Evaluation of association of HNF1B variants with diverse cancers: collaborative analysis of data from 19 genome-wide association studies.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Genome-wide association studies have found type 2 diabetes-associated variants in the HNF1B gene to exhibit reciprocal associations with prostate cancer risk. We aimed to identify whether these variants may have an effect on cancer risk in general versus a specific effect on prostate cancer only. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:In a collaborative analysis, we collected data from GWAS of cancer phenotypes for the frequently reported variants of HNF1B, rs4430796 and rs7501939, which are in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.76, HapMap CEU). Overall, the analysis included 16 datasets on rs4430796 with 19,640 cancer cases and 21,929 controls; and 21 datasets on rs7501939 with 26,923 cases and 49,085 controls. Malignancies other than prostate cancer included colorectal, breast, lung and pancreatic cancers, and melanoma. Meta-analysis showed large between-dataset heterogeneity that was driven by different effects in prostate cancer and other cancers. The per-T2D-risk-allele odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for rs4430796 were 0.79 (0.76, 0.83)] per G allele for prostate cancer (p<10(-15) for both); and 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) for all other cancers. Similarly for rs7501939 the per-T2D-risk-allele odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.80 (0.77, 0.83) per T allele for prostate cancer (p<10(-15) for both); and 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) for all other cancers. No malignancy other than prostate cancer had a nominally statistically significant association. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:The examined HNF1B variants have a highly specific effect on prostate cancer risk with no apparent association with any of the other studied cancer types.
Project description:We examined the association between HNF1B variants identified in a recent genome-wide association study and endometrial cancer in two large case-control studies nested in prospective cohorts: the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC) and the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. A total of 1,357 incident cases of invasive endometrial cancer and 7,609 controls were included in the analysis (MEC: 426 cases/3,854 controls; WHI: 931 cases/3,755 controls). The majority of women in the WHI were European American, while the MEC included sizable numbers of African Americans, Japanese and Latinos. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) per allele and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each SNP using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, and four principal components of ancestry informative markers. The combined ORs were estimated using fixed effect models. Rs4430796 and rs7501939 were associated with endometrial cancer risk in MEC and WHI with no heterogeneity observed across racial/ethnic groups (P ? 0.21) or between studies (P ? 0.70). The OR(per allele) was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.89; P = 5.63 × 10(-6)) for rs4430796 (G allele) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P = 3.77 × 10(-7)) for rs7501939 (A allele). The associations with the risk of Type I and Type II tumors were similar (P ? 0.19). Adjustment for additional endometrial cancer risk factors such as parity, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone use, and smoking status had little effect on the results. In conclusion, HNF1B SNPs are associated with risk of endometrial cancer and that the associated relative risks are similar for Type I and Type II tumors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To provide a synopsis of the current understanding of the association between variants of HNF1B and cancer susceptibility, we conducted a comprehensive research synopsis and meta-analysis to evaluate associations between HNF1B variants and prostate and endometrial cancers. RESULTS:Eighteen studies totaling 34,937 patients and 55,969 controls were eligible for this meta-analysis. Four variants showed a significant association with the risk of individual cancer. Strong significant associations were found between rs4430796 A and the risk of both prostate cancer (OR =?1.247, p =?2.21?×?10-?77) and endometrial cancer (OR =?1.217, p =?8.98?×?10-?16); the AA, AG genotypes also showed strong significant associations with the risk of prostate cancer (OR1?=?1.517, p =?4.46?×?10-?22; OR2?=?1.180, p =?0.002). There was a strong significant association between rs7501939 G and the risk of prostate cancer (OR =?1.201, p =?9.31?×?10-?31). Strong significant association was found between rs11649743 G (OR =?1.138, p =?1.08?×?10-?12), rs3760511 C (OR =?1.214, p =?1.57?×?10-?19) and the prostate cancer risk;the GG, AG genotypes of rs11649743 also showed strong significant associations with the risk of prostate cancer (OR1?=?1.496, p =?3.32?×?10-?6; OR2?=?1.276, p =?7.82?×?10-?6). All the cumulative epidemiological evidence of associations was graded as strong. CONCLUSIONS:Our study summarizes the evidence and helps to reveal that common variants of HNF1B are associated with risk of prostate and endometrial cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidemiologic studies have shown that men with type II diabetes have a lower risk of prostate cancer than non-diabetic men. Recently, common variants in two genes, HNF1B and JAZF1, were found to be associated with both of these diseases. METHODS:We examined whether the relationship between HNF1B and JAZF1 variants and decreased prostate cancer risk may potentially be mediated through diabetes in two large prospective studies, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. RESULTS:Three HNF1B SNPS, rs11649743, rs4430796, and rs7501939, were associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer and were also associated, with marginal statistical significance, with increased risk of diabetes. The JAZF1 SNPs rs6968704 and rs10486567 were associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer but were not associated with diabetes. All five SNP-prostate cancer relationships did not substantially differ when the analyses were stratified by diabetic status or when diabetic status was controlled for in the model. Furthermore, the association of diabetes with prostate cancer was not altered when the SNPs were included in the logistic model. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that the HNF1B variants are directly associated with both diabetes and prostate cancer, that diabetes does not mediate these gene variant-prostate cancer relationships, and the relationship between these diseases is not mediated through these gene variants.
