Pro-inflammatory CD11c+CD206+ adipose tissue macrophages are associated with insulin resistance in human obesity.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome have been causally linked to adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in mice with diet-induced obesity. We aimed to characterize macrophage phenotype and function in human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in relation to insulin resistance in obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adipose tissue was obtained from lean and obese women undergoing bariatric surgery. Metabolic markers were measured in fasting serum and ATMs characterized by immunohistology, flow cytometry, and tissue culture studies. RESULTS ATMs comprised CD11c(+)CD206(+) cells in "crown" aggregates and solitary CD11c(-)CD206(+) cells at adipocyte junctions. In obese women, CD11c(+) ATM density was greater in subcutaneous than omental adipose tissue and correlated with markers of insulin resistance. CD11c(+) ATMs were distinguished by high expression of integrins and antigen presentation molecules; interleukin (IL)-1beta, -6, -8, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-alpha; and CC chemokine ligand-3, indicative of an activated, proinflammatory state. In addition, CD11c(+) ATMs were enriched for mitochondria and for RNA transcripts encoding mitochondrial, proteasomal, and lysosomal proteins, fatty acid metabolism enzymes, and T-cell chemoattractants, whereas CD11c(-) ATMs were enriched for transcripts involved in tissue maintenance and repair. Tissue culture medium conditioned by CD11c(+) ATMs, but not CD11c(-) ATMs or other stromovascular cells, impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by human adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings identify proinflammatory CD11c(+) ATMs as markers of insulin resistance in human obesity. In addition, the machinery of CD11c(+) ATMs indicates they metabolize lipid and may initiate adaptive immune responses.
Project description:Obesity-related changes in adipose tissue leukocytes, in particular adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and dendritic cells (ATDCs), are implicated in metabolic inflammation, insulin resistance, and altered regulation of adipocyte function. We evaluated stromal cell and white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion dynamics with high fat diet (HFD) feeding for 3-56 days, quantifying ATMs, ATDCs, endothelial cells (ECs), and preadipocytes (PAs) in visceral epididymal WAT and subcutaneous inguinal WAT. To better understand mechanisms of the early response to obesity, we evaluated ATM proliferation and lipid accumulation. ATMs, ATDCs, and ECs increased with rapid WAT expansion, with ATMs derived primarily from a CCR2-independent resident population. WAT expansion stimulated proliferation in resident ATMs and ECs, but not CD11c+ ATMs or ATDCs. ATM proliferation was unperturbed in Csf2- and Rag1-deficient mice with WAT expansion. Additionally, ATM apoptosis decreased with WAT expansion, and proliferation and apoptosis reverted to baseline with weight loss. Adipocytes reached maximal hypertrophy at 28 days of HFD, coinciding with a plateau in resident ATM accumulation and the appearance of lipid-laden CD11c+ ATMs in visceral epididymal WAT. ATM increases were proportional to tissue expansion and adipocyte hypertrophy, supporting adipocyte-mediated regulation of resident ATMs. The appearance of lipid-laden CD11c+ ATMs at peak adipocyte size supports a role in responding to ectopic lipid accumulation within adipose tissue. In contrast, ATDCs increase independently of proliferation and may be derived from circulating precursors. These changes precede and establish the setting in which large-scale adipose tissue infiltration of CD11c+ ATMs, inflammation, and adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to insulin resistance.
