The internal transcribed spacer region, a new tool for use in species differentiation and delineation of systematic relationships within the Campylobacter genus.
ABSTRACT: The Campylobacter genus consists of a number of important human and animal pathogens. Although the 16S rRNA gene has been used extensively for detection and identification of Campylobacter species, there is currently limited information on the 23S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region that lies between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. We examined the potential of the 23S rRNA gene and the ITS region to be used in species differentiation and delineation of systematic relationships for 30 taxa within the Campylobacter genus. The ITS region produced the highest mean pairwise percentage difference (35.94%) compared to the 16S (5.34%) and 23S (7.29%) rRNA genes. The discriminatory power for each region was further validated using Simpson's index of diversity (D value). The D values were 0.968, 0.995, and 0.766 for the ITS region and the 23S and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. A closer examination of the ITS region revealed that Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter showae, and Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus harbored tRNA configurations not previously reported for other members of the Campylobacter genus. We also observed the presence of strain-dependent intervening sequences in the 23S rRNA genes. Neighbor-joining trees using the ITS region revealed that Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains clustered in subgroups, which was not observed in trees derived from the 16S or 23S rRNA gene. Of the three regions examined, the ITS region is by far the most cost-effective region for the differentiation and delineation of systematic relationships within the Campylobacter genus.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Identification and characterization of intervening sequences (IVSs) within 23S rRNA genes from Campylobacter organisms including atypical campylobacters were carried out using two PCR primer pairs, designed to generate helix 25 and 45 regions. RESULTS: Only C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG7975 and fecalis LMG8531, LMG8534 and LMG6728 of a total of 204 Campylobacter isolates (n = 56 C. jejuni; n = 11 C. coli; n = 33 C. fetus; n = 43 C. upsaliensis; n = 30 C. hyointestinalis; n = 4 C. sputorum biovar sputorum; n = 5 C. sputorum biovar fecalis; n = 5 C. sputorum biovar paraureolyticus; n = 10 C. concisus; n = 7 C. curvus) were shown to carry IVSs in helix 25 region. C. sputorum biovar fecalis LMG8531 and LMG8534, interestingly, carried two different kinds of the 23S rRNA genes with and without the IVS, respectively. Consequently, in a total of 265 isolates of 269, including 65 C. lari isolates examined previously, the absence of IVSs was identified in the helix 25 region. In the helix 45 region, all the C. hyointestinalis, C. sputorum and C. concisus isolates were shown not to carry any IVSs. However, the 30 of 56 C. jejuni isolates (54%), 5 of 11 C. coli (45%), 25 of 33 C. fetus (76%), 30 of 43 C. upsaliensis (70%) and 6 of 7 C. curvus (90%) were shown to carry IVSs. In C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis isolates, two different kinds of the 23S rRNA genes were also identified to occur with and without IVSs in the helix 45 region, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary structure models were also constructed with all the IVSs identified in the present study. In the purified RNA fractions from the isolates which carried the 16S or 23S rRNA genes with the IVSs, no 16S or 23S rRNA was evident, respectively.
Project description:Campylobacter species are important organisms in both human and animal health. The identification of Campylobacter currently requires the growth of organisms from complex samples and biochemical identification. In many cases, the condition of the sample being tested and/or the fastidious nature of many Campylobacter species has limited the detection of campylobacters in a laboratory setting. To address this, we have designed a set of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to detect and quantify 14 Campylobacter species, C. coli, C. concisus, C. curvus, C. fetus, C. gracilis, C. helveticus, C. hyointestinalis, C. jejuni, C. lari, C. mucosalis, C. rectus, C. showae, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis, directly from DNA extracted from feces. By use of a region of the cpn60 (also known as hsp60 or groEL) gene, which encodes the universally conserved 60-kDa chaperonin, species-specific assays were designed and validated. These assays were then employed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter species in fecal samples from dogs. Fecal samples were found to contain detectable and quantifiable levels of C. fetus, C. gracilis, C. helveticus, C. jejuni, C. showae, and C. upsaliensis, with the majority of samples containing multiple Campylobacter species. This study represents the first report of C. fetus, C. gracilis, C. mucosalis, and C. showae detection in dogs and implicates dogs as a reservoir for these species. The qPCR assays described offer investigators a new tool to study many Campylobacter species in a culture-independent manner.
