A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus.
ABSTRACT: A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV). A pair of primers (P1 and P4) specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV), rabies virus (RV), or canine adenovirus (CAV). The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance.
Project description:A combined reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of the canine distemper virus (CDV). A pair of primers (P1/P2) was used to detect both CDV wild-type strains and vaccines. Another pair (P3/P4) was used to detect only CDV wild-type strains. A 335bp fragment was amplified from the genomic RNA of the vaccine and wild-type strains. A 555bp fragment was amplified specifically from the genomic RNA of the wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for the uninfected cells, cells infected with canine parvovirus, canine coronavirus, or canine adenovirus. The combined RT-PCR method detected effectively and differentiated the CDV wild-type and vaccine strains by two separate RT-PCRs. The method can be used for clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance. The phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of the local wild-type CDV strains revealed that the seven local isolates all belonged to the Asia-1 lineage, and were clustered closely with one another at the same location. These results suggested that the CDV genotype Asia-1 is circulating currently in domestic dogs in China.
Project description:Canine distemper (CD) is a widespread infectious disease that can severely impact a variety of species in the order Carnivora, as well as non-carnivore species such as non-human primates. Despite large-scale vaccination campaigns, several fatal outbreaks have been reported in wild and domestic carnivore populations. This, in association with expansion of the disease host range and the development of vaccine-escape strains, has contributed to an increased demand for therapeutic strategies synergizing with vaccine programs for effectively controlling canine distemper. 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr) is a modified thiopurine nucleoside with known antiviral properties against certain RNA viruses.We tested the inhibitory effects of 6MMPr against a wild-type CDV strain infection in cell culture. We measured infectious particle production and viral RNA levels in treated and untreated CDV-infected cells. Ribavirin (RIB) was used as a positive control.Here, we report for the first time the antiviral effects of 6MMPr against canine distemper virus (CDV) in vitro. 6MMPr was able to reduce viral RNA levels and to inhibit the production of infectious CDV particles. The therapeutic selectivity of 6MMPr was approximately six times higher than that of ribavirin.Our results indicate that 6MMPr has high anti-CDV potential and warrants further testing against other paramyxoviruses, as well as clinical testing of the compound against CDV.
Project description:The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as an unprecedented pandemic, has rapidly spread around the globe. Its etiological agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae. The viral S1 subunit has been demonstrated to have a powerful potential in inducing protective immune responses in vivo. Since April 2020, farmed minks were frequently reported to be infected with the SARS-CoV-2 in different countries. Unfortunately, there has been no available veterinary vaccine as yet. In this study, we used reverse genetics to rescue a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) that could express the SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit in vitro. The S1 subunit sequence was demonstrated to be relatively stable in the genome of recombinant CDV during twenty serial viral passages in cells. However, due to introduction of the S1 subunit sequence into CDV genome, this recombinant CDV grew more slowly than the wild-type strain did. The genomic backbone of recombinant CDV was derived from a virulence-attenuating strain (QN strain). Therefore, if able to induce immune protections in minks from canine distemper and COVID-19 infections, this recombinant would be a potential vaccine candidate for veterinary use.
Project description:Canine morbillivirus (canine distemper virus; CDV) is a worldwide distributed morbillivirus that causes sporadic cases and recurrent epizootics among an increasing number of wild, feral, and domestic animal species. We investigated the evolutionary history of CDV strains involved in the 1988 Lake Baikal (CDVPS88) and the 2000 Caspian Sea (CDVPC00) seal die-offs by recovery of full-length sequences from archived material using next-generation sequencing. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses indicated that CDVPC00 constitutes a novel strain in a separate clade (tentatively termed "Caspian") from the America-1 clade, which is comprised of older vaccine strains. The America-1/Caspian monophyletic group is positioned most basally with respect to other clades and is estimated to have separated from other CDV clades around 1832. Our results indicate that CDVPC00 recovered from the epizootic in the Caspian Sea in 2000 belongs to a previously undetected novel clade and constitutes the most ancestral wild-type CDV clade.
