Allosteric signaling of ATP hydrolysis in GroEL-GroES complexes.
ABSTRACT: The double-ring chaperonin GroEL and its lid-like cochaperonin GroES form asymmetric complexes that, in the ATP-bound state, mediate productive folding in a hydrophilic, GroES-encapsulated chamber, the so-called cis cavity. Upon ATP hydrolysis within the cis ring, the asymmetric complex becomes able to accept non-native polypeptides and ATP in the open, trans ring. Here we have examined the structural basis for this allosteric switch in activity by cryo-EM and single-particle image processing. ATP hydrolysis does not change the conformation of the cis ring, but its effects are transmitted through an inter-ring contact and cause domain rotations in the mobile trans ring. These rigid-body movements in the trans ring lead to disruption of its intra-ring contacts, expansion of the entire ring and opening of both the nucleotide pocket and the substrate-binding domains, admitting ATP and new substrate protein.
Project description:GroEL is an Escherichia coli chaperonin that is composed of two heptameric rings stacked back-to-back. GroEL assists protein folding with its cochaperonin GroES in an ATP-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. However, it is still unclear whether GroES binds to both rings of GroEL simultaneously under physiological conditions. In this study, we monitored the GroEL-GroES interaction in the reaction cycle using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. We found that nearly equivalent amounts of symmetric GroEL-(GroES)(2) (football-shaped) complex and asymmetric GroEL-GroES (bullet-shaped) complex coexist during the functional reaction cycle. We also found that D398A, an ATP hydrolysis defective mutant of GroEL, forms a football-shaped complex with ATP bound to the two rings. Furthermore, we showed that ADP prevents the association of ATP to the trans-ring of GroEL, and as a consequence, the second GroES cannot bind to GroEL. Considering the concentrations of ADP and ATP in E. coli, ADP is expected to have a small effect on the inhibition of GroES binding to the trans-ring of GroEL in vivo. These results suggest that we should reconsider the chaperonin-mediated protein-folding mechanism that involves the football-shaped complex.
Project description:The GroEL/GroES protein folding chamber is formed and dissociated by ATP binding and hydrolysis. ATP hydrolysis in the GroES-bound (cis) ring gates entry of ATP into the opposite unoccupied trans ring, which allosterically ejects cis ligands. While earlier studies suggested that hydrolysis of cis ATP is the rate-limiting step of the cycle (t1/2 approximately 10 s), a recent study suggested that ADP release from the cis ring may be rate-limiting (t1/2 approximately 15-20 s). Here we have measured ADP release using a coupled enzyme assay and observed a t1/2 for release of <or=4-5 s, indicating that this is not the rate-limiting step of the reaction cycle.
Project description:Productive cis folding by the chaperonin GroEL is triggered by the binding of ATP but not ADP, along with cochaperonin GroES, to the same ring as non-native polypeptide, ejecting polypeptide into an encapsulated hydrophilic chamber. We examined the specific contribution of the gamma-phosphate of ATP to this activation process using complexes of ADP and aluminium or beryllium fluoride. These ATP analogues supported productive cis folding of the substrate protein, rhodanese, even when added to already-formed, folding-inactive cis ADP ternary complexes, essentially introducing the gamma-phosphate of ATP in an independent step. Aluminium fluoride was observed to stabilize the association of GroES with GroEL, with a substantial release of free energy (-46 kcal/mol). To understand the basis of such activation and stabilization, a crystal structure of GroEL-GroES-ADP.AlF3 was determined at 2.8 A. A trigonal AlF3 metal complex was observed in the gamma-phosphate position of the nucleotide pocket of the cis ring. Surprisingly, when this structure was compared with that of the previously determined GroEL-GroES-ADP complex, no other differences were observed. We discuss the likely basis of the ability of gamma-phosphate binding to convert preformed GroEL-GroES-ADP-polypeptide complexes into the folding-active state.
Project description:The Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL is a double-ring chaperone that assists in protein folding with the aid of GroES and ATP. It is believed that GroEL alternates the folding-active rings and that the substrate protein (and GroES) can bind to the open trans-ring only after ATP in the cis-ring is hydrolyzed. However, we found that a substrate protein prebound to the trans-ring remained bound during the first ATP cycle, and this substrate was assisted by GroEL-GroES when the second cycle began. Moreover, a slow ATP-hydrolyzing GroEL mutant (D398A) in the ATP-bound form bound a substrate protein and GroES to the trans-ring. The apparent discrepancy with the results from an earlier study (Rye, H. S., Roseman, A. M., Chen, S., Furtak, K., Fenton, W. A., Saibil, H. R., and Horwich, A. L. (1999) Cell 97, 325-338) can be explained by the previously unnoticed fact that the ATP-bound form of the D398A mutant exists as a symmetric 1:2 GroEL-GroES complex (the "football"-shaped complex) and that the substrate protein (and GroES) in the medium is incorporated into the complex only after the slow turnover. In light of these results, the current model of the GroEL-GroES reaction cycle via the asymmetric 1:1 GroEL-GroES complex deserves reexamination.
Project description:The effects of potassium ion on the nested allostery of GroEL are due to increases in the affinity for nucleotide. Both positive allosteric transitions, TT-TR and TR-RR, occur at lower [ATP] as [K(+)] is increased. Negative cooperativity in the double-ringed system is also due to an increase in the affinity of the trans ring for the product ADP as [K(+)] is increased. Consequently, (i) rates of ATP hydrolysis are inversely proportional to [K(+)] and (ii) the residence time of GroES bound to the cis ring is prolonged and the hemicycle time extended. Substrate protein suppresses negative cooperativity by decreasing the affinity of the trans ring for ADP, reducing the hemicycle time to a constant minimum. The trans ring thus serves as a variable timer. ATP added to the asymmetric GroEL-GroES resting-state complex lacking trans ring ADP is hydrolyzed in the newly formed cis ring with a presteady-state burst of approximately 6 mol of Pi per mole of 14-mer. No burst is observed when the trans ring contains ADP. The amplitude and kinetics of ATP hydrolysis in the cis ring are independent of the presence or absence of encapsulated substrate protein and independent of K(+) at concentrations where there are profound effects on the linear steady-state rate. The hydrolysis of ATP by the cis ring constitutes a second, nonvariable timer of the chaperonin cycle.
Project description:In mediating protein folding, chaperonin GroEL and cochaperonin GroES form an enclosed chamber for substrate proteins in an ATP-dependent manner. The essential role of the double ring assembly of GroEL is demonstrated by the functional deficiency of the single ring GroEL(SR). The GroEL(SR)-GroES is highly stable with minimal ATPase activity. To restore the ATP cycle and the turnover of the folding chamber, we sought to weaken the GroEL(SR)-GroES interaction systematically by concatenating seven copies of groES to generate groES(7). GroES Ile-25, Val-26, and Leu-27, residues on the GroEL-GroES interface, were substituted with Asp on different groES modules of groES(7). GroES(7) variants activate ATP activity of GroEL(SR), but only some restore the substrate folding function of GroEL(SR), indicating a direct role of GroES in facilitating substrate folding through its dynamics with GroEL. Active GroEL(SR)-GroES(7) systems may resemble mammalian mitochondrial chaperonin systems.
Project description:Chaperonin and cochaperonin, represented by E. coli GroEL and GroES, are essential molecular chaperones for protein folding. The double-ring assembly of GroEL is required to function with GroES, and a single-ring GroEL variant GroELSR forms a stable complex with GroES, arresting the chaperoning reaction cycle. GroES I25 interacts with GroEL; however, mutations of I25 abolish GroES-GroEL interaction due to the seven-fold mutational amplification in heptameric GroES. To weaken GroELSR-GroES interaction in a controlled manner, we used groES 7, a gene linking seven copies of groES, to incorporate I25 mutations in selected GroES modules in GroES7. We generated GroES7 variants with different numbers of GroESI25A or GroESI25D modules and different arrangements of the mutated modules, and biochemically characterized their interactions with GroELSR. GroES7 variants with two mutated modules participated in GroELSR-mediated protein folding in vitro. GroES7 variants with two or three mutated modules collaborated with GroELSR to perform chaperone function in vivo: three GroES7 variants functioned with GroELSR under both normal and heat-shock conditions. Our studies on functional single-ring bacterial chaperonin systems are informative to the single-ring human mitochondrial chaperonin mtHsp60-mtHsp10, and will provide insights into how the double-ring bacterial system has evolved to the single-ring mtHsp60-mtHsp10.
Project description:The complex kinetics of Pi and ADP release by the chaperonin GroEL/GroES is influenced by the presence of unfolded substrate protein (SP). Without SP, the kinetics of Pi release are described by four phases: a "lag," a "burst" of ATP hydrolysis by the nascent cis ring, a "delay" caused by ADP release from the nascent trans ring, and steady-state ATP hydrolysis. The release of Pi precedes the release of ADP. The rate-determining step of the asymmetric cycle is the release of ADP from the trans ring of the GroEL-GroES1 "bullet" complex that is, consequently, the predominant species. In the asymmetric cycle, the two rings of GroEL function alternately, 180° out of phase. In the presence of SP, a change in the kinetic mechanism occurs. With SP present, the kinetics of ADP release are also described by four phases: a lag, a "surge" of ADP release attributable to SP-induced ADP/ATP exchange, and a "pause" during which symmetrical "football" particles are formed, followed by steady-state ATP hydrolysis. SP catalyzes ADP/ATP exchange on the trans ring. Now ADP release precedes the release of Pi, and the rate-determining step of the symmetric cycle becomes the hydrolysis of ATP by the symmetric GroEL-GroES2 football complex that is, consequently, the predominant species. A FRET-based analysis confirms that asymmetric GroEL-GroES1 bullets predominate in the absence of SP, whereas symmetric GroEL-GroES2 footballs predominate in the presence of SP. This evidence suggests that symmetrical football particles are the folding functional form of the chaperonin machine in vivo.
Project description:The folding of many proteins depends on the assistance of chaperonins like GroEL and GroES and involves the enclosure of substrate proteins inside an internal cavity that is formed when GroES binds to GroEL in the presence of ATP. Precisely how assembly of the GroEL-GroES complex leads to substrate protein encapsulation and folding remains poorly understood. Here we use a chemically modified mutant of GroEL (EL43Py) to uncouple substrate protein encapsulation from release and folding. Although EL43Py correctly initiates a substrate protein encapsulation reaction, this mutant stalls in an intermediate allosteric state of the GroEL ring, which is essential for both GroES binding and the forced unfolding of the substrate protein. This intermediate conformation of the GroEL ring possesses simultaneously high affinity for both GroES and non-native substrate protein, thus preventing escape of the substrate protein while GroES binding and substrate protein compaction takes place. Strikingly, assembly of the folding-active GroEL-GroES complex appears to involve a strategic delay in ATP hydrolysis that is coupled to disassembly of the old, ADP-bound GroEL-GroES complex on the opposite ring.
Project description:A double-ring-shaped tetradecameric GroEL complex assists proper protein folding in cooperation with the cochaperonin GroES. The dynamic GroEL-GroES interaction reflects the allosteric intra- and inter-ring communications and the chaperonin reaction. Therefore, revealing this dynamic interaction is essential to understanding the allosteric communications and the operation mechanism of GroEL. Nevertheless, how this interaction proceeds in the chaperonin cycle has long been controversial. Here, we directly image the dynamic GroEL-GroES interaction under conditions with and without foldable substrate protein using high-speed atomic force microscopy. Then, the imaging results obtained under these conditions and our previous results in the presence of unfoldable substrate are compared. The molecular movies reveal that the entire reaction pathway is highly complicated but basically identical irrespective of the substrate condition. A prominent (but moderate) difference is in the population distribution of intermediate species: symmetric GroEL : GroES2 and asymmetric GroEL : GroES1 complexes, and GroES-unbound GroEL. This difference is mainly attributed to the longer lifetime of GroEL : GroES1 complexes in the presence of foldable substrate. Moreover, the inter-ring communication, which is the basis for the alternating action of the two rings, occurs at two distinct (GroES association and dissociation) steps in the main reaction pathway, irrespective of the substrate condition.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Allostery and molecular machines'.