Mild sensory stimulation completely protects the adult rodent cortex from ischemic stroke.
ABSTRACT: Despite progress in reducing ischemic stroke damage, complete protection remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that, after permanent occlusion of a major cortical artery (middle cerebral artery; MCA), single whisker stimulation can induce complete protection of the adult rat cortex, but only if administered within a critical time window. Animals that receive early treatment are histologically and behaviorally equivalent to healthy controls and have normal neuronal function. Protection of the cortex clearly requires reperfusion to the ischemic area despite permanent occlusion. Using blood flow imaging and other techniques we found evidence of reversed blood flow into MCA branches from an alternate arterial source via collateral vessels (inter-arterial connections), a potential mechanism for reperfusion. These findings suggest that the cortex is capable of extensive blood flow reorganization and more importantly that mild sensory stimulation can provide complete protection from impending stroke given early intervention. Such non-invasive, non-pharmacological intervention has clear translational potential.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Animal models are essential to study the pathophysiological changes associated with focal occlusive stroke and to investigate novel therapies. Currently used rodent models have yielded little clinical success, however large animal models may provide a more suitable alternative to improve clinical translation. We sought to develop a model of acute proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke in sheep, including both permanent occlusion and transient occlusion with reperfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 adult male and female Merino sheep were randomly allocated to one of three groups (n?=?6/gp): 1) sham surgery; 2) permanent proximal MCA occlusion (MCAO); or 3) temporary MCAO with aneurysm clip. All animals had invasive arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygen monitoring. At 4 h following vessel occlusion or sham surgery animals were killed by perfusion fixation. Brains were processed for histopathological examination and infarct area determination. 6 further animals were randomized to either permanent (n?=?3) or temporary MCAO (n?=?3) and then had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 4 h after MCAO. RESULTS: Evidence of ischemic injury in an MCA distribution was seen in all stroke animals. The ischemic lesion area was significantly larger after permanent (28.8%) compared with temporary MCAO (14.6%). Sham animals demonstrated no evidence of ischemic injury. There was a significant reduction in brain tissue oxygen partial pressure after permanent vessel occlusion between 30 and 210 mins after MCAO. MRI at 4 h demonstrated complete proximal MCA occlusion in the permanent MCAO animals with a diffusion deficit involving the whole right MCA territory, whereas temporary MCAO animals demonstrated MRA evidence of flow within the right MCA and smaller predominantly cortical diffusion deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal MCAO can be achieved in an ovine model of stroke via a surgical approach. Permanent occlusion creates larger infarct volumes, however aneurysm clip application allows for reperfusion.
Project description:Ischemic perinatal stroke (IPS) is common, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity. In such cases, the incidence of unilateral arterial cerebral infarction is often occluded in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), leading to focal ischemia. In adult rodents, blockage of MCA is the most frequently used strategy for ischemic stroke study. However, modeling MCA occlusion (MCAo) in postnatal day 0-7 (P0-7) mouse pups for IPS study has not been accomplished. Here we occluded the dMCA by inducing the accumulation of magnetic particles (MPs) administered through the superficial temporal vein of mice between P0 and P7, which we called neonatal or perinatal SIMPLE (Stroke Induced with Magnetic Particles). SIMPLE produced either permanent or transient occlusion in the dMCA of perinatal and neonatal mice. Permanent MCA occlusion with SIMPLE resulted in cerebral infarction and neuronal death in the brain. SIMPLE can also be used to reliably produce focal ischemic stroke in neonatal or perinatal mouse brains. As a result, SIMPLE allows the modeling of IPS or focal ischemic stroke for further mechanistic studies in mice, with particular utility for mimicking transient focal ischemia in human pre-term babies, which for the first time here has been accomplished in mice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous experimental studies have shown that downstream microvascular thromboinflammation is involved in brain damage from acute ischemic stroke. Using intravital microscopy, we investigated and characterized the sequence of downstream microvascular thromboinflammation in an ischemia/reperfusion acute ischemic stroke model. METHODS AND RESULTS:Rats underwent transient monofilament middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Cerebral microcirculation in the MCA territory was exposed through a craniotomy and analyzed using real-time intravital imaging coupled with laser Doppler interferometry. Leukocytes, platelets, fibrinogen, and blood-brain barrier permeability were analyzed by intravenous injection of fluorescent antibodies and bovine serum albumin. MCA occlusion induced a sudden and profound drop in downstream microvascular blood flow associated with leukocyte margination in the venous compartment. Leukocyte margination fostered fibrinogen deposition and thrombosis in postcapillary venules. Either in venules or arterioles, blood flow was not fully restored after MCA recanalization. Furthermore, venular thrombi persisted despite MCA recanalization, and leukocyte extravasation continued to develop in venules in association with blood-brain barrier disruption. Finally, microhemorrhages were occasionally observed, colocalizing with thrombosed venules characterized by marked leukocyte margination. CONCLUSIONS:We showed that microvascular thrombosis in transient monofilament MCA occlusion and blood-brain barrier disruption are initiated immediately after occlusion and are propagated through the venous compartment in close association with marginating leukocytes. MCA occlusion-induced downstream microvascular thromboinflammation response was responsible for incomplete reperfusion after MCA recanalization and delayed microhemorrhages.
