2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated suppression of toll-like receptor stimulated B-lymphocyte activation and initiation of plasmacytic differentiation.
ABSTRACT: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent suppressor of humoral immunity, disrupting antibody production in response to both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antigens. Among the cell types required for humoral responses, the B cell is highly, and directly, sensitive to TCDD. B cells become antibody-secreting cells via plasmacytic differentiation, a process regulated by several transcription factors, including activator protein-1, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1). The overarching conceptual framework guiding experimentation is that TCDD disrupts plasmacytic differentiation by altering the expression or activity for upstream regulators of Blimp-1. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to investigate TCDD-induced alterations in both activation marker and transcription factor expression following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of purified B cells. TCDD significantly impaired LPS-activated expression of major histocompatibility complex class II, cluster of differentiation (CD)69, CD80, and CD86. Immunosuppressive concentrations of TCDD also suppressed LPS-activated Blimp-1 and phosphorylated c-Jun expression, whereas elevating BCL-6 expression. Because BCL-6 and c-Jun are directly and indirectly regulated by the kinases AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), it was hypothesized that TCDD alters toll-like receptor-activated kinase phosphorylation. TCDD at 0.03 and 0.3 nM significantly impaired phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, and JNK in CH12.LX B cells activated with LPS, CpG oligonucleotides, or resiquimod (R848). In primary B cells, R848-activated phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, and JNK was also impaired by TCDD at 30 nM. These results suggest that impairment of plasmacytic differentiation by TCDD involves altered transcription factor expression, in part, by suppressed kinase phosphorylation.
Project description:2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent suppressor of humoral immunity but the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for immunosuppression by TCDD are poorly understood. In vivo and in vitro studies of the primary humoral IgM response demonstrated that the B cell is a sensitive cell type to modulation by TCDD. We hypothesized that in vivo administration of TCDD disrupts expression of transcription factors controlling B cell to plasma cell differentiation. Female C57BL6 mice were treated with a single dose of TCDD (3, 10, or 30 microg/kg) and/or vehicle (sesame oil). On day 4 post-TCDD administration mice were sensitized with 25 microg lipopolysacchride (LPS) by intraperitioneal injection to stimulate an immune response. Splenocytes were isolated on subsequent days following LPS, up to 3 days post-LPS, and the expression of IgM, XBP-1, PAX5, BCL-6, and Blimp-1 was assessed. TCDD treatment dose-dependently suppressed LPS-induced IgM antibody-forming cell number, which was correlated with decreased frequency of CD19+ CD138+ cells. Gene expression analysis revealed that TCDD caused a dose-dependent suppression of Igmicro chain, Igkappa chain, IgJ chain, XBP-1, and Blimp-1. TCDD also dose-dependently suppressed LPS-stimulated increases in Blimp-1 protein expression in CD19+ B cells. The deregulation of Blimp-1 expression by TCDD provides a partial explanation for the concomitant suppression of the IgM response and confirms previous observations established in vitro.
Project description:B cell differentiation and humoral immune responses are markedly suppressed by the persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The suppression of humoral immune responses by TCDD occurs by direct actions on the B cell and involves activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Transcriptional regulation of paired box gene 5 (Pax5), an important regulator of B cell differentiation, is altered by TCDD in concordance with the suppression of B cell differentiation and humoral immunoglobulin M response. We hypothesized that TCDD treatment leads to dysregulation of Pax5 transcription by interfering with the basic B cell differentiation mechanisms and aimed to determine the effects of TCDD on upstream regulators of Pax5. A critical regulator of B cell differentiation, B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) acts as a transcriptional repressor of Pax5. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine B cell lymphoma, CH12.LX, Blimp-1 messenger RNA, and DNA-binding activity within the Pax5 promoter were suppressed by TCDD. Furthermore, LPS activation of CH12.LX cells upregulated DNA-binding activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) at three responsive element-like motifs within the Blimp-1 promoter. TCDD treatment of LPS-activated CH12.LX cells suppressed AP-1 binding to these motifs between 24 and 72 h, in concordance with the suppression of Blimp-1 by TCDD. A more comprehensive analysis at 72 h demonstrated that the suppression of AP-1 binding within the Blimp-1 promoter by TCDD was concentration dependent. In summary, our findings link the TCDD-mediated suppression of Blimp-1 through AP-1 to the dysregulation of Pax5, which ultimately leads to the suppression of B cell differentiation and humoral immune responses.
