Compensations for diminished terminal oxidase activity in Escherichia coli: cytochrome bd-II-mediated respiration and glutamate metabolism.
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli possesses cytochrome bo' (CyoABCDE), cytochrome bd-I (CydAB), and cytochrome bd-II (AppBC) quinol oxidases, all of which can catalyze the terminal step in the aerobic respiratory chain, the reduction of oxygen by ubiquinol. Although CydAB has a role in the generation of DeltapH, AppBC has been proposed to alleviate the accumulation of electrons in the quinone pool during respiratory stress via electroneutral ubiquinol oxidation. A cydB mutant strain exhibited lower respiration rates while maintaining a wild type growth rate. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a dramatic up-regulation of AppBC in the cydB strain, accompanied by the induction of genes involved in glutamate/gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antiport, the GABA shunt, the glyoxylate shunt, respiration (including appBC), motility, and osmotic stress. Transcription factor modeling suggests that the underpinning regulation is largely controlled by H-NS, GadX, FlhDC, and AppY. The transcriptional adaptations imply that cydB cells contribute to the proton motive force via consumption of intracellular protons and glutamate/GABA antiport. Indeed, supplementation of culture medium with l-glutamate stimulates growth in a cydB strain. Phenotype analyses of the cydB strain confirm decreased motility and elevated acid resistance and also an elevated cytochrome d spectroscopic signal in cells grown at low pH. We propose a mechanism via which E. coli can compensate for the loss of cytochrome bd-I activity; cytochrome bd-II-mediated quinol oxidation prevents the accumulation of NADH, whereas GABA synthesis/antiport maintains the proton motive force for ATP production.
Project description:The cydAB genes from Mycobacterium smegmatis have been cloned and characterized. The cydA and cydB genes encode the two subunits of a cytochrome bd oxidase belonging to the widely distributed family of quinol oxidases found in prokaryotes. The cydD and cydC genes located immediately downstream of cydB encode a putative ATP-binding cassette-type transporter. At room temperature, reduced minus oxidized difference spectra of membranes purified from wild-type M. smegmatis displayed spectral features that are characteristic of the gamma-proteobacterial type cytochrome bd oxidase. Inactivation of cydA or cydB by insertion of a kanamycin resistance marker resulted in loss of d-heme absorbance at 631 nm. The d-heme could be restored by transformation of the M. smegmatis cyd mutants with a replicating plasmid carrying the highly homologous cydABDC gene cluster from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Inactivation of cydA had no effect on the ability of M. smegmatis to exit from stationary phase at 37 or 42 degrees C. The growth rate of the cydA mutant was tested under oxystatic conditions. Although no discernible growth defect was observed under moderately aerobic conditions (9.2 to 37.5 x 10(2) Pa of pO(2) or 5 to 21% air saturation), the mutant displayed a significant growth disadvantage when cocultured with the wild type under extreme microaerophilia (0.8 to 1.7 x 10(2) Pa of pO(2) or 0.5 to 1% air saturation). These observations were in accordance with the two- to threefold increase in cydAB gene expression observed upon reduction of the pO(2) of the growth medium from 21 to 0.5% air saturation and with the concomitant increase in d-heme absorbance in spectra of membranes isolated from wild-type M. smegmatis cultured at 1% air saturation. Finally, the cydA mutant displayed a competitive growth disadvantage in the presence of the terminal oxidase inhibitor, cyanide, when cocultured with wild type at 21% air saturation in an oxystat. In conjunction with these findings, our results suggest that cytochrome bd is an important terminal oxidase in M. smegmatis.
Project description:We deleted subunits I (cydA) and II (cydB) of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytochrome bd menaquinol oxidase. The resulting ?cydA and ?cydAB mutants were hypersusceptible to compounds targeting the mycobacterial bc1 menaquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and exhibited bioenergetic profiles indistinguishable from strains deficient in the ABC-type transporter, CydDC, predicted to be essential for cytochrome bd assembly. These results confirm CydAB and CydDC as potential targets for drugs aimed at inhibiting a terminal respiratory oxidase implicated in pathogenesis.
Project description:The obligatory aerobic acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans oxidizes a variety of substrates in the periplasm by membrane-bound dehydrogenases, which transfer the reducing equivalents to ubiquinone. Two quinol oxidases, cytochrome bo3 and cytochrome bd, then catalyze transfer of the electrons from ubiquinol to molecular oxygen. In this study, mutants lacking either of these terminal oxidases were characterized. Deletion of the cydAB genes for cytochrome bd had no obvious influence on growth, whereas the lack of the cyoBACD genes for cytochrome bo3 severely reduced the growth rate and the cell yield. Using a respiration activity monitoring system and adjusting different levels of oxygen availability, hints of a low-oxygen affinity of cytochrome bd oxidase were obtained, which were supported by measurements of oxygen consumption in a respirometer. The H(+)/O ratio of the ?cyoBACD mutant with mannitol as the substrate was 0.56 ± 0.11 and more than 50% lower than that of the reference strain (1.26 ± 0.06) and the ?cydAB mutant (1.31 ± 0.16), indicating that cytochrome bo3 oxidase is the main component for proton extrusion via the respiratory chain. Plasmid-based overexpression of cyoBACD led to increased growth rates and growth yields, both in the wild type and the ?cyoBACD mutant, suggesting that cytochrome bo3 might be a rate-limiting factor of the respiratory chain.
