Expression of hyaluronan and the hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans neurocan, aggrecan, and versican by neural stem cells and neural cells derived from embryonic stem cells.
ABSTRACT: We have examined the expression and localization patterns of hyaluronan and hyaluronan-binding chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in neural stem cells and differentiated neural cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Expression of proteoglycans and hyaluronan was weak in the SSEA1-positive embryonic stem cells but increased noticeably after retinoic acid induction to nestin-positive neural stem cells. After subsequent plating, the hyaluronan-binding chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans aggrecan, neurocan, and versican are expressed by cells in both the astrocytic and neuronal lineages. During the time period that hyaluronan was present, it co-localized with each of the hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans studied and was found to be clearly associated with beta-III tubulin-expressing neurons and oligodendrocytes expressing the O4 sulfatide marker. Although proteoglycan expression levels increased to varying degrees following neural differentiation, they did not change noticably during the following 2 weeks in culture, but there was a significant decrease in hyaluronan expression. Our studies therefore demonstrate the expression by neural stem cells and neural cells derived from them of hyaluronan and its associated proteoglycans, thereby providing a necessary foundation for integrating their specific properties into developing strategies for therapeutic applications.
Project description:Proteoglycans and hyaluronan play critical roles in heart development. In this study, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) were used as a model to quantify the synthesis of proteoglycans and hyaluronan in hESC in the early stages of differentiation, and after directed differentiation into cardiomyocytes. We demonstrated that both hESC and cardiomyocyte cultures synthesize an extracellular matrix (ECM) enriched in proteoglycans and hyaluronan. During cardiomyocyte differentiation, total proteoglycan and hyaluronan decreased and the proportion of proteoglycans bearing heparan sulfate chains was reduced. Versican, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, accumulated in hESC and cardiomyocyte cultures. Furthermore, versican synthesized by hESC contained more N- and O-linked oligosaccharide than versican from cardiomyocytes. Transcripts for the versican variants, V0, V1, V2, and V3, increased in cardiomyocytes compared to hESC, with V1 most abundant. Hyaluronan in hESC had lower molecular weight than hyaluronan from cardiomyocyte cultures. These changes were accompanied by an increase in HAS-1 and HAS-2 mRNA in cardiomyocyte cultures, with HAS-2 most abundant. Interestingly, HAS-3 was absent from the cardiomyocyte cultures, but expressed by hESC. These results indicate that human cardiomyocyte differentiation is accompanied by specific changes in the expression and accumulation of ECM components and suggest a role for versican and hyaluronan in this process.
Project description:Malignant gliomas have a distinctive ability to infiltrate the brain parenchyma and disrupt the neural extracellular matrix that inhibits motility of axons and normal neural cells. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are among the major inhibitory components in the neural matrix, but surprisingly, some are up-regulated in gliomas and act as pro-invasive signals. In the normal brain, CSPGs are thought to associate with hyaluronic acid and glycoproteins such as the tenascins and link proteins to form the matrix scaffold. Here, we examined for the first time the expression of link proteins in human brain and malignant gliomas. Our results indicate that HAPLN4 and HAPLN2 are the predominant members of this family in the adult human brain but are strongly reduced in the tumor parenchyma. To test if their absence was related to a pro-invasive gain of function of CSPGs, we expressed HAPLN4 in glioma cells in combination with the CSPG brevican. Surprisingly, HAPLN4 increased glioma cell adhesion and migration and even potentiated the motogenic effect of brevican. Further characterization revealed that HAPLN4 expressed in glioma cells was largely soluble and did not reproduce the strong, hyaluronan-independent association of the native protein to brain subcellular membranes. Taken together, our results suggest that the tumor parenchyma is rich in CSPGs that are not associated to HAPLNs and could instead interact with other extracellular matrix proteins produced by glioma cells. This dissociation may contribute to changes in the matrix scaffold caused by invasive glioma cells.
