Comparison of entropic contributions to binding in a "hydrophilic" versus "hydrophobic" ligand-protein interaction.
ABSTRACT: In the present study we characterize the thermodynamics of binding of histamine to recombinant histamine-binding protein (rRaHBP2), a member of the lipocalin family isolated from the brown-ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The binding pocket of this protein contains a number of charged residues, consistent with histamine binding, and is thus a typical example of a "hydrophilic" binder. In contrast, a second member of the lipocalin family, the recombinant major urinary protein (rMUP), binds small hydrophobic ligands, with a similar overall entropy of binding in comparison with rRaHBP2. Having extensively studied ligand binding thermodynamics for rMUP previously, the data we obtained in the present study for HBP enables a comparison of the driving forces for binding between these classically distinct binding processes in terms of entropic contributions from ligand, protein, and solvent. In the case of rRaHBP2, we find favorable entropic contributions to binding from desolvation of the ligand; however, the overall entropy of binding is unfavorable due to a dominant unfavorable contribution arising from the loss of ligand degrees of freedom, together with the sequestration of solvent water molecules into the binding pocket in the complex. This contrasts with binding in rMUP where desolvation of the protein binding pocket makes a minor contribution to the overall entropy of binding given that the pocket is substantially desolvated prior to binding.
Project description:Ligand functional groups can modulate the contributions of one another to the ligand-protein binding thermodynamics, producing either positive or negative cooperativity. Data presented for four thermolysin phosphonamidate inhibitors demonstrate that the differential binding free energy and enthalpy caused by replacement of a H with a Me group, which binds in the well-hydrated S2' pocket, are more favorable in presence of a ligand carboxylate. The differential entropy is however less favorable. Dissection of these differential thermodynamic parameters, X-ray crystallography, and density-functional theory calculations suggest that these cooperativities are caused by variations in the thermodynamics of the complex hydration shell changes accompanying the H?Me replacement. Specifically, the COO(-) reduces both the enthalpic penalty and the entropic advantage of displacing water molecules from the S2' pocket and causes a subsequent acquisition of a more enthalpically, less entropically, favorable water network. This study contributes to understanding the important role water plays in ligand-protein binding.
Project description:Conformational entropy is expected to contribute significantly to the thermodynamics of structural transitions in intrinsically disordered proteins or regions in response to protein/ligand binding, posttranslational modifications, and environmental changes. We calculated the backbone (dihedral) conformational entropy of oligoglycine (GlyN), a protein backbone mimic and model intrinsically disordered region, as a function of chain length (N=3, 4, 5, 10, and 15) from simulations using three different approaches. The backbone conformational entropy scales linearly with chain length with a slope consistent with the entropy of folding of well-structured proteins. The entropic contributions of second-order dihedral correlations are predominantly through intraresidue ?-? pairs, suggesting that oligoglycine may be thermodynamically modeled as a system of independent glycine residues. We find the backbone conformational entropy to be largely independent of global structural parameters, like the end-to-end distance and radius of gyration. We introduce a framework referred to herein as "ensemble confinement" to estimate the loss (gain) of conformational free energy and its entropic component when individual residues are constrained to (released from) particular regions of the ?-? map. Quantitatively, we show that our protein backbone model resists ordering/folding with a significant, unfavorable ensemble confinement free energy because of the loss of a substantial portion of the absolute backbone entropy. Proteins can couple this free-energy reservoir to distal binding events as a regulatory mechanism to promote or suppress binding.
Project description:The NMR structure of the 21 kDa lipocalin FluA, which was previously obtained by combinatorial design, elucidates a reshaped binding site specific for the dye fluorescein resulting from 21 side chain replacements with respect to the parental lipocalin, the naturally occurring bilin-binding protein (BBP). As expected, FluA exhibits the lipocalin fold of BBP, comprising eight antiparallel beta-strands forming a beta-barrel with an alpha-helix attached to its side. Comparison of the NMR structure of free FluA with the X-ray structures of BBP.biliverdin IX(gamma) and FluA.fluorescein complexes revealed significant conformational changes in the binding pocket, which is formed by four loops at the open end of the beta-barrel as well as adjoining beta-strand segments. An "induced fit" became apparent for the side chain conformations of Arg 88 and Phe 99, which contact the bound fluorescein in the complex and undergo concerted rearrangement upon ligand binding. Moreover, slower internal motional modes of the polypeptide backbone were identified by measuring transverse (15)N backbone spin relaxation times in the rotating frame for free FluA and also for the FluA.fluorescein complex. A reduction in the level of such motions was detected upon complex formation, indicating rigidification of the protein structure and loss of conformational entropy. This hypothesis was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry, showing that ligand binding is enthalpy-driven, thus overcompensating for the negative entropy associated with both ligand binding per se and rigidification of the protein. Our investigation of the solution structure and dynamics as well as thermodynamics of lipocalin-ligand interaction not only provides insight into the general mechanism of small molecule accommodation in the deep and narrow cavity of this abundant class of proteins but also supports the future design of corresponding binding proteins with novel specificities, so-called "anticalins".
