Allele-specific H3K79 Di- versus trimethylation distinguishes opposite parental alleles at imprinted regions.
ABSTRACT: Imprinted gene expression corresponds to parental allele-specific DNA CpG methylation and chromatin composition. Histone tail covalent modifications have been extensively studied, but it is not known whether modifications in the histone globular domains can also discriminate between the parental alleles. Using multiplex chromatin immunoprecipitation-single nucleotide primer extension (ChIP-SNuPE) assays, we measured the allele-specific enrichment of H3K79 methylation and H4K91 acetylation along the H19/Igf2 imprinted domain. Whereas H3K79me1, H3K79me2, and H4K91ac displayed a paternal-specific enrichment at the paternally expressed Igf2 locus, H3K79me3 was paternally biased at the maternally expressed H19 locus, including the paternally methylated imprinting control region (ICR). We found that these allele-specific differences depended on CTCF binding in the maternal ICR allele. We analyzed an additional 11 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and found that, in general, H3K79me3 was associated with the CpG-methylated alleles, whereas H3K79me1, H3K79me2, and H4K91ac enrichment was specific to the unmethylated alleles. Our data suggest that allele-specific differences in the globular histone domains may constitute a layer of the "histone code" at imprinted genes.
Project description:The mouse Igf2/H19 locus is regulated by genomic imprinting, in which the paternally methylated H19 imprinting control region (ICR) plays a critical role in mono-allelic expression of the genes in the locus. Although the maternal allele-specific insulator activity of the H19 ICR in regulating imprinted Igf2 expression has been well established, the detailed mechanism by which the H19 ICR controls mono-allelic H19 gene expression has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of H19 ICR orientation on imprinting regulation in mutant mice in which the H19 ICR sequence was inverted at the endogenous locus. When the inverted-ICR allele was paternally inherited, the methylation level of the H19 promoter was decreased and the H19 gene was derepressed, suggesting that methylation of the H19 promoter is essential for complete repression of H19 gene expression. Unexpectedly, when the inverted allele was maternally inherited, the expression level of the H19 gene was lower than that of the WT allele, even though the H19 promoter remained fully hypomethylated. These observations suggested that the polarity of the H19 ICR is involved in controlling imprinted H19 gene expression on each parental allele, dependent or independent on DNA methylation of the H19 promoter.
Project description:Expression of imprinted genes is restricted to a single parental allele as a result of epigenetic regulation-DNA methylation and histone modifications. Igf2/H19 is a reciprocally imprinted locus exhibiting paternal Igf2 and maternal H19 expression. Their expression is regulated by a paternally methylated imprinting control region (ICR) located between the two genes. Although the de novo DNA methyltransferases have been shown to be necessary for the establishment of ICR methylation, the mechanism by which they are targeted to the region remains unknown. We demonstrate that CTCFL/BORIS, a paralog of CTCF, is an ICR-binding protein expressed during embryonic male germ cell development, coinciding with the timing of ICR methylation. PRMT7, a protein arginine methyltransferase with which CTCFL interacts, is also expressed during embryonic testis development. Symmetrical dimethyl arginine 3 of histone H4, a modification catalyzed by PRMT7, accumulates in germ cells during this developmental period. This modified histone is also found enriched in both H19 ICR and Gtl2 differentially methylated region (DMR) chromatin of testis by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis. In vitro studies demonstrate that CTCFL stimulates the histone-methyltransferase activity of PRMT7 via interactions with both histones and PRMT7. Finally, H19 ICR methylation is demonstrated by nuclear co-injection of expression vectors encoding CTCFL, PRMT7, and the de novo DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt3a, -b and -L, in Xenopus oocytes. These results suggest that CTCFL and PRMT7 may play a role in male germline imprinted gene methylation.