Project description:Dynamic changes of adipose tissue leukocytes, including adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) and adipose tissue dendritic cells (ATDCs), contribute to obesity-induced inflammation and metabolic disease. However, clear discrimination between ATDC and ATM in adipose tissue has limited progress in the field of immunometabolism. In this study, we use CD64 to distinguish ATM and ATDC, and investigated the temporal and functional changes in these myeloid populations during obesity. Flow cytometry and immunostaining demonstrated that the definition of ATM as F4/80+CD11b+ cells overlaps with other leukocytes and that CD45+CD64+ is specific for ATM. The expression of core dendritic cell genes was enriched in CD11c+CD64- cells (ATDC), whereas core macrophage genes were enriched in CD45+CD64+ cells (ATM). CD11c+CD64- ATDCs expressed MHC class II and costimulatory receptors, and had similar capacity to stimulate CD4+ T cell proliferation as ATMs. ATDCs were predominantly CD11b+ conventional dendritic cells and made up the bulk of CD11c+ cells in adipose tissue with moderate high-fat diet exposure. Mixed chimeric experiments with Ccr2-/- mice demonstrated that high-fat diet-induced ATM accumulation from monocytes was dependent on CCR2, whereas ATDC accumulation was less CCR2 dependent. ATDC accumulation during obesity was attenuated in Ccr7-/- mice and was associated with decreased adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. CD45+CD64+ ATM and CD45+CD64-CD11c+ ATDCs were identified in human obese adipose tissue and ATDCs were increased in s.c. adipose tissue compared with omental adipose tissue. These results support a revised strategy for unambiguous delineation of ATM and ATDC, and suggest that ATDCs are independent contributors to adipose tissue inflammation during obesity.
Project description:Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) adapt their metabolic phenotype either to maintain lean tissue homeostasis or drive inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. However, the factors in the adipose tissue microenvironment that control ATM phenotypic polarization and bioenergetics remain unknown. We have recently shown that oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) uniquely regulate gene expression and cellular metabolism in Mox macrophages, but the presence of the Mox phenotype in adipose tissue has not been reported. Here we show, using extracellular flux analysis, that ATMs isolated from lean mice are metabolically inhibited. We identify a unique population of CX3CR1neg/F4/80low ATMs that resemble the Mox (Txnrd1+HO1+) phenotype to be the predominant ATM phenotype in lean adipose tissue. In contrast, ATMs isolated from obese mice had characteristics typical of the M1/M2 (CD11c+CD206+) phenotype with highly activated bioenergetics. Quantifying individual OxPL species in the stromal vascular fraction of murine adipose tissue, using targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, revealed that high fat diet-induced adipose tissue expansion led to a disproportional increase in full-length over truncated OxPL species. In vitro studies showed that macrophages respond to truncated OxPL species by suppressing bioenergetics and up-regulating antioxidant programs, mimicking the Mox phenotype of ATMs isolated from lean mice. Conversely, full-length OxPL species induce proinflammatory gene expression and an activated bioenergetic profile that mimics ATMs isolated from obese mice. Together, these data identify a redox-regulatory Mox macrophage phenotype to be predominant in lean adipose tissue and demonstrate that individual OxPL species that accumulate in adipose tissue instruct ATMs to adapt their phenotype and bioenergetic profile to either maintain redox homeostasis or to promote inflammation.
Project description:Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) accumulate in fat during obesity and resemble foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that common mechanisms underlie both inflammatory conditions. CX(3)CR1 and its ligand fractalkine/CX(3)CL1 contribute to macrophage recruitment and inflammation in atherosclerosis, but their role in obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CX(3)CR1 regulates ATM trafficking to epididymal fat and contributes to the development of adipose tissue inflammation during diet-induced obesity. Cx(3)cl1 and Cx(3)cr1 expression was induced specifically in epididymal fat from mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). CX(3)CR1 was detected on multiple myeloid cells within epididymal fat from obese mice. To test the requirement of CX(3)CR1 for ATM trafficking and obesity-induced inflammation, Cx(3)cr1(+/GFP) and Cx(3)cr1(GFP/GFP) mice were fed a HFD. Ly-6c(Low) monocytes were reduced in lean Cx(3)cr1(GFP/GFP) mice; however, HFD-induced monocytosis was comparable between strains. Total ATM content, the ratio of type 1 (CD11c(+)) to type 2 (CD206(+)) ATMs, expression of inflammatory markers, and T-cell content were similar in epididymal fat from obese Cx(3)cr1(+/GFP) and Cx(3)cr1(GFP/GFP) mice. Cx(3)cr1 deficiency did not prevent the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis. In summary, our data indicate that CX(3)CR1 is not required for the recruitment or retention of ATMs in epididymal adipose tissue of mice with HFD-induced obesity even though CX(3)CR1 promotes foam cell formation. This highlights an important point of divergence between the mechanisms regulating monocyte trafficking to fat with obesity and those that contribute to foam cell formation in atherogenesis.