Project description:The mammalian response to stress is complex, often involving multiple signalling pathways that act in concert to influence cell fate. To examine potential interactions between the signalling cascades, we have focused on the effects of a model oxidant stress in a single cell type through an examination of the relative influences of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as well as two proposed apoptosis regulators, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and Bcl-2, in determining cell survival. Treatment of HeLa cells with H2O2 resulted in a time- and dose-dependent induction of apoptosis accompanied by sustained activation of all three MAPK subfamilies: extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) and p38. This H2O2-induced apoptosis was markedly enhanced when ERK2 activation was selectively inhibited by PD098059. Apoptosis decreased when JNK/SAPK activation was inhibited by expression of a dominant negative mutant form of SAPK/ERK kinase 1. Inhibition of the p38 kinase activity with p38-specific inhibitors SB202190 and SB203580 had no effect on cell survival. Because NF-kappaB activation by H2O2 is potentially related to both the ERK and JNK/SAPK signalling pathways, we examined the effects of inhibiting the activation of NF-kappaB; this interference had no effect on the cellular response to H2O2. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 significantly decreased the apoptosis seen after treatment with H2O2 without altering ERK or JNK/SAPK activities. Our results suggest that ERK and JNK/SAPK act in opposition to influence cell survival in response to oxidative stress, whereas neither p38 nor NF-kappaB affects the outcome. Bcl-2 acts independently and downstream of ERK and JNK/SAPK to enhance the survival of H2O2-treated cells.
Project description:High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been found to mediate autophagy during chemotherapy in several cancers. However, whether HMGB1plays a role in autophagy and chemoresistance in bladder cancer is elusive. In this report, HMGB1 expression was found to be increased in 30 primary bladder cancer tissue specimens compared to their matched adjacent non-tumor tissues. While gemcitabine induced apoptotic cell death, it also induced HMGB1 expression and autophagy in bladder cancer T24 and BIU-87 cells. Suppressing HMGB1 expression with siRNA strongly potentiated gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. HMGB1 siRNA or autophagy inhibitors suppressed gemcitabine-induced autophagy. Further, gemcitabine activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and Bcl-2 phosphorylation, and blocking ERK and JNK inhibited autophagy and increased apoptosis in gemcitabine-treated cells. Interestingly, suppressing HMGB1 expression attenuated gemcitabine-induced ERK and JNK activation and Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Thus, our results suggest that while gemcitabine kills bladder cancer cells through apoptosis, a cytoprotective autophagy is also induced involving HMGB1-mediated JNK and ERK to counteract the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine, and intervention targeting this pathway may improve the anticancer efficacy of gemcitabine against bladder cancer.
Project description:The differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells upon antigen stimulation, a crucial step in the humoral immune response, is disrupted by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Several key regulatory proteins in the B-cell transcriptional network have been identified, with two coupled mutually repressive feedback loops among the three transcription factors B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6), B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1(Blimp-1), and paired box 5 (Pax5) forming the core of the network. However, the precise mechanisms underlying B-cell differentiation and its disruption by TCDD are not fully understood. Here we show with a computational systems biology model that coupling of the two feedback loops at the Blimp-1 node, through parallel inhibition of Blimp-1 gene activation by Bcl-6 and repression of Blimp-1 gene deactivation by Pax5, can generate a bistable switch capable of directing B cells to differentiate into plasma cells. We also use bifurcation analysis to propose that TCDD may suppress the B-cell to plasma cell differentiation process by raising the threshold dose of antigens such as lipopolysaccharide required to trigger the bistable switch. Our model further predicts that high doses of TCDD may render the switch reversible, thus causing plasma cells to lose immune function and dedifferentiate to a B cell-like state. The immunotoxic implications of these predictions are twofold. First, TCDD and related compounds would disrupt the initiation of the humoral immune response by reducing the proportion of B cells that respond to antigen and differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Second, TCDD may also disrupt the maintenance of the immune response by depleting the pool of available plasma cells through dedifferentiation.
Project description:Trovafloxacin (TVX) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic known to cause idiosyncratic, drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) in humans. The mechanism underlying this toxicity remains unknown. Previously, an animal model of IDILI in mice revealed that TVX synergizes with inflammatory stress from bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to produce a hepatotoxic interaction. The liver injury required prolongation of the appearance of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) in the plasma. The results presented here describe a model of TVX/LPS coexposure in RAW 264.7 cells acting as a surrogate for TNF-releasing cells in vivo. Pretreating cells with TVX for 2 hours before LPS addition led to increased TNF protein release into culture medium in a concentration- and time-dependent manner relative to cells treated with LPS or TVX alone. During the pretreatment period, TVX increased TNF mRNA, but this was less apparent when cells were exposed to TVX after LPS addition, suggesting that the pivotal signaling events that increase TNF expression occurred during the TVX pretreatment period. Indeed, TVX exposure increased activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Inhibition of either ERK or JNK decreased the TVX-mediated increase in TNF mRNA and LPS-induced TNF protein release, but p38 inhibition did not. These results demonstrated that the increased TNF appearance from TVX-LPS interaction in vivo can be reproduced in vitro and occurs in an ERK- and JNK-dependent manner.