Project description:A paternally methylated imprinting control region (ICR) directs allele-specific expression of the imprinted H19 and Igf2 genes. CTCF protein binding in the ICR is required in the maternal chromosome for insulating Igf2 from the shared enhancers, initiation of the H19 promoter transcription, maintaining DNA hypomethylation, and chromosome loop formation. Using novel quantitative allele-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation-single-nucleotide primer extension assays, we measured the chromatin composition along the H19/Igf2 imprinted domain in cells with engineered mutations at the four ICR-CTCF binding sites. Abolishing CTCF binding in the ICR reduced normally maternal allele-specific H3K9 acetylation and H3K4 methylation at the H19 ICR and promoter/gene body and maternal allele-specific H3K27 trimethylation at the Igf2 P2 promoter and Igf2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Paternal H3K27 trimethylation and macroH2A1 became biallelic in the mutant cells at the H19 promoter while paternal H3K9 acetylation and H3K4 methylation became biallelic at the Igf2 DMRs. We provide evidence that CTCF is the single major organizer of allele-specific chromatin composition in this domain. This finding has important implications: (i) for mechanisms of insulation since CTCF regulates chromatin at a distance, involving repression by H3K27 trimethylation at the Igf2 locus independently of repression by DNA hypermethylation; and (ii) for mechanisms of genomic imprinting since point mutations of CTCF binding sites cause domain-wide "paternalization" of the maternal allele's chromatin composition.
Project description:Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic inheritance system characterized by parental allele-specific gene expression. Allele-specific DNA methylation and chromatin composition are two epigenetic modification systems that control imprinted gene expression. To get a general assessment of histone lysine acetylation at imprinted genes we measured allele-specific acetylation of a wide range of lysine residues, H3K4, H3K18, H3K27, H3K36, H3K79, H3K64, H4K5, H4K8, H4K12, H2AK5, H2BK12, H2BK16 and H2BK46 at 11 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in reciprocal mouse crosses using multiplex chromatin immunoprecipitation SNuPE assays. Histone acetylation marks generally distinguished the methylation-free alleles from methylated alleles at DMRs in mouse embryo fibroblasts and embryos. Acetylated lysines that are typically found at transcription start sites exhibited stronger allelic bias than acetylated histone residues in general. Maternally methylated DMRs, that usually overlap with promoters exhibited higher levels of acetylation and a 10% stronger allele-specific bias than paternally methylated DMRs that reside in intergenic regions. Along the H19/Igf2 imprinted domain, allele-specific acetylation at each lysine residue depended on functional CTCF binding sites in the imprinting control region. Our results suggest that many different histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase enzymes must act in concert in setting up and maintaining reciprocal parental allelic histone acetylation at DMRs.
Project description:The H19 gene controls the expression of several genes within the Imprinted Gene Network (IGN), involved in growth control of the embryo. However, the underlying mechanisms of this control remain elusive. Here, we identified the methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 1 MBD1 as a physical and functional partner of the H19 long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). The H19 lncRNA-MBD1 complex is required for the control of five genes of the IGN. For three of these genes--Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor 2), Slc38a4 (solute carrier family 38 member 4), and Peg1 (paternally expressed gene 1)--both MBD1 and H3K9me3 binding were detected on their differentially methylated regions. The H19 lncRNA-MBD1 complex, through its interaction with histone lysine methyltransferases, therefore acts by bringing repressive histone marks on the differentially methylated regions of these three direct targets of the H19 gene. Our data suggest that, besides the differential DNA methylation found on the differentially methylated regions of imprinted genes, an additional fine tuning of the expressed allele is achieved by a modulation of the H3K9me3 marks, mediated by the association of the H19 lncRNA with chromatin-modifying complexes, such as MBD1. This results in a precise control of the level of expression of growth factors in the embryo.