Project description:The nucleotide sequence of a 23S rRNA gene of Campylobacter coli VC167 was determined. The primary sequence of the C. coli 23S rRNA was deduced, and a secondary-structure model was constructed. Comparison with Escherichia coli 23S rRNA showed a major difference in the C. coli rRNA at approximately position 1170 (E. coli numbering) in the form of an extra sequence block approximately 147 bp long. PCR analysis of 31 other strains of C. coli and C. jejuni showed that 69% carried a transcribed spacer of either ca. 147 or ca. 37 bp. Comparison of all sequenced Campylobacter transcribed spacers showed that the Campylobacter inserts were related in sequence and percent G+C content. All Campylobacter strains carrying transcribed spacers in their 23S rRNA genes produced fragmented 23S rRNAs. Other strains which produced unfragmented 23S rRNAs did not appear to carry transcribed spacers at this position in their 23S rRNA genes. At the 1850 region (E. coli numbering), Campylobacter 23S rRNA displayed a base pairing signature most like that of the beta and gamma subdivisions of the class Proteobacteria, but in the 270 region, Campylobacter 23S rRNA displayed a helix signature which distinguished it from the alpha, beta, and gamma subdivisions. Phylogenetic analysis comparing C. coli VC167 23S rRNA and a C. jejuni TGH9011 (ATCC 43431) 23S rRNA with 53 other completely sequenced (eu)bacterial 23S rRNAs showed that the two campylobacters form a sister group to the alpha, beta, and gamma proteobacterial 23S rRNAs, a positioning consistent with the idea that the genus Campylobacter belongs to the epsilon subdivision of the class Proteobacteria.
Project description:Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has become the primary method for determining prokaryotic phylogeny. Phylogeny is currently the basis for prokaryotic systematics. Therefore, the validity of 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses is of fundamental importance for prokaryotic systematics. Discrepancies between 16S rRNA gene analyses and DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic analyses have been noted in the genus Helicobacter. To clarify these discrepancies, we sequenced the 23S rRNA genes for 55 helicobacter strains representing 41 taxa (>2,700 bases per sequence). Phylogenetic-tree construction using neighbor-joining, parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods for 23S rRNA gene sequence data yielded stable trees which were consistent with other phenotypic and genotypic methods. The 16S rRNA gene sequence-derived trees were discordant with the 23S rRNA gene trees and other data. Discrepant 16S rRNA gene sequence data for the helicobacters are consistent with the horizontal transfer of 16S rRNA gene fragments and the creation of mosaic molecules with loss of phylogenetic information. These results suggest that taxonomic decisions must be supported by other phylogenetically informative macromolecules, such as the 23S rRNA gene, when 16S rRNA gene-derived phylogeny is discordant with other credible phenotypic and genotypic methods. This study found Wolinella succinogenes to branch with the unsheathed-flagellum cluster of helicobacters by 23S rRNA gene analyses and whole-genome comparisons. This study also found intervening sequences (IVSs) in the 23S rRNA genes of strains of 12 Helicobacter species. IVSs were found in helices 10, 25, and 45, as well as between helices 31' and 27'. Simultaneous insertion of IVSs at three sites was found in H. mesocricetorum.
Project description:Many members of the Staphylococcus genus are clinically relevant opportunistic pathogens that warrant accurate and rapid identification for targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to develop a careful assignment scheme for staphylococcal species based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S-23S rRNA region. All reference staphylococcal strains were identified at the species level using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA, sodA, tuf, and rpoB genes and NGS of the 16S-23S rRNA region. To broaden the database, an additional 100 staphylococcal strains, including 29 species, were identified by routine diagnostic methods, 16S rRNA Sanger sequencing and NGS of the 16S-23S rRNA region. The results enabled development of reference sequences encompassing the 16S-23S rRNA region for 50 species (including one newly proposed species) and 6 subspecies of the Staphylococcus genus. This study showed sodA and rpoB targets were the most discriminative but NGS of the 16S-23S rRNA region was more discriminative than tuf gene sequencing and much more discriminative than 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Almost all Staphylococcus species could be distinguished when the max score was 99.0% or higher and the sequence similarity between the best and second best species was equal to or >0.2% (min. 9 nucleotides). This study allowed development of reference sequences for 21 staphylococcal species and enrichment for 29 species for which sequences were publicly available. We confirmed the usefulness of NGS of the 16S-23S rRNA region by identifying the whole species content in 45 clinical samples and comparing the results to those obtained using routine diagnostic methods. Based on the developed reference database, all staphylococcal species can be reliably detected based on the 16S-23S rRNA sequences in samples composed of both single species and more complex polymicrobial communities. This study will be useful for introduction of a novel diagnostic tool, which undoubtedly is an improvement for reliable species identification in polymicrobial samples. The introduction of this new method is hindered by a lack of reference sequences for the 16S-23S rRNA region for many bacterial species. The results will allow identification of all Staphylococcus species, which are clinically relevant pathogens.