Project description:Suppression of the primary antibody response is particularly sensitive to suppression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice; however, surprisingly little is known concerning the effects of TCDD on humoral immunity or B cell function in humans. Results from a limited number of previous studies, primarily employing in vitro activation models, suggested that human B cell effector function is suppressed by TCDD. The present study sought to extend these findings by investigating, in primary human B cells, the effects of TCDD on several critical stages leading to antibody secretion including activation and plasmacytic differentiation using an in vitro CD40 ligand activation model. These studies revealed important differences in the response of human and mouse B cells to TCDD, the most striking being altered expression of plasmacytic differentiation regulators, B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 and paired box protein 5, in mouse but not human B cells. The activation of human B cells was profoundly impaired by TCDD, as evidenced by decreased expression of activation markers CD80, CD86, and CD69. The impaired activation correlated with decreased cell viability, which prevented the progression of human B cells toward plasmacytic differentiation. TCDD treatment also attenuated the early activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Akt signaling in human B cells. Collectively, the present study provided experimental evidence for novel mechanisms by which TCDD impairs the effector function of primary human B cells.
Project description:Constitutive activation of MEK-ERK signaling is often found in melanomas. Here, we identify a mechanism that links ERK with JNK signaling in human melanoma. Constitutively active ERK increases c-Jun transcription and stability, which are mediated by CREB and GSK3, respectively. Subsequently, c-Jun increases transcription of target genes, including RACK1, an adaptor protein that enables PKC to phosphorylate and enhance JNK activity, enforcing a feed-forward mechanism of the JNK-Jun pathway. Activated c-Jun is also responsible for elevated cyclin D1 expression, which is frequently overexpressed in human melanoma. Our data reveal that, in human melanoma, the rewired ERK signaling pathway upregulates JNK and activates the c-Jun oncogene and its downstream targets, including RACK1 and cyclin D1.
Project description:Apoptosis has been shown to be induced by many agents, including the clinically useful Sorafenib and K vitamins (VKs). Since few agents have activity against pancreas cancer cell growth, we evaluated the role of naturally occurring K vitamins and Sorafenib both independently and together on the growth in culture of pancreas adenocarcinoma cell lines, including PL-5, PANC-1, and MIA PaCa-2. We found that when a K vitamin was combined with Sorafenib, the dose of Sorafenib required for growth inhibition was substantially reduced. Furthermore, growth could be inhibited at doses of each VK plus Sorafenib in combination that were ineffective when used alone. This effect was seen using vitamins K1, K2, and K5. The combination of VK1 plus Sorafenib-induced apoptosis, as determined by both FACS and TUNEL staining. Phospho-ERK and Bcl-2 levels were decreased, but not levels of other bcl-2 family members. Cleavage of caspases 3 and 8, PARP and Bid were all induced by this combination. Vitamin K1 plus Sorafenib combination also resulted in elevated levels of activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its substrates c-Jun and FasL. JNK inhibition partly antagonized the induction of apoptosis. Thus, combination VK1 plus Sorafenib strongly induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in pancreas cancer cells, involving both inhibition of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway as well as activation of the JNK, c-Jun and FasL apoptotic pathway. Since both agents are available for human use, the combination is attractive for evaluation against pancreas cancer growth in vivo.
Project description:Upon antigen encounter, naïve B lymphocytes differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells. This humoral immune response is suppressed by the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other dioxin-like compounds, which belong to the family of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists.To achieve a better understanding of the immunotoxicity of AhR agonists and their associated health risks, we have used computer simulations to study the behavior of the gene regulatory network underlying B cell terminal differentiation. The core of this network consists of two coupled double-negative feedback loops involving transcriptional repressors Bcl-6, Blimp-1, and Pax5. Bifurcation analysis indicates that the feedback network can constitute a bistable system with two mutually exclusive transcriptional profiles corresponding to naïve B cells and plasma cells. Although individual B cells switch to the plasma cell state in an all-or-none fashion when stimulated by the polyclonal activator lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stochastic fluctuations in gene expression make the switching event probabilistic, leading to heterogeneous differentiation response among individual B cells. Moreover, stochastic gene expression renders the dose-response behavior of a population of B cells substantially graded, a result that is consistent with experimental observations. The steepness of the dose response curve for the number of plasma cells formed vs. LPS dose, as evaluated by the apparent Hill coefficient, is found to be inversely correlated to the noise level in Blimp-1 gene expression. Simulations illustrate how, through AhR-mediated repression of the AP-1 protein, TCDD reduces the probability of LPS-stimulated B cell differentiation. Interestingly, stochastic simulations predict that TCDD may destabilize the plasma cell state, possibly leading to a reversal to the B cell phenotype.Our results suggest that stochasticity in gene expression, which renders a graded response at the cell population level, may have been exploited by the immune system to launch humoral immune response of a magnitude appropriately tuned to the antigen dose. In addition to suppressing the initiation of the humoral immune response, dioxin-like compounds may also disrupt the maintenance of the acquired immunity.