Project description:Cytochrome bd is a prokaryotic terminal oxidase that catalyses the electrogenic reduction of oxygen to water using ubiquinol as electron donor. Cytochrome bd is a tri-haem integral membrane enzyme carrying a low-spin haem b558, and two high-spin haems: b595 and d. Here we show that besides its oxidase activity, cytochrome bd from Escherichia coli is a genuine quinol peroxidase (QPO) that reduces hydrogen peroxide to water. The highly active and pure enzyme preparation used in this study did not display the catalase activity recently reported for E. coli cytochrome bd. To our knowledge, cytochrome bd is the first membrane-bound quinol peroxidase detected in E. coli. The observation that cytochrome bd is a quinol peroxidase, can provide a biochemical basis for its role in detoxification of hydrogen peroxide and may explain the frequent findings reported in the literature that indicate increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and decreased virulence in mutants that lack the enzyme.
Project description:The obligatory aerobic acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans oxidizes a variety of substrates in the periplasm by membrane-bound dehydrogenases, which transfer the reducing equivalents to ubiquinone. Two quinol oxidases, cytochrome bo3 and cytochrome bd, then catalyze transfer of the electrons from ubiquinol to molecular oxygen. In this study, mutants lacking either of these terminal oxidases were characterized. Deletion of the cydAB genes for cytochrome bd had no obvious influence on growth, whereas the lack of the cyoBACD genes for cytochrome bo3 severely reduced the growth rate and the cell yield. Using a respiration activity monitoring system and adjusting different levels of oxygen availability, hints for a low oxygen affinity of cytochrome bd oxidase were obtained, which were supported by measurements of oxygen consumption in a respirometer. The H+/O ratio of the ΔcyoBACD mutant with mannitol as substrate was 0.56 ± 0.11 and more than 50% lower than that of the reference strain (1.26 ± 0.06) and the delta-cydAB mutant (1.31 ± 0.16), indicating that cytochrome bo3 oxidase is the main component for proton extrusion via the respiratory chain. Plasmid-based overexpression of cyoBACD led to increased growth rates and growth yields, both in the wild type and the delta-cyoBACD mutant, suggesting that cytochrome bo3 might be the rate-limiting factor of the respiratory chain. The three transcriptome comparisons of G. oxydans ΔuppΔcyoBACD vs. G.oxydans Δupp were repeated independently three times in biological replicates resulting in 3 hybridizations as termed by sample 1 to 3.
Project description:We previously determined that loss of respiratory quinol oxidase cytochrome bd disrupts biofilm formation in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). In this study, we extracted and interrogated the outer membrane and extracellular matrix of colony biofilms formed by UPEC isolate UTI89 and an isogenic mutant lacking cytochrome bd (∆cydAB).
Project description:Cytochrome bd quinol oxidases, which have a greater affinity for oxygen than heme-copper cytochrome oxidases (HCOs), promote bacterial respiration and fitness in low-oxygen environments, such as host tissues. Here, we show that, in addition to the CydA and CydB subunits, the small protein CydX is required for the assembly and function of the cytochrome bd complex in the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mutant S Typhimurium lacking CydX showed a loss of proper heme arrangement and impaired oxidase activity comparable to that of a ?cydABX mutant lacking all cytochrome bd subunits. Moreover, both the ?cydX mutant and the ?cydABX mutant showed increased sensitivity to ?-mercaptoethanol and nitric oxide (NO). Cytochrome bd-mediated protection from ?-mercaptoethanol was not a result of resistance to reducing damage but, rather, was due to cytochrome bd oxidase managing Salmonella respiration, while ?-mercaptoethanol interacted with the copper ions necessary for the HCO activity of the cytochrome bo-type quinol oxidase. Interactions between NO and hemes in cytochrome bd and cytochrome bd-dependent respiration during nitrosative stress indicated a direct role for cytochrome bd in mediating Salmonella resistance to NO. Additionally, CydX was required for S Typhimurium proliferation inside macrophages. Mutants deficient in cytochrome bd, however, showed a significant increase in resistance to antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, d-cycloserine, and ampicillin. The essential role of CydX in cytochrome bd assembly and function suggests that targeting this small protein could be a useful antimicrobial strategy, but potential drug tolerance responses should also be considered.IMPORTANCE Cytochrome bd quinol oxidases, which are found only in bacteria, govern the fitness of many facultative anaerobic pathogens by promoting respiration in low-oxygen environments and by conferring resistance to antimicrobial radicals. Thus, cytochrome bd complex assembly and activity are considered potential therapeutic targets. Here we report that the small protein CydX is required for the assembly and function of the cytochrome bd complex in S Typhimurium under stress conditions, including exposure to ?-mercaptoethanol, nitric oxide, or the phagocytic intracellular environment, demonstrating its crucial function for Salmonella fitness. However, cytochrome bd inactivation also leads to increased resistance to some antibiotics, so considerable caution should be taken when developing therapeutic strategies targeting the CydX-dependent cytochrome bd.