Project description:Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. Practical diagnosis of canine distemper based on clinical signs and laboratory tests are required to confirm CDV infection. The present study aimed to develop a molecular assay to detect and differentiate field and vaccine CDV strains. Reverse transcription followed by nested real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-nqPCR) was developed, which exhibited analytical specificity (all the samples from healthy dogs and other canine infectious agents were not incorrectly detected) and sensitivity (all replicates of a vaccine strain were positive up to the 3125-fold dilution - 10(0.7) TCID50). RT-nqPCR was validated for CDV detection on different clinical samples (blood, urine, rectal and conjunctival swabs) of 103 animals suspected to have distemper. A total of 53 animals were found to be positive based on RT-nqPCR in at least one clinical sample. Blood resulted in more positive samples (50 out of 53, 94.3%), followed by urine (44/53, 83.0%), rectal (38/53, 71%) and conjunctival (27/53, 50.9%) swabs. A commercial immunochromatography (IC) assay had detected CDV in only 30 conjunctival samples of these positive dogs. Nucleoprotein (NC) gene sequencing of 25 samples demonstrated that 23 of them were closer to other Brazilian field strains and the remaining two to vaccine strains. A single nucleotide sequences difference, which creates an Msp I restriction enzyme digestion, was used to differentiate between field and vaccine CDV strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The complete assay was more sensitive than was IC for the detection of CDV. Blood was the more frequently positive specimen and the addition of a restriction enzyme step allowed the differentiation of vaccine and Brazilian field strains.
Project description:A 61-d-old fennec fox (<i>Vulpes zerda</i>), 11 d after receiving a multivalent, modified-live virus vaccine containing canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus 2 (CAdV-2), parainfluenza virus, parvovirus, and canine coronavirus, developed oculonasal discharge, and subsequently convulsions, and hemoptysis, and died. Microscopic changes in the cerebrum were evident, including neuronal degeneration and necrosis; intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in astrocytes. CDV was detected in the brain tissue by immunohistochemistry. Pulmonary lesions of multifocal necrotizing bronchopneumonia had Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusions in the bronchial epithelial cells. Electron microscopy revealed crystalline arrays of adenovirus-like particles within the intranuclear inclusions. Additionally, the hemagglutinin gene of CDV and the CAdV-2 DNA polymerase gene were detected in the fennec fox; sequence analysis showed 100% identity with those of the vaccine strain viruses. To our knowledge, vaccine-induced CDV and CAdV-2 coinfections using molecular analysis have not been reported previously. Therefore, vaccine strains should be considered prior to CDV vaccination in nondomestic carnivores.
Project description:Canine respiratory diseases are commonly seen in dogs along with co-infections with multiple respiratory pathogens, including viruses and bacteria. Virus infections in even vaccinated dogs were also reported. The clinical signs caused by different respiratory etiological agents are similar, which makes differential diagnosis imperative. An oligonucleotide microarray system was developed in this study. The wild type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV), influenza virus, canine herpesvirus (CHV), Bordetella bronchiseptica and Mycoplasma cynos were detected and differentiated simultaneously on a microarray chip. The detection limit is 10, 10, 100, 50 and 50 copy numbers for CDV, influenza virus, CHV, B. bronchiseptica and M. cynos, respectively. The clinical test results of nasal swab samples showed that the microarray had remarkably better efficacy than the multiplex PCR-agarose gel method. The positive detection rate of microarray and agarose gel was 59.0% (n=33) and 41.1% (n=23) among the 56 samples, respectively. CDV vaccine strain and pathogen co-infections were further demonstrated by the microarray but not by the multiplex PCR-agarose gel. The oligonucleotide microarray provides a highly efficient diagnosis alternative that could be applied to clinical usage, greatly assisting in disease therapy and control.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Canine distemper virus (CDV) is present worldwide and produces a lethal systemic infection of wild and domestic Canidae. Pre-existing antibodies acquired from vaccination or previous CDV infection might interfere the interpretation of a serologic diagnosis method. In addition, due to the high similarity of nucleic acid sequences between wild-type CDV and the new vaccine strain, current PCR derived methods cannot be applied for the definite confirmation of CD infection. Hence, it is worthy of developing a simple and rapid nucleotide-based assay for differentiation of wild-type CDV which is a cause of disease from attenuated CDVs after vaccination. High frequency variations have been found in the region spanning from the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the matrix (M) gene to the fusion (F) gene (designated M-F UTR) in a few CDV strains. To establish a differential diagnosis assay, an amplification refractory mutation analysis was established based on the highly variable region on M-F UTR and F regions. RESULTS: Sequences of frequent polymorphisms were found scattered throughout the M-F UTR region; the identity of nucleic acid between local strains and vaccine strains ranged from 82.5% to 93.8%. A track of AAA residue located 35 nucleotides downstream from F gene start codon highly conserved in three vaccine strains were replaced with TGC in the local strains; that severed as target sequences for deign of discrimination primers. The method established in the present study successfully differentiated seven Taiwanese CDV field isolates, all belonging to the Asia-1 lineage, from vaccine strains. CONCLUSIONS: The method described herein would be useful for several clinical applications, such as confirmation of nature CDV infection, evaluation of vaccination status and verification of the circulating viral genotypes.
