Complete reconstitution of a highly reducing iterative polyketide synthase.
ABSTRACT: Highly reducing iterative polyketide synthases are large, multifunctional enzymes that make important metabolites in fungi, such as lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug from Aspergillus terreus. We report efficient expression of the lovastatin nonaketide synthase (LovB) from an engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as complete reconstitution of its catalytic function in the presence and absence of cofactors (the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and S-adenosylmethionine) and its partner enzyme, the enoyl reductase LovC. Our results demonstrate that LovB retains correct intermediates until completion of synthesis of dihydromonacolin L, but off-loads incorrectly processed compounds as pyrones or hydrolytic products. Experiments replacing LovC with analogous MlcG from compactin biosynthesis demonstrate a gate-keeping function for this partner enzyme. This study represents a key step in the understanding of the functions and structures of this family of enzymes.
Project description:Highly reducing polyketide synthases (HR-PKSs) from fungi synthesize complex natural products using a single set of domains in a highly programmed, iterative fashion. The most enigmatic feature of HR-PKSs is how tailoring domains function selectively during different iterations of chain elongation to afford structural diversity. Using the lovastatin nonaketide synthase LovB as a model system and a variety of acyl substrates, we characterized the substrate specificity of the LovB methyltransferase (MT) domain. We showed that, while the MT domain displays methylation activity toward different ?-ketoacyl groups, it is exceptionally selective toward its naturally programmed ?-keto-dienyltetraketide substrate with respect to both chain length and functionalization. Accompanying characterization of the ketoreductase (KR) domain displays broader substrate specificity toward different ?-ketoacyl groups. Our studies indicate that selective modifications by tailoring domains, such as the MTs, are achieved by higher kinetic efficiency on a particular substrate relative to the rate of transformation by other competing domains.
Project description:Lovastatin is an important statin prescribed for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Biosynthesis of lovastatin uses an iterative type I polyketide synthase (PKS). LovC is a trans-acting enoyl reductase (ER) that specifically reduces three out of eight possible polyketide intermediates during lovastatin biosynthesis. Such trans-acting ERs have been reported across a variety of other fungal PKS enzymes as a strategy in nature to diversify polyketides. How LovC achieves such specificity is unknown. The 1.9-Å structure of LovC reveals that LovC possesses a medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) fold with a unique monomeric assembly. Two LovC cocrystal structures and enzymological studies help elucidate the molecular basis of LovC specificity, define stereochemistry, and identify active-site residues. Sequence alignment indicates a general applicability to trans-acting ERs of fungal PKSs, as well as their potential application to directing biosynthesis.
Project description:Fungal highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) are an enigmatic group of multidomain enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of structurally diverse compounds. This variety stems from their intrinsic programming rules, which permutate the use of tailoring domains and determine the overall number of iterative cycles. From genome sequencing and mining of the producing strain Eupenicillium brefeldianum ATCC 58665, we identified an HRPKS involved in the biosynthesis of an important protein transport-inhibitor Brefeldin A (BFA), followed by reconstitution of its activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in vitro. Bref-PKS demonstrated an NADPH-dependent reductive tailoring specificity that led to the synthesis of four different octaketide products with varying degrees of reduction. Furthermore, contrary to what is expected from the structure of BFA, Bref-PKS is found to be a nonaketide synthase in the absence of an associated thiohydrolase Bref-TH. Such chain-length control by the partner thiohydrolase was found to be present in other HRPKS systems and highlights the importance of including tailoring enzyme activities in predicting fungal HRPKS functions and their products.
Project description:The early phases of Diaporthe helianthi pathogenesis on sunflower are characterized by the production of phytotoxins that may play a role in host colonisation. In previous studies, phytotoxins of a polyketidic nature were isolated and purified from culture filtrates of virulent strains of D. helianthi isolated from sunflower. A highly aggressive isolate (7/96) from France contained a gene fragment of a putative nonaketide synthase (lovB) which was conserved in a virulent D. helianthi population.In order to investigate the role of polyketide synthases in D. helianthi 7/96, a draft genome of this isolate was examined. We were able to find and phylogenetically analyse 40 genes putatively coding for polyketide synthases (PKSs). Analysis of their domains revealed that most PKS genes of D. helianthi are reducing PKSs, whereas only eight lacked reducing domains. Most of the identified PKSs have orthologs shown to be virulence factors or genetic determinants for toxin production in other pathogenic fungi. One of the genes (DhPKS1) corresponded to the previously cloned D. helianthi lovB gene fragment and clustered with a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) -PKS hybrid/lovastatin nonaketide like A. nidulans LovB. We used DhPKS1 as a case study and carried out its disruption through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in the isolate 7/96. D. helianthi DhPKS1 deleted mutants were less virulent to sunflower compared to the wild type, indicating a role for this gene in the pathogenesis of the fungus.The PKS sequences analysed and reported here constitute a new genomic resource that will be useful for further research on the biology, ecology and evolution of D. helianthi and generally of fungal plant pathogens.