Project description:Oxidative and nitrosative stress are targets for intervention after ischemia/reperfusion. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of CR-6, a vitamin-E analogue that is antioxidant and scavenger of nitrogen-reactive species. Sprague-Dawley rats had the middle cerebral artery (MCA) occluded either for 90 mins or permanently. Cortical perfusion was continuously monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry. CR-6 (100 mg/kg) was administered orally either at 2 and 8 h after MCA occlusion, or at 2 h only. Infarct volume, neurological deficit, and signs of reperfusion injury were evaluated. CR-6 was detected in plasma and brain by HPLC. CR-6 reduced glutathione consumption in the ischemic brain and superoxide generation in the isolated MCA. CR-6 decreased infarct volume and attenuated the neurological deficit at 1 and 7 days after ischemia/reperfusion, but not after permanent ischemia. Immediately after reperfusion, cortical blood flow values returned to their baseline (+/-20%) in several animals, whereas others showed hyper-perfusion (>20% of baseline). Reactive hyperemia was associated with adverse events such as increased cortical BBB leakage, edema, protein nitrotyrosination, COX-2 expression, and neutrophil accumulation; and with a poorer outcome, and CR-6 attenuated these effects. In conclusion, oral CR-6 administration after transient ischemia protects the brain from reperfusion injury.
Project description:Interventional treatment regimens have increased the demand for accurate understanding of the progression of injury in acute ischemic stroke. However, conventional animal models severely inhibit collateral blood flow and mimic the malignant infarction profile not suitable for treatment. The aim of this study was to provide a clinically relevant profile of the emergence and course of ischemic injury in cases suitable for acute intervention, and was achieved by employing a M2 occlusion model (M2CAO) that more accurately simulates middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in humans. Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to Short (90 min), Intermediate (180 min) or Extended (600 min) transient M2CAO and examined longitudinally with interleaved diffusion-, T2- and arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before and after reperfusion. We identified a rapid emergence of cytotoxic edema within tissue regions undergoing infarction, progressing in several distinct phases in the form of subsequent moderation and then reversal at 230 min (p < 0.0001). We identified also the early emergence of vasogenic edema, which increased consistently before and after reperfusion (p < 0.0001). The perfusion of the penumbra correlated more strongly to the perfusion of adjacent tissue regions than did the perfusion of regions undergoing infarction (p = 0.0088). This was interpreted as an effect of preserved collateral blood flow during M2CAO. Accordingly, we observed only limited recruitment of penumbra regions to the infarction core. However, a gradual increase in infarction size was still occurring as late as 10 hours after M2CAO. Our results indicate that patients suffering MCA branch occlusion stand to benefit from interventional therapy for an extended time period after the emergence of ischemic injury.
Project description:We explored the relationship between the site of vascular occlusion and the response to endovascular treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke and also considered the impact of mismatch profile.DEFUSE-2 was a prospective cohort study of patients treated with endovascular therapy. Patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) involvement were included in this substudy. Mismatch and reperfusion status was assessed on MRI. Favorable clinical response was defined as an improvement of at least 8 points on the NIH Stroke Scale.Reperfusion rates were comparable in both groups (61% for ICA and 59% for MCA). In the setting of reperfusion, percentages of favorable clinical response were similar between patients with stroke due to ICA (65%) and MCA (63%) occlusions. When reperfusion was not achieved, favorable outcomes were less frequent with obstructions of the ICA (9%) than the MCA (52%). Among target mismatch patients, the adjusted odds ratio for favorable clinical response associated with reperfusion was 39.7 (95% confidence interval 1.4-1,132.8) for ICA occlusions vs 5.1 (95% confidence interval 1.4-19.3) for MCA occlusions.Endovascular reperfusion is associated with favorable clinical response regardless of the location of the arterial occlusion. This association is strongest for target mismatch patients with ICA occlusions. Target mismatch patients with either ICA or MCA occlusions appear to be good candidates for endovascular reperfusion therapy.