Project description:An adaptive immune response triggered by obesity is characterized by the activation of adipose tissue CD4(+) T cells by unclear mechanisms. We have examined whether interactions between adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and CD4(+) T cells contribute to adipose tissue metainflammation. Intravital microscopy identifies dynamic antigen-dependent interactions between ATMs and T cells in visceral fat. Mice deficient in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) showed protection from diet-induced obesity. Deletion of MHC II expression in macrophages led to an adipose tissue-specific decrease in the effector/memory CD4(+) T cells, attenuation of CD11c(+) ATM accumulation, and improvement in glucose intolerance by increasing adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. Ablation experiments demonstrated that the maintenance of proliferating conventional T cells is dependent on signals from CD11c(+) ATMs in obese mice. These studies demonstrate the importance of MHCII-restricted signals from ATMs that regulate adipose tissue T cell maturation and metainflammation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Expansion of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and metabolic inflammation are consequences of obesity and associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Metabolically activated adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) undergo qualitative and quantitative changes that influence their inflammatory responses. How these cells contribute to insulin resistance (IR) in humans is not well understood. Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase (CH25H) converts cholesterol into 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25-HC), an oxysterol that modulates immune responses. Using human and murine models, we investigated the role of CH25H in metabolic inflammation. METHODS:We performed transcriptomic (RNASeq) analysis on the human whole AT biopsies and sorted ATMs from obese non-diabetic (NDM) and obese diabetic (DM) subjects to inquire if CH25H was increased in DM. We challenged mice lacking Ch25h with a high-fat diet (HFD) to characterize their metabolic and immunologic profiling. Ch25h KO mice and human adipose tissue biopsies from NDM and DM subjects were analyzed. LC-MS was conducted to measure 25-HC level in AT. In vitro analysis permitted us to investigate the effect of 25-HC on cytokine expression. RESULTS:In our RNASeq analysis of human visceral and subcutaneous biopsies, gene pathways related to inflammation were increased in obese DM vs. non-DM subjects that included CH25H. CH25H was enriched in the stromal vascular fraction of human adipose tissue and highly expressed in CD206+ human ATMs by flow cytometry analysis. We measured the levels of the oxysterols, 25-HC and 7?25diHC, in human visceral adipose tissue samples and showed a correlation between BMI and 25-HC. Using mouse models of diet-induced obesity (DIO), we found that HFD-induced Ch25h expression in eWAT and increased levels of 25-HC in AT. On HFD, Ch25h KO mice became obese but exhibited reduced plasma insulin levels, improved insulin action, and decreased ectopic lipid deposit. Improved insulin sensitivity in Ch25h KO mice was due to attenuation of CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in eWAT. Finally, by testing AT explants, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and SVF cells from Ch25h deficient mice, we observed that 25-HC is required for the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. 25-HC was also able to induce inflammatory genes in preadipocytes. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest a critical role for CH25H/25-HC in the progression of meta-inflammation and insulin resistance in obese humans and mouse models of obesity. In response to obesogenic stimuli, CH25H/25-HC could exert a pro-inflammatory role.