Project description:This study investigates the incorporation of hyaluronan (HA) binding peptides into poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels as a mechanism to bind and retain hyaluronan for applications in tissue engineering. The specificity of the peptide sequence (native RYPISRPRKRC vs non-native RPSRPRIRYKC), the role of basic amino acids, and specificity to hyaluronan over other GAGs in contributing to the peptide-hyaluronan interaction were probed through experiments and simulations. Hydrogels containing the native or non-native peptide retained hyaluronan in a dose-dependent manner. Ionic interactions were the dominating mechanism. In diH2O the peptides interacted strongly with HA and chondroitin sulfate, but in phosphate buffered saline the peptides interacted more strongly with HA. For cartilage tissue engineering, chondrocyte-laden PEG hydrogels containing increasing amounts of HA binding peptide and exogenous HA had increased retention and decreased loss of cell-secreted proteoglycans in and from the hydrogel at 28 days. This new matrix-interactive hydrogel platform holds promise for tissue regeneration.
Project description:Vascular endothelial cells are covered with glycocalyx comprising heparan sulfate, hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and associated proteins. Glomerular endothelial glycocalyx is involved in protecting against induction of proteinuria and structural damage, but the specific components in glycocalyx that represent therapeutic targets remain unclear. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy is associated with an increased risk of glomerular endothelial injury. This study investigated whether hyaluronan could provide a therapeutic target to protect against proteinuria. We conducted ex vivo and in vivo experiments to explore the effects of degrading glomerular hyaluronan by administering hyaluronidase and of supplementation with hyaluronan. We investigated hyaluronan expression using biotin-labeled hyaluronan-binding protein (HABP) in human kidney specimens or serum hyaluronan in endothelial injuries under inhibition of VEGF signaling. We directly demonstrated hyaluronan in glomerular endothelial layers using HABP staining. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments showed the development of proteinuria after digestion of hyaluronan in glomerular capillaries. Supplementation with hyaluronan after hyaluronidase treatment suppressed proteinuria. Mice in the in vivo study developed albuminuria after intraperitoneal injection of hyaluronidase with decreased glomerular hyaluronan and increased serum hyaluronan. In human kidneys with endothelial cell dysfunction and proteinuria due to inhibition of VEGF, glomerular expression of hyaluronan was reduced even in normal-appearing glomeruli. Serum hyaluronan levels were elevated in patients with pre-eclampsia with VEGF signaling inhibition. Our data suggest that hyaluronan itself plays crucial roles in preventing proteinuria and preserving the integrity of endothelial cells. Hyaluronan could provide a therapeutic target for preventing glomerular endothelial glycocalyx damage, including VEGF signaling inhibition.
Project description:Heparan sulfate proteoglycans regulate key steps of blood vessel formation. The present study was undertaken to investigate if there is a functional overlap between heparan sulfate proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans during sprouting angiogenesis.Using cultures of genetically engineered mouse embryonic stem cells, we show that angiogenic sprouting occurs also in the absence of heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Cells unable to produce heparan sulfate instead increase their production of chondroitin sulfate that binds key angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor A, transforming growth factor ?, and platelet-derived growth factor B. Lack of heparan sulfate proteoglycan production however leads to increased pericyte numbers and reduced adhesion of pericytes to nascent sprouts, likely due to dysregulation of transforming growth factor ? and platelet-derived growth factor B signal transduction.The present study provides direct evidence for a previously undefined functional overlap between chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and heparan sulfate proteoglycans during sprouting angiogenesis. Our findings provide information relevant for potential future drug design efforts that involve targeting of proteoglycans in the vasculature.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis presents with profound changes in the network of molecules involved in maintaining central nervous system architecture, the extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix components, particularly the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, have functions beyond structural support including their potential interaction with, and regulation of, inflammatory molecules. To investigate the roles of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in multiple sclerosis, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model in a time course study. We found that the 4-sulfated glycosaminoglycan side chains of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, and the core protein of a particular family member, versican V1, were upregulated in the spinal cord of mice at peak clinical severity, correspondent with areas of inflammation. Versican V1 expression in the spinal cord rose progressively over the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. A particular structure in the spinal cord and cerebellum that presented with intense upregulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans is the leucocyte-containing perivascular cuff, an important portal of entry of immune cells into the central nervous system parenchyma. In these inflammatory perivascular cuffs, versican V1 and the glycosaminoglycan side chains of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans were observed by immunohistochemistry within and in proximity to lymphocytes and macrophages as they migrated across the basement membrane into the central nervous system. Expression of versican V1 transcript was also documented in infiltrating CD45+ leucocytes and F4/80+ macrophages by in situ hybridization. To test the hypothesis that the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans regulate leucocyte mobility, we used macrophages in tissue culture studies. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans significantly upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in macrophages. Strikingly, and more potently than the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans increased the levels of several members of the matrix metalloproteinase family, which are implicated in the capacity of leucocytes to cross barriers. In support, the migratory capacity of macrophages in vitro in a Boyden chamber transwell assay was enhanced by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Finally, using brain specimens from four subjects with multiple sclerosis with active lesions, we found chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans to be associated with leucocytes in inflammatory perivascular cuffs in all four patients. We conclude that the accumulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the perivascular cuff in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis boosts the activity and migration of leucocytes across the glia limitans into the central nervous system parenchyma. Thus, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans represent a new class of molecules to overcome in order to reduce the inflammatory cascades and clinical severity of multiple sclerosis.