Project description:Deoxyoligonucleotide probes were constructed for the identification of Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequence data. Probes were targeted to hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA. Specificity of oligonucleotide probes was tested in a colony blot assay with type strains of 15 Campylobacter and Arcobacter species as well as in a slot blot format using genomic DNA extracted from field strains of C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Two oligonucleotides were constructed for C. fetus that hybridized with equal specificity with each of 57 biochemically confirmed isolates of C. fetus but not with any other Campylobacter species. The C. hyointestinalis probe reacted with 47 of 48 biochemically confirmed field isolates of C. hyointestinalis. In Southern blot hybridization of BglII digests of genomic DNA, the respective probes reacted within three restriction fragments of either C. hyointestinalis (7.2, 8.2, and 10.1 kb) or C. fetus (7.0, 7.7, and 9.0 kb). This suggests multiple copies of genes encoding 16S rRNA.
Project description:Background: Profiling the microbiome of low-biomass samples is challenging for metagenomics since these samples are prone to contain DNA from other sources (e.g. host or environment). The usual approach is sequencing short regions of the 16S rRNA gene, which fails to assign taxonomy to genus and species level. To achieve an increased taxonomic resolution, we aim to develop long-amplicon PCR-based approaches using Nanopore sequencing. We assessed two different genetic markers: the full-length 16S rRNA (~1,500 bp) and the 16S-ITS-23S region from the rrn operon (4,300 bp). Methods: We sequenced a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, two mock communities and two pools of low-biomass samples (dog skin). Nanopore sequencing was performed on MinION™ using the 1D PCR barcoding kit. Sequences were pre-processed, and data were analyzed using EPI2ME or Minimap2 with rrn database. Consensus sequences of the 16S-ITS-23S genetic marker were obtained using canu. Results: The full-length 16S rRNA and the 16S-ITS-23S region of the rrn operon were used to retrieve the microbiota composition of the samples at the genus and species level. For the Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolate, the amplicons were assigned to the correct bacterial species in ~98% of the cases with the16S-ITS-23S genetic marker, and in ~68%, with the 16S rRNA gene when using EPI2ME. Using mock communities, we found that the full-length 16S rRNA gene represented better the abundances of a microbial community; whereas, 16S-ITS-23S obtained better resolution at the species level. Finally, we characterized low-biomass skin microbiota samples and detected species with an environmental origin. Conclusions: Both full-length 16S rRNA and the 16S-ITS-23S of the rrn operon retrieved the microbiota composition of simple and complex microbial communities, even from the low-biomass samples such as dog skin. For an increased resolution at the species level, targeting the 16S-ITS-23S of the rrn operon would be the best choice.
Project description:A multiplex PCR assay was used to simultaneously detect genes from the five major clinically relevant Campylobacter spp. Those genes selected were hipO and 23S rRNA from Campylobacter jejuni; glyA from each of C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis; and sapB2 from C. fetus subsp. fetus. The assay was evaluated with 137 clinical and environmental isolates and was found to be rapid and easy to perform and had a high sensitivity and specificity for characterizing isolates, even in mixed cultures.
Project description:Spondylodiscitis caused by Campylobacter species is a rare disease which is most often caused by Campylobacter fetus. We report a case of culture-negative spondylodiscitis and a psoas abscess due to Campylobacter jejuni in a 68-year-old woman, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene and Campylobacter-specific PCRs from biopsied tissue.
Project description:A new species of the Campylobacter genus is described, isolated from the preputial mucosa of bulls (Bos taurus). The five isolates obtained exhibit characteristics of Campylobacter, being Gram-negative non-motile straight rods, oxidase positive, catalase negative and microaerophilic. Phenotypic characteristics and nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and hsp60 genes demonstrated that these isolates belong to a novel species within the genus Campylobacter. Based on hsp60 gene phylogenetic analysis, the most related species are C. ureolyticus, C. blaseri and C. corcagiensis. The whole genome sequence analysis of isolate FMV-PI01 revealed that the average nucleotide identity with other Campylobacter species was less than 75%, which is far below the cut-off for isolates of the same species. However, whole genome sequence analysis identified coding sequences highly homologous with other Campylobacter spp. These included several virulence factor coding genes related with host cell adhesion and invasion, transporters involved in resistance to antimicrobials, and a type IV secretion system (T4SS), containing virB2-virB11/virD4 genes, highly homologous to the C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The genomic G+C content of isolate FMV-PI01 was 28.3%, which is one of the lowest values reported for species of the genus Campylobacter. For this species the name Campylobacter portucalensis sp. nov. is proposed, with FMV-PI01 (= LMG 31504, = CCUG 73856) as the type strain.