Project description:Polyketide synthases (PKSs) of Aspergillus species are multidomain and multifunctional megaenzymes that play an important role in the synthesis of diverse polyketide compounds. Putative PKS protein sequences from Aspergillus species representing medically, agriculturally, and industrially important Aspergillus species were chosen and screened for in silico studies. Six candidate Aspergillus species, Aspergillus fumigatus Af293, Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357, Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, Aspergillus terreus NIH2624, Aspergillus oryzae RIB40, and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1, were selected to study the PKS phylogeny. Full-length PKS proteins and only ketosynthase (KS) domain sequence were retrieved for independent phylogenetic analysis from the aforementioned species, and phylogenetic analysis was performed with characterized fungal PKS. This resulted into grouping of Aspergilli PKSs into nonreducing (NR), partially reducing (PR), and highly reducing (HR) PKS enzymes. Eight distinct clades with unique domain arrangements were classified based on homology with functionally characterized PKS enzymes. Conserved motif signatures corresponding to each type of PKS were observed. Three proteins from Protein Data Bank corresponding to NR, PR, and HR type of PKS (XP_002384329.1, XP_753141.2, and XP_001402408.2, respectively) were selected for mapping of conserved motifs on three-dimensional structures of KS domain. Structural variations were found at the active sites on modeled NR, PR, and HR enzymes of Aspergillus. It was observed that the number of iteration cycles was dependent on the size of the cavity in the active site of the PKS enzyme correlating with a type with reducing or NR products, such as pigment, 6MSA, and lovastatin. The current study reports the grouping and classification of PKS proteins of Aspergilli for possible exploration of novel polyketides based on sequence homology; this information can be useful for selection of PKS for polyketide exploration and specific detection of Aspergilli.
Project description:LovF is a highly reducing polyketide synthase (HR-PKS) from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus. LovF synthesizes the alpha-S-methylbutyrate side chain that is subsequently transferred to monacolin J to yield the cholesterol-lowering natural product lovastatin. In the report, we expressed the full length LovF and reconstituted the megasynthase activities in vitro. We confirmed the diketide product of LovF is offloaded from the LovF ACP domain by the dissociated acyltransferase LovD. This represents the first example of acyltransferase-mediated release of polyketide products from fungal PKSs. We determined LovD primarily interacts with the ACP domain of LovF and the protein-protein interactions lead to highly efficient transfer of the diketide product. The catalytic efficiency is enhanced nearly 1 x 10(6)-fold when LovF was used as the acyl carrier instead of N-acetylcysteamine. Reconstitution and characterization of the LovF offloading mechanism provide new insights into the functions of fungal HR-PKS.
Project description:The goal of the study was to compare the production of secondary metabolites by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 under the conditions of submerged mono- and co-cultivation. The suggested experimental scheme encompassed a diverse set of co-culture initiation strategies differing mostly with respect to the development stage of tested fungal strains at the moment of their confrontation. Three species of filamentous fungi exhibiting distinct patterns of morphological evolution under submerged conditions, namely Penicillium rubens, Chaetomium globosum, and Mucor racemosus, were selected as the co-cultivation partners of A. terreus. The choice of the co-cultivated species and the approach of co-culture triggering noticeably influenced the levels of lovastatin (mevinolinic acid), (+)-geodin, asterric acid, and butyrolactone I in the broth. Even though the evaluated co-cultures did not lead to the increased titers of lovastatin relative to standard monocultures, the biosynthesis of the remaining three metabolites was either enhanced or inhibited depending on the experimental variant. The production of butyrolactone I turned out to be particularly affected by the presence of C. globosum. Interestingly, in the A. terreus/C. globosum co-cultures, the decrease of lovastatin concentration was recorded. According to the most probable scenario, lovastatin was in this case converted to monacolin J acid, a polyketide molecule that may be applied as a substrate for the synthesis of statin drugs. The study revealed that the spores of two distinct fungal species, namely A. terreus and C. globosum, co-agglomerate under submerged conditions to form pellets. Finally, the biosynthetic performance of co-cultures involving four fungal species was evaluated.