Project description:Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic disease. Results from mouse models utilizing a high-fat diet (HFD) have indicated that an increase in activated macrophages, including CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), contributes to insulin resistance. Obesity primes myeloid cell production from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and the downstream TIR domain-containing adapter protein-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)- and MyD88-mediated pathways regulate production of similar myeloid cells after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. However, the role of these pathways in HFD-induced myelopoiesis is unknown. We hypothesized that saturated fatty acids and HFD alter myelopoiesis by activating TLR4 pathways in HSCs, differentially producing pro-inflammatory CD11c+ myeloid cells that contribute to obesity-induced metabolic disease. Results from reciprocal bone marrow transplants (BMTs) with Tlr4-/- and WT mice indicated that TLR4 is required for HFD-induced myelopoiesis and production of CD11c+ ATMs. Experiments with homozygous knockouts of Irakm (encoding a suppressor of MyD88 inactivation) and Trif in competitive BMTs revealed that MyD88 is required for HFD expansion of granulocyte macrophage progenitors and that Trif is required for pregranulocyte macrophage progenitor expansion. A comparison of WT, Tlr4-/-, Myd88-/-, and Trif-/- mice on HFD demonstrated that TLR4 plays a role in the production of CD11c+ ATMs, and both Myd88-/- and Trif-/- mice produced fewer ATMs than WT mice. Moreover, HFD-induced TLR4 activation inhibited macrophage proliferation, leading to greater accumulation of recruited CD11c+ ATMs. Our results indicate that HFD potentiates TLR4 and both its MyD88- and TRIF-mediated downstream pathways within progenitors and adipose tissue and leads to macrophage polarization.
Project description:Age-related adiposity has been linked to chronic inflammatory diseases in late life. To date, the studies on adipose tissue leukocytes and aging have not taken into account the heterogeneity of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), nor have they examined how age impacts other leukocytes such as T cells in fat. Therefore, we have performed a detailed examination of ATM subtypes in young and old mice using state of the art techniques. Our results demonstrate qualitative changes in ATMs with aging that generate a decrease in resident type 2 (M2) ATMs. The profile of ATMs in old fat shifts toward a proinflammatory environment with increased numbers of CD206(-)CD11c(-) (double-negative) ATMs. The mechanism of this aging-induced shift in the phenotypic profile of ATMs was found to be related to a decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? expression in ATMs and alterations in chemokine/chemokine receptor expression profiles. Furthermore, we have revealed a profound and unexpected expansion of adipose tissue T cells in visceral fat with aging that includes a significant induction of regulatory T cells in fat. Our findings demonstrate a unique inflammatory cell signature in the physiologic context of aging adipose tissue that differs from those induced in setting of diet-induced obesity.
Project description:The association between central obesity and insulin resistance reflects the properties of visceral adipose tissue. Our aim was to gain further insight into this association by analysing the lipid composition of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in obese women with and without insulin resistance. Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue and serum were obtained from 29 obese nondiabetic women, 13 of whom were hyperinsulinemic. Histology, and lipid and gene profiling were performed. In omental adipose tissue of obese, insulin-resistant women, adipocyte hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration were accompanied by an increase in GM3 ganglioside and its synthesis enzyme ST3GAL5; in addition, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids were increased and their degradation enzyme, PEMT, decreased. ST3GAL5 was expressed predominantly in adipose stromovascular cells and PEMT in adipocytes. Insulin resistance was also associated with an increase in PE lipids in serum. Total RNA was isolated and up to 400 ng of total RNA per sample was labelled and hybridized to Illumina HumanHT-12_V4 expression BeadChip platform. Paired subcutaneous and omental samples from 6 women were analysed.
Project description:Obesity is closely associated with increased adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which contribute to systemic insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism by creating a pro-inflammatory environment. Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is involved in lipoprotein uptake and storage. However, whether lipid uptake via VLDLR in macrophages affects obesity-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance is not well understood. Here we show that elevated VLDLR expression in ATMs promotes adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance in obese mice. In macrophages, VLDL treatment upregulates intracellular levels of C16:0 ceramides in a VLDLR-dependent manner, which potentiates pro-inflammatory responses and promotes M1-like macrophage polarization. Adoptive transfer of VLDLR knockout bone marrow to wild-type mice relieves adipose tissue inflammation and improves insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice. These findings suggest that increased VLDL-VLDLR signaling in ATMs aggravates adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity.