Persistent mechanical linkage between sister chromatids throughout anaphase.
ABSTRACT: In budding yeast, we have found that sister rDNA arrays marked with fluorescent probes can be visualized as two distinguishable strands during metaphase. Upon anaphase, these arm loci are drawn into the spindle, where they adopt a cruciform-like structure and stretch 2.5-fold as they migrate to the poles. Therefore, while sister rDNA arrays appear separated in metaphase, mechanical linkages between sister arm loci persist throughout anaphase in yeast, as shown in grasshopper spermatocytes (Paliulis and Nicklas 2004). These linkages are partially dependent on the protector of cohesin, SGO1. In anaphase, the spatially regulated dissolution of these mechanical linkages serves to prevent premature sister separation and restrain the rate of spindle elongation. Thus, sister separation is temporally controlled and linkages between sister chromatids contribute to the regulation of anaphase spindle elongation.
Project description:At the metaphase to anaphase transition, chromosome segregation is initiated by the splitting of sister chromatids. Subsequently, spindles elongate, separating the sister chromosomes into two sets. Here, we investigate the cell cycle requirements for spindle elongation in budding yeast using mutants affecting sister chromatid cohesion or DNA replication. We show that separation of sister chromatids is not sufficient for proper spindle integrity during elongation. Rather, successful spindle elongation and stability require both sister chromatid separation and anaphase-promoting complex activation. Spindle integrity during elongation is dependent on proteolysis of the securin Pds1 but not on the activity of the separase Esp1. Our data suggest that stabilization of the elongating spindle at the metaphase to anaphase transition involves Pds1-dependent targets other than Esp1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The precision of the metaphase-anaphase transition ensures stable genetic inheritance. The spindle checkpoint blocks anaphase onset until the last chromosome biorients at metaphase plate, then the bonds between sister chromatids are removed and disjoined chromatids segregate to the spindle poles. But, how sister separation is triggered is not fully understood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We identify PIASgamma as a human E3 sumo ligase required for timely and efficient sister chromatid separation. In cells lacking PIASgamma, normal metaphase plates form, but the spindle checkpoint is activated, leading to a prolonged metaphase block. Sister chromatids remain cohered even if cohesin is removed by depletion of hSgo1, because DNA catenations persist at centromeres. PIASgamma-depleted cells cannot properly localize Topoisomerase II at centromeres or in the cores of mitotic chromosomes, providing a functional link between PIASgamma and Topoisomerase II. CONCLUSIONS:PIASgamma directs Topoisomerase II to specific chromosome regions that require efficient removal of DNA catenations prior to anaphase. The lack of this activity activates the spindle checkpoint, protecting cells from non-disjunction. Because DNA catenations persist without PIASgamma in the absence of cohesin, removal of catenations and cohesin rings must be regulated in parallel.
Project description:Microtubules of the mitotic spindle form the structural basis for chromosome segregation. In metaphase, microtubules show high dynamic instability, which is thought to aid the 'search and capture' of chromosomes for bipolar alignment on the spindle. Microtubules suddenly become more stable at the onset of anaphase, but how this change in microtubule behaviour is regulated and how important it is for the ensuing chromosome segregation are unknown. Here we show that in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, activation of the phosphatase Cdc14 at anaphase onset is both necessary and sufficient for silencing microtubule dynamics. Cdc14 is activated by separase, the protease that triggers sister chromatid separation, linking the onset of anaphase to microtubule stabilization. If sister chromatids separate in the absence of Cdc14 activity, microtubules maintain high dynamic instability; this correlates with defects in both the movement of chromosomes to the spindle poles (anaphase A) and the elongation of the anaphase spindle (anaphase B). Cdc14 promotes localization of microtubule-stabilizing proteins to the anaphase spindle, and dephosphorylation of the kinetochore component Ask1 contributes to both the silencing of microtubule turnover and successful anaphase A.
