Dependency on de novo protein synthesis and proteomic changes during metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Metamorphosis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina (Linne) includes an initial phase of rapid morphological rearrangement followed by a gradual phase of morphogenesis. We hypothesized that the first phase may be independent of de novo synthesis of proteins and, instead, involves post-translational modifications of existing proteins, providing a simple mechanism to quickly initiate metamorphosis. To test our hypothesis, we challenged B. neritina larvae with transcription and translation inhibitors. Furthermore, we employed 2D gel electrophoresis to characterize changes in the phosphoproteome and proteome during early metamorphosis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and their gene expression patterns were profiled using semi-quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS:When larvae were incubated with transcription and translation inhibitors, metamorphosis initiated through the first phase but did not complete. We found a significant down-regulation of 60 protein spots and the percentage of phosphoprotein spots decreased from 15% in the larval stage to12% during early metamorphosis. Two proteins--the mitochondrial processing peptidase beta subunit and severin--were abundantly expressed and phosphorylated in the larval stage, but down-regulated during metamorphosis. MPPbeta and severin were also down-regulated on the gene expression level. CONCLUSIONS:The initial morphogenetic changes that led to attachment of B. neritina did not depend on de novo protein synthesis, but the subsequent gradual morphogenesis did. This is the first time that the mitochondrial processing peptidase beta subunit or severin have been shown to be down-regulated on both gene and protein expression levels during the metamorphosis of B. neritina. Future studies employing immunohistochemistry to reveal the expression locality of these two proteins during metamorphosis should provide further evidence of the involvement of these two proteins in the morphogenetic rearrangement of B. neritina.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The metamorphosis of the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa includes spontaneous settlement onto soft-bottom habitats and morphogenesis that can be completed in a very short time. A previous study on the total changes to the proteome during the various developmental stages of P. vexillosa suggested that little or no de novo protein synthesis occurs during metamorphosis. In this study, we used multicolor fluorescence detection of proteins in 2-D gels for differential analysis of proteins and phosphoproteins to reveal the dynamics of post-translational modification proteins in this species. A combination of affinity chromatography, 2D-PAGE, and mass spectrometry was used to identify the phosphoproteins in pre-competent larvae, competent larvae, and newly metamorphosed juveniles. RESULTS:We reproducibly detected 210, 492, and 172 phosphoproteins in pre-competent larvae, competent larvae, and newly metamorphosed juveniles, respectively. The highest percentage of phosphorylation was observed during the competent larval stage. About 64 stage-specific phosphoprotein spots were detected in the competent stage, and 32 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly differentially expressed in the three stages. We identified 38 phosphoproteins, 10 of which were differentially expressed during metamorphosis. These phosphoproteins belonged to six categories of biological processes: (1) development, (2) cell differentiation and integrity, (3) transcription and translation, (4) metabolism, (5) protein-protein interaction and proteolysis, and (6) receptors and enzymes. CONCLUSION:This is the first study to report changes in phosphoprotein expression patterns during the metamorphosis of the marine polychaete P. vexillosa. The higher degree of phosphorylation during the process of attaining competence to settle and metamorphose may be due to fast morphological transitions regulated by various mechanisms. Our data are consistent with previous studies showing a high percentage of phosphorylation during competency in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. The identified phosphoproteins may play an important role during metamorphosis, and further studies on the location and functions of important proteins during metamorphosis are warranted.
Project description:In this study, we analyzed the metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. We observed the morphogenesis of the ancestrula. We defined three distinct pre-ancestrula stages based on the anatomy of the developing polypide and the overall morphology of pre-ancestrula. We then used an annotation based enrichment analysis tool to analyze the B. neritina transcriptome and identified over-representation of genes related to Wnt signaling pathways, suggesting its involvement in metamorphosis. Finally, we studied the temporal-spatial gene expression studies of several Wnt pathway genes. We found that one of the Wnt ligand, BnWnt10, was expressed spatially opposite to the Wnt antagonist BnsFRP within the blastemas, which is the presumptive polypide. Down-stream components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway were exclusively expressed in the blastemas. Bn?catenin and BnFz5/8 were exclusively expressed in the blastemas throughout the metamorphosis. Based on the genes expression patterns, we propose that BnWnt10 and BnsFRP may relate to the patterning of the polypide, in which the two genes served as positional signals and contributed to the polarization of the blastemas. Another Wnt ligand, BnWnt6, was expressed in the apical part of the pre-ancestrula epidermis. Overall, our findings suggest that the Wnt signaling pathway may be important to the pattern formation of polypide and the development of epidermis.