Project description:Receptor tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTP?) plays an important role in the regulation of axonal outgrowth and neural regeneration. Recent studies have identified two RPTP? ligands, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), which can modulate RPTP? activity by affecting its dimerization status. Here, we developed a split luciferase assay to monitor RPTP? dimerization in living cells. Using this system, we demonstrate that heparin, an analog of heparan sulfate, induced the dimerization of RPTP?, whereas chondroitin sulfate increased RPTP? activity by inhibiting RPTP? dimerization. Also, we generated several novel RPTP? IgG monoclonal antibodies, to identify one that modulates its activity by inducing/stabilizing dimerization in living cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that this antibody promotes neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y cells. In summary, we demonstrated that the split luciferase RPTP? activity assay is a novel high-throughput approach for discovering novel RPTP? modulators that can promote axonal outgrowth and neural regeneration.
Project description:Brain injuries such as trauma and stroke lead to glial scar formation by reactive astrocytes which produce and secret axonal outgrowth inhibitors. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) constitute a well-known class of extracellular matrix molecules produced at the glial scar and cause growth cone collapse. The CSPG glycosaminoglycan side chains composed of chondroitin sulfate (CS) are responsible for its inhibitory activity on neurite outgrowth and are dependent on RhoA activation. Here, we hypothesize that CSPG also impairs neural stem cell migration inhibiting their penetration into an injury site. We show that DCX+ neuroblasts do not penetrate a CSPG-rich injured area probably due to Nogo receptor activation and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway as we demonstrate in vitro with neural stem cells cultured as neurospheres and pull-down for RhoA. Furthermore, CS-impaired cell migration in vitro induced the formation of large mature adhesions and altered cell protrusion dynamics. ROCK inhibition restored migration in vitro as well as decreased adhesion size.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase (spnHL) is a pathogenic bacterial spreading factor and cleaves hyaluronan, an important constituent of the extra- cellular matrix of connective tissues, through an enzymatic beta-elimination process, different from the hyaluronan degradation by hydrolases in animals. The mechanism of hyaluronan binding and degradation was proposed based on the 1.56 A resolution crystal structure, substrate modeling and mutagenesis studies on spnHL. Five mutants, R243V, N349A, H399A, Y408F and N580G, were constructed and their activities confirmed our mechanism hypothesis. The important roles of Tyr408, Asn349 and His399 in enzyme catalysis were proposed, explained and confirmed by mutant studies. The remaining weak enzymatic activity of the H399A mutant, the role of the free carboxylate group on the glucuronate residue, the enzymatic behavior on chondroitin and chondroitin sulfate, and the small activity increase in the N580G mutant were explained based on this mechanism. A possible function of the C-terminal beta-sheet domain is to modulate enzyme activity through binding to calcium ions.
Project description:Extracellular matrix (ECM) components of the brain play complex roles in neurodegenerative diseases. The study of microenvironment of brain tissues with Alzheimer's disease revealed colocalized expression of different ECM molecules such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), matrix metal-loproteinases (MMPs), and hyaluronic acid. In this study, both cortical and hippocampal populations were generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural spheroids. The cultures were then treated with heparin (competes for A? affinity with HSPG), heparinase III (digests HSPGs), chondroitinase (digests CSPGs), hyaluronic acid, and an MMP-2/9 inhibitor (SB-3CT) together with amyloid ? (A?42) oligomers. The results indicate that inhibition of HSPG binding to A?42 using either heparinase III or heparin reduces A?42 expression and increases the population of ?-tubulin III+ neurons, whereas the inhibition of MMP2/9 induces more neurotoxicity. The results should enhance our understanding of the contribution of ECMs to the A?-related neural cell death.