Project description:Aspergillus species are industrially and agriculturally important as fermentors and as producers of various secondary metabolites. Among them, fungal polyketides such as lovastatin and melanin are considered a gold mine for bioactive compounds. We used a phylogenomic approach to investigate the distribution of iterative polyketide synthases (PKS) in eight sequenced Aspergilli and classified over 250 fungal genes. Their genealogy by the conserved ketosynthase (KS) domain revealed three large groups of nonreducing PKS, one group inside bacterial PKS, and more than 9 small groups of reducing PKS. Polyphyly of nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS)-PKS genes raised questions regarding the recruitment of the elegant conjugation machinery. High rates of gene duplication and divergence were frequent. All data are accessible through our web database at http://metabolomics.jp/wiki/Category:PK.
Project description:Natural product chemical diversity is fuelled by the emergence and ongoing evolution of biosynthetic pathways in secondary metabolism. However, co-evolution of enzymes for metabolic diversification is not well understood, especially at the biochemical level. Here, two parallel assemblies with an extraordinarily high sequence identity from Lyngbya majuscula form a beta-branched cyclopropane in the curacin A pathway (Cur), and a vinyl chloride group in the jamaicamide pathway (Jam). The components include a halogenase, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl enzyme cassette for polyketide beta-branching, and an enoyl reductase domain. The halogenase from CurA, and the dehydratases (ECH(1)s), decarboxylases (ECH(2)s) and enoyl reductase domains from both Cur and Jam, were assessed biochemically to determine the mechanisms of cyclopropane and vinyl chloride formation. Unexpectedly, the polyketide beta-branching pathway was modified by introduction of a gamma-chlorination step on (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl mediated by Cur halogenase, a non-haem Fe(ii), alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent enzyme. In a divergent scheme, Cur ECH(2) was found to catalyse formation of the alpha,beta enoyl thioester, whereas Jam ECH(2) formed a vinyl chloride moiety by selectively generating the corresponding beta,gamma enoyl thioester of the 3-methyl-4-chloroglutaconyl decarboxylation product. Finally, the enoyl reductase domain of CurF specifically catalysed an unprecedented cyclopropanation on the chlorinated product of Cur ECH(2) instead of the canonical alpha,beta C = C saturation reaction. Thus, the combination of chlorination and polyketide beta-branching, coupled with mechanistic diversification of ECH(2) and enoyl reductase, leads to the formation of cyclopropane and vinyl chloride moieties. These results reveal a parallel interplay of evolutionary events in multienzyme systems leading to functional group diversity in secondary metabolites.
Project description:The F420-dependent NADP oxidoreductase enzyme from Methanobrevibacter smithii catalyzes the important electron transfer step during methanogenesis. Therefore, it may act as potential target for blocking the process of methane formation. Its protein sequence is available in GenBank (accession number: ABQ86254.1) however no report has been found about its 3D protein structure. In this work, we first time claim 3D model structure of F420-dependent NADP oxidoreductase enzyme from Methanobrevibacter smithii by comparative homology modeling method. Swiss model and ESyPred3d (via Modeller 6v2) software's were generated the 3D model by detecting 1JAX (A) as template along with sequence identities of 34.272% and 35.40%. Furthermore, PROCHECK with Ramachandran plot and ProSA analysis revealed that swiss model produced better model than Modeller6v2 with 98.90% of residues in favored and additional allowed regions (RM plot) as well as with ProSA Z score of -7.26. In addition, we investigated that the substrate F420 bound at the cavity of the model. Subsequently, inhibitor prediction study revealed that Lovastatin (-22.07 Kcal/mol) and Compactin (Mevastatin) (-21.91 Kcal/mol) produced more affinity for model structure of NADP oxidoreducatse as compared to F420 (-14.40 Kcal/mol). It indicates that the Lovastatin and Compactin (Mevastatin) compounds (Negative regulator) may act as potential inhibitor of F420 dependent NADP oxidoreducatse protein.