Project description:To achieve proper diagnosis of dogs based on acute clinical symptoms and poorly preserved field samples taken from animals that died due to canine distemper (CD), a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, more than 150 samples collected from dogs showing respiratory, gastrointestinal and neurological signs suggesting canine distemper virus (CDV) infection were examined. The samples consisted of urine, blood and nasal swabs collected from clinically ill patients, sent to our laboratory by clinicians from various veterinary clinics throughout Hungary. Various organs collected during the necropsy of dogs with pathological changes that suggested CDV infection were also included. Three distinct PCRs were designed. For diagnostic purposes, a primer pair specific to a 409 bases-long segment within the conservative part of the large polymerase region (L) of the CDV genome was designed. Using this test, out of the 150 analyzed samples, 46 (30.66%) proved to be positive for CDV, indicating that CDV still represents a high risk to the canine population in Hungary. For the phylogenetical analysis, a primer pair that completely encompasses the hemagglutinin (H) gene of the CDV genome was designed. The amplicons of this region were sequenced in both directions using the appropriate primers. Our results indicate that several different CDV genotypes are currently present in Hungary. Nine of the analyzed Hungarian strains turned out to belong to the so-called Arctic group of CDVs, and were most closely related to non-European strains from North America, China and Greenland, as well as to the phocine distemper virus 2 (PDV-2) isolated from Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica). One of the Hungarian strains showed high similarity to other European isolates from Denmark, Germany, Italy and Turkey, as well as to other isolates from geographically more distant regions, such as the USA. Three Hungarian strains seem to join a new cluster that is formed by only a couple of strains, one isolated from a mink in Denmark, and another from a dog in North America. Using a third set of primers, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay has also been designed for the fast and reliable differentiation of the wild-type CDVs from the vaccine strains.
Project description:In August 2019, a suspected outbreak of canine distemper was observed in a masked palm civet farm that also received stray civets and rescued wild civets in Henan Province of China. A virulent canine distemper virus (CDV) strain, named HN19, from vaccinated masked palm civets was the etiologic agent identified in this outbreak using RT-PCR and sequencing of the complete genome. Serological analysis indicated a lower positive rate of CDV-neutralizing antibody in wild civets than in captive civets. Phylogenetic analysis of viral hemagglutinin (H) and the complete genome showed high identities with Rockborn-like strains at the nucleotide (98.7~99.72%) and the closest nucleotide similarity with a strain that killed lesser pandas in China in 1997, but low identities with America-1 strains (vaccine strains). Most importantly, one distinct amino acid exchange in the H protein at position 540 Asp → Gly (D540G), which confers CDV with an improved ability to adapt and utilize the human receptor, was observed in HN19. This study represents the first reported outbreak of a Rockborn-like CDV strain infection in masked palm civets in China. Based on this report, the existence of Rockborn-like strains in Chinese wild animals may not only cause immune failure in captive animals, but may also confer increased zoonotic potential.