Project description:The bryozoan Bugula neritina has a biphasic life cycle that consists of a planktonic larval stage and a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transition between these two stages is crucial for the development and recruitment of B. neritina. Metamorphosis in B. neritina is mediated by both the nervous system and the release of developmental signals. However, no research has been conducted to investigate the expression of neuropeptides (NP)/peptide hormones in B. neritina larvae. Here, we report a comprehensive study of the NP/peptide hormones in the marine bryozoan B. neritina based on in silico identification methods. We recovered 22 transcripts encompassing 11 NP/peptide hormone precursor transcript sequences. The transcript sequences of the 11 isolated NP precursors were validated by cDNA cloning using gene-specific primers. We also examined the expression of three peptide hormone precursor transcripts (BnFDSIG, BnILP1, BnGPB) in the coronate larvae of B. neritina, demonstrating their distinct expression patterns in the larvae. Overall, our findings serve as an important foundation for subsequent investigations of the peptidergic control of bryozoan larval behavior and settlement.
Project description:The morphogenetic transition of motile coral larvae into sessile primary polyps is triggered and genetically programmed upon exposure to environmental biomaterials, such as crustose coralline algae (CCA) and bacterial biofilms. Although the specific chemical cues that trigger coral larval morphogenesis are poorly understood there is much more information available on the genes that play a role in this early life phase. Putative chemical cues from natural biomaterials yielded defined chemical samples that triggered different morphogenetic outcomes: an extract derived from a CCA-associated Pseudoalteromonas bacterium that induced metamorphosis, characterized by non-attached metamorphosed juveniles; and two fractions of the CCA Hydrolithon onkodes (Heydrich) that induced settlement, characterized by attached metamorphosed juveniles. In an effort to distinguish the genes involved in these two morphogenetic transitions, competent larvae of the coral Acropora millepora were exposed to these predictable cues and the expression profiles of 47 coral genes of interest (GOI) were investigated after only 1 hour of exposure using multiplex RT-qPCR. Thirty-two GOI were differentially expressed, indicating a putative role during the early regulation of morphogenesis. The most striking differences were observed for immunity-related genes, hypothesized to be involved in cell recognition and adhesion, and for fluorescent protein genes. Principal component analysis of gene expression profiles resulted in separation between the different morphogenetic cues and exposure times, and not only identified those genes involved in the early response but also those which influenced downstream biological changes leading to larval metamorphosis or settlement.
Project description:The transcription factor Broad-Complex (BR-C) is required for differentiation of adult structures as well as for the programmed death of obsolete larval organs during metamorphosis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Whether BR-C has a similar role in other holometabolous insects could not be proven without a loss-of-function genetic test, performed in a non-drosophilid species. Here we use a recombinant Sindbis virus as a tool to silence BR-C expression in the silkmoth Bombyx mori. The virus expressing a BR-C antisense RNA fragment reduced endogenous BR-C mRNA levels in infected tissues (adult wing and leg primordia) via RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi knock-down of BR-C resulted in the failure of animals to complete the larval-pupal transition or in later morphogenetic defects, including differentiation of adult compound eyes, legs, and wings from their larval progenitors. BR-C RNAi also perturbed the programmed cell death of larval silk glands. These developmental defects correspond to loss-of-function phenotypes of BR-C Drosophila mutants in both the morphogenetic and degenerative aspects, suggesting that the critical role of BR-C in metamorphosis is evolutionarily conserved. We also demonstrate that the Sindbis virus is a useful vehicle for silencing of developmental genes in new insect models.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Metamorphosis is an important process in the life cycle of holometabolous insects and is regulated by insect hormones. During metamorphosis, the epidermis goes through a significant transformation at the biochemical and molecular levels.<h4>Results</h4>To identify proteins and phosphoproteins involved in this process, we separated and compared epidermal protein profiles between feeding larvae and metamorphically committed larvae using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Pro-Q Diamond Phosphoprotein Staining. Sixty-one spots showing differential expression and/or phosphorylation were analyzed by mass spectrometry and eighteen proteins were proved related to larval-pupal transformation. Eight of them were further examined at the mRNA level by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and two of them were examined at the protein level by Western blot. Calponin was highly expressed in the metamorphic epidermis and phosphorylated by protein kinase C.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results suggest that the expression and phosphorylation of these proteins may play important roles in coordinating the biochemical processes involved in larval-pupal metamorphosis.