Project description:The thermodynamic driving forces behind small molecule-protein binding are still not well-understood, including the variability of those forces associated with different types of ligands in different binding pockets. To better understand these phenomena we calculate spatially resolved thermodynamic contributions of the different molecular degrees of freedom for the binding of propane and methanol to multiple pockets on the proteins Factor Xa and p38 MAP kinase. Binding thermodynamics are computed using a statistical thermodynamics based end-point method applied on a canonical ensemble comprising the protein-ligand complexes and the corresponding free states in an explicit solvent environment. Energetic and entropic contributions of water and ligand degrees of freedom computed from the configurational ensemble provide an unprecedented level of detail into the mechanisms of binding. Direct protein-ligand interaction energies play a significant role in both nonpolar and polar binding, which is comparable to water reorganization energy. Loss of interactions with water upon binding strongly compensates these contributions leading to relatively small binding enthalpies. For both solutes, the entropy of water reorganization is found to favor binding in agreement with the classical view of the "hydrophobic effect". Depending on the specifics of the binding pocket, both energy-entropy compensation and reinforcement mechanisms are observed. It is notable to have the ability to visualize the spatial distribution of the thermodynamic contributions to binding at atomic resolution showing significant differences in the thermodynamic contributions of water to the binding of propane versus methanol.
Project description:We use explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations to estimate free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes along the cavity-ligand association coordinate for a set of seven model systems with varying physicochemical properties. Owing to the simplicity of the considered systems we can directly investigate the role of water thermodynamics in molecular recognition. A broad range of thermodynamic signatures is found in which water (rather than cavity or ligand) enthalpic or entropic contributions appear to drive cavity-ligand binding or rejection. The unprecedented, nanoscale picture of hydration thermodynamics can help the interpretation and design of protein-ligand binding experiments. Our study opens appealing perspectives to tackle the challenge of solvent entropy estimation in complex systems and for improving molecular simulation models.
Project description:The binding of proteins and ligands is generally associated with the loss of translational, rotational, and conformational entropy. In many cases, however, the net entropy change due to binding is positive. To develop a deeper understanding of the energetics of entropically driven protein-ligand binding, we calculated the absolute binding free energies and binding entropies for two HIV-1 protease inhibitors Nelfinavir and Amprenavir using the double-decoupling method with molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. For both ligands, the calculated absolute binding free energies are in general agreement with experiments. The statistical error in the computed ?G(bind) due to convergence problem is estimated to be ?2 kcal/mol. The decomposition of free energies indicates that, although the binding of Nelfinavir is driven by nonpolar interaction, Amprenavir binding benefits from both nonpolar and electrostatic interactions. The calculated absolute binding entropies show that (1) Nelfinavir binding is driven by large entropy change and (2) the entropy of Amprenavir binding is much less favorable compared with that of Nelfinavir. Both results are consistent with experiments. To obtain qualitative insights into the entropic effects, we decomposed the absolute binding entropy into different contributions based on the temperature dependence of free energies along different legs of the thermodynamic pathway. The results suggest that the favorable entropic contribution to binding is dominated by the ligand desolvation entropy. The entropy gain due to solvent release from binding site appears to be more than offset by the reduction of rotational and vibrational entropies upon binding.
Project description:The mouse major urinary protein (MUP) has proved to be an intriguing test bed for detailed studies on protein-ligand recognition. NMR, calorimetric, and modeling investigations have revealed that the thermodynamics of ligand binding involve a complex interplay between competing enthalpic and entropic terms. We performed six independent, 1.2 micros molecular-dynamics simulations on MUP--three replicates on the apo-protein, and three on the complex with the pheromone isobutylmethoxypyrazine. Our findings provide the most comprehensive picture to date of the structure and dynamics of MUP, and how they are modulated by ligand binding. The mechanical pathways by which amino acid side chains can transmit information regarding ligand binding to surface loops and either increase or decrease their flexibility (entropy-entropy compensation) are identified. Dewetting of the highly hydrophobic binding cavity is confirmed, and the results reveal an aspect of ligand binding that was not observed in earlier, shorter simulations: bound ligand retains extensive rotational freedom. Both of these features have significant implications for interpretations of the entropic component of binding. More generally, these simulations test the ability of current molecular simulation methods to produce a reliable and reproducible picture of protein dynamics on the microsecond timescale.