Project description:Background. Prostate cancer (PCa) racial disparity is multifactorial, involving biological, sociocultural, and lifestyle determinants. We investigated the association between selected potentially functional polymorphisms (SNPs) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in Black (AAM) and White (EAM) men. We further explored if these associations varied by the body mass index (BMI) and height. Methods. Age-matched DNA samples from 259 AAM and 269 EAM were genotyped for 10 candidate SNPs in 7 genes using the TaqMan allelic differentiation analysis. The dominant, recessive, and additive age-adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were fitted. Results. Three SNPs showed statistically significant associations with PCa risk: in AAM, HNF1B rs7501939 (OR = 2.42, P = 0.0046) and rs4430796 (OR = 0.57, P = 0.0383); in EAM, CTBP2 rs4962416 (OR = 1.52, P = 0.0384). In addition, high BMI in AAM (OR = 1.06, P = 0.022) and height in EAM (OR = 0.92, P = 0.0434) showed significant associations. Interestingly, HNF1B rs7501939 was associated with PCa exclusively in obese AAM (OR = 2.14, P = 0.0103). Conclusion. Our results suggest that variation in the HNF1B may influence PCa risk in obese AAM.
Project description:Previous genome-wide association studies have identified two independent variants in HNF1B as susceptibility loci for prostate cancer risk. To fine-map common genetic variation in this region, we genotyped 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 17q12 region harboring HNF1B in 10 272 prostate cancer cases and 9123 controls of European ancestry from 10 case-control studies as part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. Ten SNPs were significantly related to prostate cancer risk at a genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10(-8) with the most significant association with rs4430796 (P = 1.62 × 10(-24)). However, risk within this first locus was not entirely explained by rs4430796. Although modestly correlated (r(2)= 0.64), rs7405696 was also associated with risk (P = 9.35 × 10(-23)) even after adjustment for rs4430769 (P = 0.007). As expected, rs11649743 was related to prostate cancer risk (P = 3.54 × 10(-8)); however, the association within this second locus was stronger for rs4794758 (P = 4.95 × 10(-10)), which explained all of the risk observed with rs11649743 when both SNPs were included in the same model (P = 0.32 for rs11649743; P = 0.002 for rs4794758). Sequential conditional analyses indicated that five SNPs (rs4430796, rs7405696, rs4794758, rs1016990 and rs3094509) together comprise the best model for risk in this region. This study demonstrates a complex relationship between variants in the HNF1B region and prostate cancer risk. Further studies are needed to investigate the biological basis of the association of variants in 17q12 with prostate cancer.
Project description:In a recent genome-wide association study by Gudmundsson and colleagues, two prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified on chromosome 17q. The first locus, at 17q12, was distinguished by two intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TCF2 gene (rs4430796 and rs7501939). The second locus was in a gene-poor region of 17q24, where the strongest evidence of association was for SNP rs1859962. To determine if these loci were also associated with hereditary prostate cancer, we genotyped them in a family-based association sample of 403 non-Hispanic white families, including 1,015 men with and without prostate cancer. SNPs rs4430796 and rs7501939, which were in strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.68), showed the strongest evidence of prostate cancer association. Using a family-based association test, the A allele of SNP rs4430796 was overtransmitted to affected men (P = 0.006), with an odds ratio of 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.81) under an additive genetic model. Notably, rs4430796 was significantly associated with prostate cancer among men diagnosed at an early (<50 years) but not later age (P = 0.006 versus P = 0.118). Our results confirm the prostate cancer association with SNPs on chromosome 17q12 initially reported by Gudmundsson and colleagues. In addition, our results suggest that the increased risk associated with these SNPs is approximately doubled in individuals predisposed to develop early-onset disease. Importantly, these SNPs do not account for a significant portion of our prior prostate cancer linkage evidence on chromosome 17. Thus, there likely exist one or more additional independent prostate cancer susceptibility loci in this region.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple common alleles associated with prostate cancer risk in populations of European ancestry. Testing these variants in other populations is needed to assess the generalizability of the associations and may guide fine-mapping efforts. We examined 13 of these risk variants in a multiethnic sample of 2,768 incident prostate cancer cases and 2,359 controls from the Multiethnic Cohort (African Americans, European Americans, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians). We estimated ethnic-specific and pooled odds ratios and tested for ethnic heterogeneity of effects using logistic regression. In ethnic-pooled analyses, 12 of the 13 variants were positively associated with risk, with statistically significant associations (P < 0.05) noted with six variants: JAZF1, rs10486567 [odds ratio (OR), 1.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI, 1.12-1.35); Xp11.2, rs5945572 (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.13-1.51); HNF1B, rs4430796 (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25); MSMB, rs10993994 (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.23); 11q13.2, rs7931342 (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23); 3p12.1, rs2660753 (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.21); SLC22A3, rs9364554 (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21); CTBP2, rs12769019 (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.99-1.25); HNF1B, rs11649743 (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.99-1.22); EHBP1, rs721048 (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.94-1.25); KLK2/3, rs2735839 (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.97-1.16); 17q24.3, rs1859962 (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.96-1.13); and LMTK2, rs6465657 (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09). Significant ethnic heterogeneity of effects was noted for four variants (EHBP1, P(het) = 3.9 x 10(-3); 11q13, P(het) = 0.023; HNF1B (rs4430796), P(het) = 0.026; and KLK2/3, P(het) = 2.0 x 10(-3)). Although power was limited in some ethnic/racial groups due to variation in sample size and allele frequencies, these findings suggest that a large fraction of prostate cancer variants identified in populations of European ancestry are global markers of risk. For many of these regions, fine-mapping in non-European samples may help localize causal alleles and better determine their contribution to prostate cancer risk in the population.
Project description:Aims:The purpose of this study is to evaluate an aggregate influence of prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility variants on the development of PCa in Korean men by using the polygenic risk score (PRS) approach. Methods:An analysis of 1,001 cases of PCa and 2,641 controls was performed to: (i) identify potential PCa-related risk loci in Koreans and (ii) validate the cumulative association between these loci and PCa using the PRS. Subgroup analyses based on risk stratification were conducted to better characterize the potential correlation to key PCa-related clinical outcomes (e.g., Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen levels). The results were replicated using 514 cases of PCa and 548 controls from an independent cohort. Results:Genome-wide association analysis from our discovery cohort revealed 11 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCa showing statistical significance of p < 5.0 × 10-5. Seven variants were located at 8q24.21 (rs1016343, rs16901979, and rs13252298 in PRNCR1; rs4242384, rs7837688, and rs1447295 in CASC8; and rs1512268 in NKX3). Two variants located within HNF1B (rs7501939 and rs4430796) had a significant negative association with PCa risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.717 and 0.747, p = 6.42 × 10-7 and 3.67 × 10-6, respectively]. Of the six independent SNPs that remained after linkage disequilibrium (LD) pruning, the top four SNPs best predicted PCa risk with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.637 (95% CI: 0.582-0.692). Those with top 25% polygenic risk had a 4.2-fold increased risk of developing PCa compared with those with low risk. Conclusion:Eleven PCa risk variants in Korean men were identified; PRSs of a subset of these variants could help predict PCa susceptibility.
Project description:Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1? (HNF1?), a transcription factor encoded by the transcription factor 2 gene (TCF2), plays a critical role in pancreatic cell formation and glucose homeostasis. It has been suggested that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TCF2 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, published results are inconsistent and inclusive. To further investigate the role of these common variants, we examined the association of TCF2 polymorphisms with the risk of T2D in a Han population in northeastern China. We genotyped five SNPs in 624 T2D patients and 630 healthy controls by using a SNaPshot method, and evaluated the T2D risk conferred by individual SNPs and haplotypes. In the single-locus analysis, we found that rs752010, rs4430796 and rs7501939 showed allelic differences between T2D patients and healthy controls, with an OR of 1.26 (95% CI 1.08-1.51, P = 0.003), an OR of 1.23 (95% CI 1.06-1.55, P = 0.001) and an OR of 1.28 (95% CI 1.10-1.61, P = 0.001), respectively. Genotype association analysis of each locus also revealed that the homozygous carriers of the at-risk allele had a significant increased T2D risk compared to homozygous carriers of the other allele (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.20-2.64 for rs752010; OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.24-2.67 for rs4430796; OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.31-2.90 for rs7501939), even after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Besides, the haplotype-based analysis demonstrated that AGT in block rs752010-rs4430796-rs7501939 was associated with about 30% increase in T2D risk (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.09-1.57, P = 0.01). Our findings suggested that TCF2 variants may be involved in T2D risk in a Han population of northeastern China. Larger studies with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to confirm the results reported in this investigation.
Project description:Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in developed countries. To identify genetic variants associated with endometrial cancer risk, we performed a genome-wide association study involving 1,265 individuals with endometrial cancer (cases) from Australia and the UK and 5,190 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We compared genotype frequencies in cases and controls for 519,655 SNPs. Forty seven SNPs that showed evidence of association with endometrial cancer in stage 1 were genotyped in 3,957 additional cases and 6,886 controls. We identified an endometrial cancer susceptibility locus close to HNF1B at 17q12 (rs4430796, P = 7.1 × 10(-10)) that is also associated with risk of prostate cancer and is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes.