma locus during Th2 polarization, and loss of Ikaros function in vivo led to an inappropriate Th1 response to the parasite Shistosoma mansoni. These studies demonstrate that Ikaros, a factor with an established role in lymphocyte development, also regulates the development of peripheral T helper responses.
Project description:Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) appears after infectious heart disease, the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy in humans. Here we report that mice lacking T-bet, a T-box transcription factor required for T helper (Th)1 cell differentiation and interferon (IFN)-gamma production, develop severe autoimmune heart disease compared to T-bet+/+ control mice. Experiments in T-bet-/- IL-4-/- and T-bet-/- IL-4Ralpha-/- mice, as well as transfer of heart-specific Th1 and Th2 cell lines, showed that autoimmune heart disease develops independently of Th1 or Th2 polarization. Analysis of T-bet-/- IL-12Rbeta1-/- and T-bet-/- IL-12p35-/- mice then identified interleukin (IL)-23 as critical for EAM pathogenesis. In addition, T-bet-/- mice showed a marked increase in production of the IL-23-dependent cytokine IL-17 by heart-infiltrating lymphocytes, and in vivo IL-17 depletion markedly reduced EAM severity in T-bet-/- mice. Heart-infiltrating T-bet-/- CD8+ but not CD8- T cells secrete IFN-gamma, which inhibits IL-17 production and protects against severe EAM. In contrast, T-bet-/- CD8+ lymphocytes completely lost their capacity to release IFN-gamma within the heart. Collectively, these data show that severe IL-17-mediated EAM can develop in the absence of T-bet, and that T-bet can regulate autoimmunity via the control of nonspecific CD8+ T cell bystander functions in the inflamed target organ.
Project description:GATA-3 and T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) play central roles in Th-cell development and function. Consistently, studies in mice document their selective expression in Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively. In contrast, it is not clear whether these genes are regulated in human Th cells. Here we show that T-bet expression is polarized to a comparable degree in human and mouse Th-cell cultures, while only mouse GATA3 is subject to substantial regulation. This did not reflect differential skewing efficiency in human versus mouse cultures, as these contained similar frequencies of IFN-gamma- and IL-4-producing cells. However, GATA-3 was expressed at significantly higher levels in human IL-4-producing cells enriched via capture with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the PGD(2) receptor, CRTH2, the best selective Th2-cell surface marker to date. Along with increased IL-4 and GATA-3, CRTH2(+) Th cells isolated from Th2-skewed cultures or the circulating memory pool exhibited markedly decreased IFN-gamma and T-bet expression. Thus, the human GATA-3 gene is not regulated in response to polarizing signals that are sufficient to direct Th2-specific expression in mouse cells. This postulates the involvement of an additional level of complexity in the regulation of human GATA-3 expression and stresses the existence of nontrivial differences in the regulation of human versus mouse T-cell function.
Project description:T-bet and GATA3 regulate the CD4+ T cell Th1/Th2 cell fate decision but little is known about the interplay between these factors outside of the murine Ifng and Il4/Il5/Il13 loci. Here we show that T-bet and GATA3 bind to multiple distal sites at immune regulatory genes in human effector T cells. These sites display markers of functional elements, act as enhancers in reporter assays and are associated with a requirement for T-bet and GATA3. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both factors bind distal sites at Tbx21 and that T-bet directly activates its own expression. We also show that in Th1 cells, GATA3 is distributed away from Th2 genes, instead occupying T-bet binding sites at Th1 genes, and that T-bet is sufficient to induce GATA3 binding at these sites. We propose these aspects of T-bet and GATA3 function are important for Th1/Th2 differentiation and for understanding transcription factor interactions in other T cell lineage decisions.