Project description:Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) by an intraluminal filament is widely used to study focal brain ischemia in male Sprague-Dawley rats. However, permanent occlusion goes along with a high fatality. To overcome this drawback we designed a new filament carrying a bowling pin-shaped tip (BP-tip) and compared this with three conventionally tipped filaments. Follow-up periods were 24?h (all groups) and 72 and 120?h in BP-tip group. Ischemic damage and swelling were quantified using silver nitrate staining. Collateral flow via the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) was assessed using selective dye perfusion of the internal carotid artery. Despite a comparable decrease of brain perfusion in all groups, ischemic damage was significantly smaller in BP-tips (p?<?0.05). Moreover, BP-tip significantly reduced mortality from 60% to 12.5% and widely spared the occipital region and hypothalamus from ischemic damage. Conventional but not BP-tip filaments induced vascular distortion, measured as gross displacement of the MCA origin, which correlated with occipital infarction size. Accordingly, BP-tip occluded rats showed a significantly better collateral filling of the PCA territory. Ischemic volume significantly increased in BP-tip occlusion at 72?h follow-up. BP-tip filaments offer superior survival in permanent MCA occlusion, while mimicking the course of a malignant stroke in patients.
Project description:Assessing potential stroke treatments in the presence of risk factors can improve screening of treatments prior to clinical trials and is important in testing the efficacy of treatments in different patient populations. Here, we test our noninvasive, nonpharmacological sensory stimulation treatment in the presence of the main risk factor for ischemic stroke, hypertension. Utilizing functional imaging, blood flow imaging, and histology, we assessed spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) pre- and post-permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Experimental groups included a treatment SHR group (sensory-stimulated group), control untreated SHR group (no sensory stimulation), and a treated (sensory-stimulated) Wistar-Kyoto normotensive group. Unlike our previous studies, which showed sensory-based complete protection from impending ischemic cortical stroke damage in rats as seen in the treated Wistar-Kyoto group, we found that SHRs at 24hr post-pMCAO lacked evoked cortical activation, had a significant reduction in blood flow within the MCA, and sustained very large infarcts regardless of whether they received stimulation treatment. If translatable, this work highlights a potential need for a combined treatment plan when delivering sensory stimulation treatment in this patient population.
Project description:1. The efficacy of the free radical trapping agent NXY-059 in reducing the infarct volume following both transient and permanent focal ischaemia has been examined in rats. 2. In the transient ischaemia model, rats were subjected to a 2 h occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Intravenous infusion of NXY-059 (1, 10 and 30 mg kg(-1) h) for 21.75 h starting 2.25 h after the occlusion, produced a dose-dependent decrease in both neurological impairment and the histologically measured infarct volume (a mean 59% decrease at 10 mg kg(-1) h). 3. In the permanent ischaemia model, animals were injected (s.c.) with a loading dose of NXY-059 of 32.5, 53.8 or 75.4 mg kg(-1) and osmotic minipumps were implanted which had been primed to deliver respectively 30, 50 or 70 mg kg(-1) h. When treatment was initiated 5 min after MCA occlusion there was a dose dependent protection of both cortical and sub-cortical tissue (cortex: 63% at the mid-range dose). Protection was related linearly to plasma concentration (plasma unbound NXY-059 concentration at 1 h: 37+/-16 micromol l(-1) at the mid-range dose). 4. When the mid range dose was administered between 5 min - 4 h after MCA occlusion, a marked and statistically significant protection was seen at all time points (44% protection in cortex at 4 h). 5. These data demonstrate the substantial neuroprotective efficacy of NXY-059 at plasma concentrations that can be achieved clinically and indicate that NXY-059 also has a therapeutic window of opportunity that is clinically relevant.
Project description:Perfusion imaging is crucial in imaging of ischemic stroke to determine 'tissue at risk' for infarction. In this study we compared the volumetric quantification of the perfusion deficit in two rat middle-cerebral-artery occlusion (MCAO) models using two gadolinium-based contrast agents (P1152 (Guerbet) and Magnevist (Bayer-Schering, Pittsburgh, PA, USA)) as compared with our well established continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) perfusion imaging technique. Animals underwent either permanent MCAO or transient MCAO with 80-min reperfusion. Imaging was performed at four different time points after MCAO. A region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of the subregions of the ischemic zone (core, penumbra, transient reversal (TR), and sustained reversal (SR)) using P1152 showed significant reduction in blood flow in the core and TR subregions relative to the penumbral and SR subregions while occluded. After reperfusion, a significant increase in blood flow was recorded at all time points after reperfusion in all regions except TR. From the ROI analysis the threshold for the penumbra was determined to be -62+/-11% and this value was subsequently used for quantification of the volumetric deficit. The ischemic volume as defined by dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), was only statistically different from the CASL-derived ischemic volume when using Magnevist at post-reperfusion time points.