Project description:Igf2 and H19 are reciprocally imprinted genes on mouse distal chromosome 7. They share several regulatory elements, including a differentially methylated region (DMR) upstream of H19 that is paternally methylated throughout development. The cis-acting sequence requirements for targeting DNA methylation to the DMR remain unknown; however, it has been suggested that direct tandem repeats near DMRs could be involved. Previous studies of the imprinted Rasgrf1 locus demonstrate indeed that a direct repeat element adjacent to a DMR is responsible for establishing paternal allele-specific methylation at the DMR and therefore allelic expression of the Rasgrf1 transcript. We identified a prominent and conserved direct tandem repeat 1 kb upstream of the H19 DMR and proposed that it played a similar role in imprinted regulation of H19. To test our hypothesis, we generated mice harboring a 1.7-kb targeted deletion of the direct repeat element and analyzed fetal growth, allelic expression, and methylation within the Igf2-H19 region. Surprisingly the deletion had no effect on imprinting. These results together with deletions of other repeats close to imprinted genes suggest that direct repeats may not be important for the targeting of methylation at the majority of imprinted loci and that the Rasgrf1 locus may be an exception to this rule.
Project description:DNA methylation is linked to homocysteine metabolism through the generation of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-Adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The ratio of AdoMet/AdoHcy is often considered an indicator of tissue methylation capacity. The goal of this study is to determine the relationship of tissue AdoMet and AdoHcy concentrations to allele-specific methylation and expression of genomically imprinted H19/Igf2. Expression of H19/Igf2 is regulated by a differentially methylated domain (DMD), with H19 paternally imprinted and Igf2 maternally imprinted. F1 hybrid C57BL/6J x Castaneous/EiJ (Cast) mice with (+/-), and without (+/+), heterozygous disruption of cystathionine-?-synthase (Cbs) were fed a control diet or a diet (called HH) to induce hyperhomocysteinemia and changes in tissue AdoMet and AdoHcy. F1 Cast x Cbs+/- mice fed the HH diet had significantly higher plasma total homocysteine concentrations, higher liver AdoHcy, and lower AdoMet/AdoHcy ratios and this was accompanied by lower liver maternal H19 DMD allele methylation, lower liver Igf2 mRNA levels, and loss of Igf2 maternal imprinting. In contrast, we found no significant differences in AdoMet and AdoHcy in brain between the diet groups but F1 Cast x Cbs+/- mice fed the HH diet had higher maternal H19 DMD methylation and lower H19 mRNA levels in brain. A significant negative relationship between AdoHcy and maternal H19 DMD allele methylation was found in liver but not in brain. These findings suggest the relationship of AdoMet and AdoHcy to gene-specific DNA methylation is tissue-specific and that changes in DNA methylation can occur without changes in AdoMet and AdoHcy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:H19 and IGF2 genes are imprinted and involved in regulating fetal and placental growth. The H19 differentially methylated region (DMR) is paternally methylated and maternally unmethylated and regulates the imprinted expression of H19 and IGF2. Epimutation at the H19-DMR in humans results in congenital growth disorders, Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes, when erroneously its maternal allele becomes methylated and its paternal allele becomes unmethylated, respectively. Although H19 and IGF2 have been assessed for their involvement in pregnancy complications including fetal growth restriction (FGR) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)/hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) intensively in the last decade, it is still not established whether epimutation at the H19-DMR in the placenta results in pathogenic conditions in pregnancy. We aimed to assess the frequency of H19-DMR epimutation and its effects on the allelic expression patterns of H19 and IGF2 genes among normal and abnormal pregnancy cases. RESULTS:We enrolled two independently collected sets of placenta samples from normal pregnancies as controls and common pregnancy complications, FGR and PIH (HDP). The first set consisted of 39 controls and 140 FGR and/or PIH cases, and the second set consisted of 29 controls and 62 cases. For these samples, we initially screened for DNA methylation changes at H19-DMR and IGF2-DMRs by combined bisulfite restriction analysis, and further analyzed cases with methylation changes for their allelic methylation and expression patterns. We identified one case each of FGR and PIH showing hypomethylation of H19-DMR and IGF2-DMRs only in the placenta, but not in cord blood, from the first case/control set. For the PIH case, we were able to determine the allelic expression pattern of H19 to be biallelically expressed and the H19/IGF2 expression ratio to be highly elevated compared to controls. We also identified a PIH case with hypomethylation at H19-DMR and IGF2-DMRs in the placenta from the second case/control set. CONCLUSIONS:Placental epimutation at H19-DMR was observed among common pregnancy complication cases at the frequency of 1.5% (3 out of 202 cases examined), but not in 68 normal pregnancy cases examined. Alteration of H19/IGF2 expression patterns due to hypomethylation of H19-DMR may have been involved in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications in these cases.