Project description:Cytochrome bd oxidases are terminal reductases of bacterial and archaeal respiratory chains. The enzyme couples the oxidation of ubiquinol or menaquinol with the reduction of dioxygen to water, thus contributing to the generation of the protonmotive force. Here, we determine the structure of the Escherichia coli bd oxidase treated with the specific inhibitor aurachin by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The major subunits CydA and CydB are related by a pseudo two fold symmetry. The heme b and d cofactors are found in CydA, while ubiquinone-8 is bound at the homologous positions in CydB to stabilize its structure. The architecture of the E. coli enzyme is highly similar to that of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, however, the positions of heme b595 and d are interchanged, and a common oxygen channel is blocked by a fourth subunit and substituted by a more narrow, alternative channel. Thus, with the same overall fold, the homologous enzymes exhibit a different mechanism.
Project description:Escherichia coli GK100, with deletions in the operons encoding its two terminal oxidases, cytochrome bo and ctyochrome bd, was complemented for growth on succinate by a recombinant plasmid (pMS100) containing a 3.4-kb region of DNA from alkaliphilic Bacillus firmus OF4. The complementing DNA was predicted to encode five proteins, but neither sequence analysis nor complementation experiments with subclones provided insight into the basis for the complementation. Cytochrome difference spectra of everted membrane vesicles from the transformed strain had characteristics of a cytochrome bd spectrum but with features different from those observed for alkaliphile membranes. To determine the bacterial source and identity of the structural genes for the cytochrome bd in the transformed mutant, the complex was extracted and partially purified. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, two polypeptides were resolved from the preparation, 43 (subunit I) and 27 (subunit II) kDa. An internal peptide from subunit I was sequenced, and it yielded the same primary sequence as is found in positions 496 to 510 of E. coli appC. Consistent with the microsequencing results pMS100 failed to complement a triple mutant of E. coli carrying a deletion in appB as well as in the cyo and cyd loci. The deduced sequence of AppBC had been predicted to be very similar to the sequence of CydAB (J. Dassa et al., Mol. Gen. Genet. 229:341-352, 1991) but this is the first demonstration that the former is indeed a cytochrome bd terminal oxidase. The enzyme catalyzed oxygen uptake coupled to quinol or N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine oxidation, and the activity was sensitive to cyanide. No cross-reactivity to subunit-specific polyclonal antibodies directed against the two individual subunits of cyd-encoded cytochrome bd was detected. Since this is the second cytochrome bd discovered in E. coli, it is proposed that the two complexes be designated cytochrome bd-I (cydAB-encoded enzyme) and cytochrome bd-II (appBC-encoded enzyme). In addition, cbdAB is suggested as a more appropriate gene designation for cytochrome bd than either appBC or cyxAB.
Project description:Cytochrome bd oxidase operons from more than 50 species of bacteria contain a short gene encoding a small protein that ranges from ?30 to 50 amino acids and is predicted to localize to the cell membrane. Although cytochrome bd oxidases have been studied for more than 70 years, little is known about the role of this small protein, denoted CydX, in oxidase activity. Here we report that Escherichia coli mutants lacking CydX exhibit phenotypes associated with reduced oxidase activity. In addition, cell membrane extracts from ?cydX mutant strains have reduced oxidase activity in vitro. Consistent with data showing that CydX is required for cytochrome bd oxidase activity, copurification experiments indicate that CydX interacts with the CydAB cytochrome bd oxidase complex. Together, these data support the hypothesis that CydX is a subunit of the CydAB cytochrome bd oxidase complex that is required for complex activity. The results of mutation analysis of CydX suggest that few individual amino acids in the small protein are essential for function, at least in the context of protein overexpression. In addition, the results of analysis of the paralogous small transmembrane protein AppX show that the two proteins could have some overlapping functionality in the cell and that both have the potential to interact with the CydAB complex.