Project description:At metamorphosis the Xenopus laevis tadpole exocrine pancreas remodels in two stages. At the climax of metamorphosis thyroid hormone (TH) induces dedifferentiation of the entire exocrine pancreas to a progenitor state. The organ shrinks to 20% of its size, and approximately 40% of its cells die. The acinar cells lose their zymogen granules and approximately 75% of their RNA. The mRNAs that encode exocrine-specific proteins (including the transcription factor Ptf1a) undergo almost complete extinction at climax, whereas PDX-1, Notch-1, and Hes-1, genes implicated in differentiation of the progenitor cells, are activated. At the end of spontaneous metamorphosis when the endogenous TH has reached a low level, the pancreas begins to redifferentiate. Exogenous TH induces the dedifferentiation phase but not the redifferentation phase. The tadpole pancreas lacks the mature ductal system that is found in adult vertebrate pancreases, including the frog. Exocrine pancreases of transgenic tadpoles expressing a dominant negative form of the TH receptor controlled by the elastase promoter are resistant to TH. They do not shrink when subjected to TH. Their acinar cells do not dedifferentiate at climax, nor do they down-regulate exocrine-specific genes or activate Notch-1 and Hes-1. Even 2 months after metamorphosis these frogs have not developed a mature ductal system and the acinar cells are abnormally arranged. The TH-dependent dedifferentiation of the tadpole acinar cells at climax is a necessary step in the formation of a mature frog pancreas.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The silkworm Bombyx mori is a lepidopteran insect with four developmental stages: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa, and adult. The hemolymph of the silkworm is in an open system that circulates among all organs, and functions in nutrient and hormone transport, injury, and immunity. To understand the intricate developmental mechanisms of metamorphosis, silkworm hemolymph from different developmental stages, including the 3rd day of fifth instar, the 6th day of fifth instar, the 3rd day of pupation, the 8th day of pupal stage and the first day of the moth stage, was investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.<h4>Results</h4>Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that from the larval to moth stages, silkworm hemolymph proteins changed markedly. Not only did major proteins such as SP1, SP2, and the 30 K lipoprotein change, but other proteins varied greatly at different stages. To understand the functions of these proteins in silkworm development, 56 spots were excised from gels for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We identified 34 proteins involved in metamorphosis, programmed cell death, food digestion, metabolism, and nutrient storage and transport. Most proteins showed different expression at different stages, suggesting functions in development and metamorphosis. An abundance of proteins related to immunity were found, including hemolin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, paralytic peptide-binding protein, and protease inhibitor.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Proteomics research not only provides the opportunity for direct investigation of protein expression patterns, but also identifies many attractive candidates for further study. Two-dimensional maps of hemolymph proteins expressed during the growth and metamorphosis of the silkworm offer important insights into hemolymph function and insect metamorphosis.
Project description:In arthropods, the cleavage of specific proteins by peptidases has pivotal roles in multiple physiological processes including oogenesis, immunity, nutrition, and parasitic infection. These enzymes are also key players in the larval development, and well-described triggers of molting and metamorphosis. In this work the peptidase complement throughout the larvae development of Penaeus vannamei was quantified at the transcript and activity level using qPCR and fluorogenic substrates designed to be hydrolyzed by class-specific peptidases respectively, providing a detailed identification of the proteolytic repertoire in P. vannamei larvae. Significant changes in the peptidase activity profile were observed. During the lecithotrophic naupliar instars, the dominant peptidase activity and expression derive from cysteine peptidases, suggesting that enzymes of this class hydrolyze the protein components of yolk as the primary amino acid source. At the first feeding instar, zoea, dominant serine peptidase activity was found where trypsin activity is particularly high, supporting previous observations that during zoea the breakdown of food protein is primarily enzymatic. At decapodid stages the peptidase expression and activity is more diverse indicating that a multienzyme network achieves food digestion. Our results suggest that proteolytic enzymes fulfill specific functions during P. vannamei larval development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Fujian oyster Crassostrea angulata is an economically important species that has typical settlement and metamorphosis stages. The development of the oyster involves complex morphological and physiological changes, the molecular mechanisms of which are as yet unclear. RESULTS:In this study, changes in proteins were investigated during larval settlement and metamorphosis of Crassostrea angulata using epinephrine induction. Protein abundance and identity were characterized using label-free quantitative proteomics, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/ MS), and Mascot methods. The results showed that more than 50% (764 out of 1471) of the quantified proteins were characterized as differentially expressed. Notably, more than two-thirds of the differentially expressed proteins were down-regulated in epinephrine-induced larvae. The results showed that "metabolic process" was closely related to the development of settlement and metamorphosis; 5?×?10-?4?M epinephrine induced direct metamorphosis of larvae and was non-toxic. Calmodulin and MAPK pathways were involved in the regulation of settlement of the oyster. Expression levels of immune-related proteins increased during metamorphosis. Hepatic lectin-like proteins, cadherins, calmodulin, calreticulin, and cytoskeletal proteins were involved in metamorphosis. The nervous system may be remodeled in larval metamorphosis induced by epinephrine. Expression levels of proteins that were enriched in the epinephrine signaling pathway may reflect the developmental stage of the larvae, that may reflect whether or not larvae were directly involved in metamorphosis when the larvae were treated with epinephrine. CONCLUSION:The study provides insight into proteins that function in energy metabolism, immune responses, settlement and metamorphosis, and shell formation in C. angulata. The results contribute valuable information for further research on larval settlement and metamorphosis.