Project description:To reveal the extent of domain-wide epigenetic features at imprinted gene clusters, we performed a high-resolution allele-specific chromatin analysis of over 100 megabases along the maternally or paternally duplicated distal chromosome 7 (Chr7) and Chr15 in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). We found that reciprocal allele-specific features are limited to imprinted genes and their differentially methylated regions (DMRs), whereas broad local enrichment of H3K27me3 (BLOC) is a domain-wide feature at imprinted clusters. We uncovered novel allele-specific features of BLOCs. A maternally biased BLOC was found along the H19-Igf2 domain. A paternal allele-specific gap was found along Kcnq1ot1, interrupting a biallelic BLOC in the Kcnq1-Cdkn1c domain. We report novel allele-specific chromatin marks at the Peg13 and Slc38a4 DMRs, Cdkn1c upstream region, and Inpp5f_v2 DMR and paternal allele-specific CTCF binding at the Peg13 DMR. Additionally, we derived an imprinted gene predictor algorithm based on our allele-specific chromatin mapping data. The binary predictor H3K9ac and CTCF or H3K4me3 in one allele and H3K9me3 in the reciprocal allele, using a sliding-window approach, recognized with precision the parental allele specificity of known imprinted genes, H19, Igf2, Igf2as, Cdkn1c, Kcnq1ot1, and Inpp5f_v2 on Chr7 and Peg13 and Slc38a4 on Chr15. Chromatin features, therefore, can unequivocally identify genes with imprinted expression.
Project description:Histone modification has emerged as a very important mechanism regulating the transcriptional status of the genome. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a peptide hormone controlling various cellular processes, including proliferation and apoptosis. H19 gene is closely linked to IGF2 gene, and IGF2 and H19 are reciprocally regulated imprinted genes. The epigenetic signature of H19 promoter (hypermethylation) on the paternal allele plays a vital role in allowing the expression of the paternal allele of IGF2.46 Our previous studies demonstrate that butyrate regulates the expression of IGF2 as well as genes encoding IGF Binding proteins. To obtain further understanding of histone modification and its regulatory potentials in controlling IGF2/H19 gene expression, we investigated the histone modification status of some key histones associated with the expression of IGF2/H19 genes in bovine cells using RNA-seq in combination with Chip-seq technology. A high-resolution map of the major chromatin modification at the IGF2/H19 locus induced by butyrate was constructed to illustrate the fundamental association of the chromatin modification landscape that may play a role in the activation of the IGF2 gene. High-definition epigenomic landscape mapping revealed that IGF2 and H19 have distinct chromatin modification patterns at their coding and promoter regions, such as TSSs and TTSs. Moreover, the correlation between the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of IGF2/H19 locus and histone modification (acetylation and methylation) indicated that epigenetic signatures/markers of DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation were differentially distributed on the expressed IGF2 and silenced H19 genes. Our evidence also suggests that butyrate-induced regional changes of histone acetylation statusin the upstream regulation domain of H19 may be related to the reduced expression of H19 and strong activation of IGF2. Our results provided insights into the mechanism of butyrate-induced loss of imprinting (LOI) of IGF2 and regulation of gene expression by histone modification.