Project description:Sister chromatid separation creates a sudden loss of tension on kinetochores, which could, in principle, re-activate the spindle checkpoint in anaphase. This so-called "anaphase problem" is probably avoided by timely inactivation of cyclin B1-Cdk1, which may prevent the spindle tension sensing Aurora B kinase from destabilizing kinetochore-microtubule interactions as they lose tension in anaphase. However, exactly how spindle checkpoint re-activation is prevented remains unclear. Here, we investigated how different degrees of cyclin B1 stabilization affected the spindle checkpoint in metaphase and anaphase. Cells expressing a strongly stabilized (R42A) mutant of cyclin B1 degraded APC/C(Cdc20) substrates normally, showing that checkpoint release was not inhibited by high cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity. However, after this initial wave of APC/C(Cdc20) activity, the spindle checkpoint returned in cells with uncohesed sister chromatids. Expression of a lysine mutant of cyclin B1 that is degraded only slightly inefficiently allowed a normal metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Strikingly, however, the spindle checkpoint returned in cells that had not degraded the cyclin B1 mutant 10-15 min after anaphase onset. When cyclin B1 remained in late anaphase, cytokinesis stalled, and translocation of INCENP from separated sister chromatids to the spindle midzone was blocked. This late anaphase arrest required the activity of Aurora B and Mps1. In conclusion, our results reveal that complete removal of cyclin B1 is essential to prevent the return of the spindle checkpoint following sister chromatid disjunction. Speculatively, increasing activity of APC/C(Cdc20) in late anaphase helps to keep cyclin B1 levels low.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is an evolutionarily conserved surveillance mechanism that delays anaphase onset and mitotic exit in response to the lack of kinetochore attachment. The target of the SAC is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC) bound to its Cdc20 activator. The Cdc20/APC complex is in turn required for sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of securin, thus relieving inhibition of separase that unties sister chromatids. Separase is also involved in the Cdc-fourteen early anaphase release (FEAR) pathway of nucleolar release and activation of the Cdc14 phosphatase, which regulates several microtubule-linked processes at the metaphase/anaphase transition and also drives mitotic exit. Here, we report that the SAC prevents separation of microtubule-organizing centers (spindle pole bodies [SPBs]) when spindle assembly is defective. Under these circumstances, failure of SAC activation causes unscheduled SPB separation, which requires Cdc20/APC, the FEAR pathway, cytoplasmic dynein, and the actin cytoskeleton. We propose that, besides inhibiting sister chromatid separation, the SAC preserves the accurate transmission of chromosomes also by preventing SPBs to migrate far apart until the conditions to assemble a bipolar spindle are satisfied.
Project description:Chromosome instability is thought to be a major contributor to cancer malignancy and birth defects. For balanced chromosome segregation in mitosis, kinetochores on sister chromatids bind and pull on microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles. This tension contributes to the correction of improper kinetochore attachments and is opposed by the cohesin complex that holds the sister chromatids together. Normally, within minutes of alignment at the metaphase plate, chromatid cohesion is released, allowing each cohort of chromatids to move synchronously to opposite poles in anaphase, an event closely coordinated with mitotic exit.Here we show that during experimentally induced metaphase delay, spindle pulling forces can cause asynchronous chromatid separation, a phenomenon we term "cohesion fatigue." Cohesion fatigue is not blocked by inhibition of Plk1, a kinase essential for the "prophase pathway" of cohesin release from chromosomes, or by depletion of separase, the protease that normally drives chromatid separation at anaphase. Cohesion fatigue is inhibited by drug-induced depolymerization of mitotic spindle microtubules and by experimentally increasing the levels of cohesin on mitotic chromosomes. In cells undergoing cohesion fatigue, cohesin proteins remain associated with the separated chromatids.In cells arrested at metaphase, pulling forces originating from kinetochore-microtubule interactions can, with time, rupture normal sister chromatid cohesion. This cohesion fatigue, resulting in unscheduled chromatid separation in cells delayed at metaphase, constitutes a previously overlooked source for chromosome instability in mitosis and meiosis.
Project description:Monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) is essential for the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which prevents anaphase onset in the presence of misaligned chromosomes. Moreover, Mps1 kinase contributes in a SAC-independent manner to the correction of erroneous initial attachments of chromosomes to the spindle. Our characterization of the Drosophila homologue reveals yet another SAC-independent role. As in yeast, modest overexpression of Drosophila Mps1 is sufficient to delay progression through mitosis during metaphase, even though chromosome congression and metaphase alignment do not appear to be affected. This delay in metaphase depends on the SAC component Mad2. Although Mps1 overexpression in mad2 mutants no longer causes a metaphase delay, it perturbs anaphase. Sister kinetochores barely move apart toward spindle poles. However, kinetochore movements can be restored experimentally by separase-independent resolution of sister chromatid cohesion. We propose therefore that Mps1 inhibits sister chromatid separation in a SAC-independent manner. Moreover, we report unexpected results concerning the requirement of Mps1 dimerization and kinase activity for its kinetochore localization in Drosophila. These findings further expand Mps1's significance for faithful mitotic chromosome segregation and emphasize the importance of its careful regulation.
Project description:Accurate and efficient separation of sister chromatids during anaphase is critical for faithful cell division. It has been proposed that cortical dynein-generated pulling forces on astral microtubules contribute to anaphase spindle elongation and chromosome separation. In mammalian cells, however, definitive evidence for the involvement of cortical dynein in chromosome separation is missing. It is believed that dynein is recruited and anchored at the cell cortex during mitosis by the ? subunit of heterotrimeric G protein (G?)/mammalian homologue of Drosophila Partner of Inscuteable/nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) ternary complex. Here we uncover a G?/LGN-independent lipid- and membrane-binding domain at the C-terminus of NuMA. We show that the membrane binding of NuMA is cell cycle regulated-it is inhibited during prophase and metaphase by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)-mediated phosphorylation and only occurs after anaphase onset when CDK1 activity is down-regulated. Further studies indicate that cell cycle-regulated membrane association of NuMA underlies anaphase-specific enhancement of cortical NuMA and dynein. By replacing endogenous NuMA with membrane-binding-deficient NuMA, we can specifically reduce the cortical accumulation of NuMA and dynein during anaphase and demonstrate that cortical NuMA and dynein contribute to efficient chromosome separation in mammalian cells.
Project description:This study investigated the basis of meiosis II nondisjunction. Cold arrest induced a fraction of meiosis II crane fly spermatocytes to form (n + 1) and (n - 1) daughters during recovery. Live-cell liquid crystal polarized light microscope imaging showed nondisjunction was caused by chromosome malorientation. Whereas amphitely (sister kinetochore fibers to opposite poles) is normal, cold recovery induced anaphase syntely (sister fibers to the same pole) and merotely (fibers to both poles from 1 kinetochore). Maloriented chromosomes had stable metaphase positions near the equator or between the equator and a pole. Syntelics were at the spindle periphery at metaphase; their sisters disconnected at anaphase and moved all the way to a centrosome, as their strongly birefringent kinetochore fibers shortened. The kinetochore fibers of merotelics shortened little if any during anaphase, making anaphase lag common. If one fiber of a merotelic was more birefringent than the other, the less birefringent fiber lengthened with anaphase spindle elongation, often permitting inclusion of merotelics in a daughter nucleus. Meroamphitely (near amphitely but with some merotely) caused sisters to move in opposite directions. In contrast, syntely and merosyntely (near syntely but with some merotely) resulted in nondisjunction. Anaphase malorientations were more frequent after longer arrests, with particularly long arrests required to induce syntely and merosyntely.
Project description:Error-free cell division depends on the accurate assembly of the spindle midzone from dynamic spindle microtubules to ensure chromatid segregation during metaphase-anaphase transition. However, the mechanism underlying the key transition from the mitotic spindle to central spindle before anaphase onset remains elusive. Given the prevalence of chromosome instability phenotype in gastric tumorigenesis, we developed a strategy to model context-dependent cell division using a combination of light sheet microscope and 3D gastric organoids. Light sheet microscopic image analyses of 3D organoids showed that CENP-E inhibited cells undergoing aberrant metaphase-anaphase transition and exhibiting chromosome segregation errors during mitosis. High-resolution real-time imaging analyses of 2D cell culture revealed that CENP-E inhibited cells undergoing central spindle splitting and chromosome instability phenotype. Using biotinylated syntelin as an affinity matrix, we found that CENP-E forms a complex with PRC1 in mitotic cells. Chemical inhibition of CENP-E in metaphase by syntelin prevented accurate central spindle assembly by perturbing temporal assembly of PRC1 to the midzone. Thus, CENP-E-mediated PRC1 assembly to the central spindle constitutes a temporal switch to organize dynamic kinetochore microtubules into stable midzone arrays. These findings reveal a previously uncharacterized role of CENP-E in temporal control of central spindle assembly. Since CENP-E is absent from yeast, we reasoned that metazoans evolved an elaborate central spindle organization machinery to ensure accurate sister chromatid segregation during anaphase and cytokinesis.