Project description:Hydrophobic association is often recognized as being driven by favorable entropic contributions. Here, using explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations we investigate binding in a model hydrophobic receptor-ligand system which appears, instead, to be driven by enthalpy and opposed by entropy. We use the temperature dependence of the potential of mean force to analyze the thermodynamic contributions along the association coordinate. Relating such contributions to the ongoing changes in system hydration allows us to demonstrate that the overall binding thermodynamics is determined by the expulsion of disorganized water from the receptor cavity. Our model study sheds light on the solvent-induced driving forces for receptor-ligand association of general, transferable relevance for biological systems with poorly hydrated binding sites.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ticks counteract host inflammatory responses by secreting proteins from their saliva that compete for histamine binding. Among these tick salivary proteins are lipocalins, antiparallel beta-barrel proteins that sequester small molecules. A tick salivary lipocalin has been structurally resolved and experimentally shown to efficiently compete for histamine with its native receptor (e.g., H1 histamine receptor). To date, molecular dynamics simulations focus on protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, but there are currently no studies for simultaneous ligand exploration between two competing proteins. METHODS:Aided by state-of-the-art, high-throughput computational methods, the current study simulated and analyzed the dynamics of competitive histamine binding at the tick-host interface using the available crystal structures of both the tick salivary lipocalin histamine-binding protein from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and the human histamine receptor 1. RESULTS:The attraction towards the tick salivary lipocalin seems to depend on the protonated (adding a hydrogen ion) state of histamine since the current study shows that as histamine becomes more protonated it increases its exploration for the tick salivary lipocalin. This implies that during tick feeding, histamine may need to be protonated for the tick salivary lipocalin to efficiently sequester it in order to counteract inflammation. Additionally, the beta-hairpin loops (at both ends of the tick salivary lipocalin barrel) were reported to have a functional role in sequestering histamine and the results in the current study concur and provide evidence for this hypothesis. These beta-hairpin loops of the tick salivary lipocalin possess more acidic residues than a structurally similar but functionally unrelated lipocalin from the butterfly, Pieris brassicae; comparative results indicate these acidic residues may be responsible for the ability of the tick lipocalin to out-compete the native (H1) receptor for histamine. CONCLUSIONS:Three explanatory types of data can be obtained from the current study: (i) the dynamics of multiple binding sites, (ii) competition between two proteins for a ligand, and (iii) the intrinsic molecular components involved in the competition. These data can provide further insight at the atomic level of the host-tick interface that cannot be experimentally determined. Additionally, the methods used in this study can be applied in rationally designing drugs.
Project description:We have made a comparative structure based analysis of the thermodynamics of lectin-carbohydrate (L-C) binding and protein folding. Examination of the total change in accessible surface area in those processes revealed a much larger decrease in free energy per unit of area buried in the case of L-C associations. According to our analysis, this larger stabilization of L-C interactions arises from a more favorable enthalpy of burying a unit of polar surface area, and from higher proportions of polar areas. Hydrogen bonds present at 14 L-C interfaces were identified, and their overall characteristics were compared to those reported before for hydrogen bonds in protein structures. Three major factors might explain why polar-polar interactions are stronger in L-C binding than in protein folding: (1) higher surface density of hydrogen bonds; (2) better hydrogen-bonding geometry; (3) larger proportion of hydrogen bonds involving charged groups. Theoretically, the binding entropy can be partitioned into three main contributions: entropy changes due to surface desolvation, entropy losses arising from freezing rotatable bonds, and entropic effects that result from restricting translation and overall rotation motions. These contributions were estimated from structural information and added up to give calculated binding entropies. Good correlation between experimental and calculated values was observed when solvation effects were treated according to a parametrization developed by other authors from protein folding studies. Finally, our structural parametrization gave calculated free energies that deviate from experimental values by 1.1 kcal/mol on the average; this amounts to an uncertainty of one order of magnitude in the binding constant.