Persistence of azidothymidine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA genotypes in posttreatment sera.
ABSTRACT: The rate of reversion from azidothymidine (zidovudine; AZT) resistance was studied by direct sequencing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion RNA in sera from four patients who discontinued long-term treatment. Before cessation of treatment, all four patients harbored HIV-1 with multiple mutations reported to confer AZT resistance. In three patients, slow reversions of these mutations starting after 9, 9, and 18 months were detected. The slow reversions indicate that AZT-resistant HIV-1 variants are likely to have an unaltered replicative capacity and pathogenic potential. Furthermore, there were discrepancies between the in vivo RNA sequences and the sequences of virus isolates, indicating that the isolation procedure may select for nonrepresentative virus variants.
Project description:3'-Azidothymidine (AZT) was the first approved antiviral for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Reported efforts in clicking the 3'-azido group of AZT have not yielded 1,2,3-triazoles active against HIV or any other viruses. We report herein the first AZT-derived 1,2,3-triazoles with submicromolar potencies against HIV-1. The observed antiviral activities from the cytopathic effect (CPE) based assay were confirmed through a single replication cycle assay. Structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies revealed two structural features key to antiviral activity: a bulky aromatic ring and the 1,5-substitution pattern on the triazole. Biochemical analysis of the corresponding triphosphates showed lower ATP-mediated nucleotide excision efficiency compared to AZT, which along with molecular modeling suggests a mechanism of preferred translocation of triazoles into the P-site of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT). This mechanism is corroborated with the observed reduction of fold resistance of the triazole analogue to an AZT-resistant HIV variant (9-fold compared to 56-fold with AZT).
Project description:Azidothymidine (AZT, zidovudine) is used to treat HIV-AIDS and prevent maternal transmission to newborns. Because the azido group replaces the 3' OH of thymidine, AZT is believed to act as a chain terminator during reverse transcription of viral RNA into DNA, although other mechanisms of viral inhibition have been suggested. There is evidence that AZT is genotoxic, particularly to the mitochondria. In this study, we use the bacterium Escherichia coli to investigate the mechanism of AZT toxicity and the cellular mechanisms that aid survival. We show that that replication arrests quickly after treatment, accompanied by induction of the SOS DNA damage response. AZT appears to produce single-strand DNA gaps, as evident by RecF-dependent induction of the SOS response and visualization of single-strand DNA binding protein foci within the cell. Some of these gaps must be converted to breaks, since mutants in the RecBCD nuclease, required for recombinational double-strand break repair, are highly sensitive to AZT. Blocks in the late recombination functions, the RuvAB branch migration helicase and RuvC Holliday junction endonuclease, caused extreme AZT sensitivity that could be relieved by mutations in the early recombination functions, such as RecF, suggesting gaps engage in recombination reactions. Finally, our data suggest that the proofreading exonucleases of DNA polymerases play little role in AZT tolerance. Rather, Exonuclease III appears to be the enzyme that removes AZT: xthA mutants are highly AZT-sensitive, with a sustained SOS response, and overproduction of the enzyme protects wild-type cells. Our findings suggest that incorporation of AZT into human nuclear and mitochondrial DNA has the potential to promote genetic instability and toxicity through the production of ssDNA gaps and dsDNA breaks, and predicts that the human Exonuclease III ortholog, APE1, will be important for drug tolerance.
Project description:Previously unreported (15) N labeled Azidothymidine (AZT) was prepared as an equimolar mixture of two isotopomers: 1-(15) N-AZT and 3-(15) N-AZT. Polarization decay of (15) N NMR signal was studied in high (9.4?T) and low (~50?mT) magnetic fields. (15) N T1 values were 45?±?5?s (1-(15) N-AZT) and 37?±?2?s (3-(15) N-AZT) at 9.4?T, and 140?±?16?s (3-(15) N-AZT) at 50?mT. (15) N-AZT can be potentially (15) N hyperpolarized by several methods. These sufficiently long (15) N-AZT T1 values potentially enable hyperpolarized in vivo imaging of (15) N-AZT, because of the known favorable efficient (i.e., of the time scale shorter than the longest reported here (15) N T1 ) kinetics of uptake of injected AZT. Therefore, 3-(15) N-AZT can be potentially used for HIV molecular imaging using hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging.
Project description:Although anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapies have become more sophisticated and more effective, drug resistance continues to be a major problem. Zidovudine (azidothymidine; AZT) was the first nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI) approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infections and is still being used, particularly in the developing world. This drug targets the conversion of single-stranded RNA to double-stranded DNA by HIV-1 RT. However, resistance to the drug quickly appeared both in viruses replicating in cells in culture and in patients undergoing AZT monotherapy. The primary resistance pathway selects for mutations of T215 that change the threonine to either a tyrosine or a phenylalanine (T215Y/F); this resistance pathway involves an ATP-dependent excision mechanism. The pseudo-sugar ring of AZT lacks a 3' OH; RT incorporates AZT monophosphate (AZTMP), which blocks the end of the viral DNA primer. AZT-resistant forms of HIV-1 RT use ATP in an excision reaction to unblock the 3' end of the primer strand, allowing its extension by RT. The T215Y AZT resistance mutation is often accompanied by two other mutations, M41L and L210W. In this study, the roles of these mutations, in combination with T215Y, were examined to determine whether they affect polymerization and excision by HIV-1 RT. The M41L mutation appears to help restore the DNA polymerization activity of RT containing the T215Y mutation and also enhances AZTMP excision. The L210W mutation plays a similar role, but it enhances excision by RTs that carry the T215Y mutation when ATP is present at a low concentration.
Project description:Bacterial infections remain a leading killer worldwide, which is worsened by the continuous emergence of antibiotic resistance. In particular, antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are prevalent and extremely difficult to treat. Repurposing existing drugs and improving the therapeutic potential of existing antibiotics represent an attractive novel strategy. Azidothymidine (AZT) is an antiretroviral drug which is used in combination with other antivirals to prevent and to treat HIV/AIDS. AZT is also active against Gram-negative bacteria but has not been developed for that purpose. Here, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of AZT in combination with colistin against antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, including strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM) or carrying mobilized colistin resistance (mcr-1). The MIC was determined using the broth microdilution method. The combined effect of AZT and colistin was examined using the checkerboard method and time-kill analysis. A murine peritoneal infection model was used to test the therapeutic effect of the combination of AZT and colistin. The fractional inhibitory concentration index from the checkerboard assay demonstrated that AZT synergized with colistin against 61% and 87% of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, respectively, 100% of NDM-1-producing strains, and 92% of mcr-1-producing E. coli strains. Time-kill analysis demonstrated significant synergistic activities when AZT was combined with colistin. In a murine peritoneal infection model, AZT in combination with colistin showed augmented activities of both drugs in the treatment of NDM-1 K. pneumoniae and mcr-1 E. coli infections. The AZT and colistin combination possesses a potential to be used coherently to treat antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections.
Project description:The replication of simian foamy virus from macaques can be inhibited by the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor azidothymidine (AZT, zidovudine). Four substitutions in the protease-reverse transcriptase (PR-RT) protein (K211I, I224T, S345T, E350K) are necessary to obtain highly AZT resistant and fully replication competent virus. AZT resistance is based on the excision of the incorporated AZTMP in the presence of ATP. I224T is a polymorphism which is not essential for AZT resistance per se, but is important for regaining efficient replication of the resistant virus.We constructed PR-RT enzymes harboring one to four amino acid substitutions to analyze them biochemically and to determine their ability to remove the incorporated AZTMP. S345T is the only single substitution variant exhibiting significant AZTMP excision activity. Although K211I alone showed no AZTMP excision activity, excision efficiency doubled when K211I was present in combination with S345T and E350K. K211I also decreased nucleotide binding affinity and increased fidelity. NMR titration experiments revealed that a truncated version of the highly AZT resistant mt4 variant, comprising only the fingers-palm subdomains was able to bind ATP with a KD-value of ca. 7.6 mM, whereas no ATP binding could be detected in the corresponding wild type protein. We could show by NMR spectroscopy that S345T is responsible for ATP binding, probably by making a tryptophan residue accessible.Although AZT resistance in SFVmac is based on excision of the incorporated AZTMP like in HIV-1, the functions of the resistance substitutions in SFVmac PR-RT appear to be different. No mutation resulting in an aromatic residue like F/Y215 in HIV, which is responsible for ?-?-stacking interactions with ATP, is present in SFVmac. Instead, S345T is responsible for creating an ATP binding site, probably by making an already existing tryptophan more accessible, which in turn can interact with ATP. This is in contrast to HIV-1 RT, in which an ATP binding site is present in the WT RT but differs from that of the AZT resistant enzyme.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is listed as an urgent threat by the World Health Organization because of the limited therapeutic options, rapid evolution of resistance mechanisms, and worldwide dissemination. Colistin is a common backbone agent among the "last-resort" antibiotics for CRE; however, its emerging resistance among CRE has taken the present dilemma to the next level. Azidothymidine (AZT), a thymidine analog used to treat human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, has been known to possess antibacterial effects against Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of AZT and colistin in 40 clinical isolates of colistin-resistant, carbapenem-resistant <i>K. pneumoniae</i> (CCRKP). Eleven of the 40 isolates harbored <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> carbapenemase. The in vitro checkerboard method and in vivo nematode killing assay both revealed synergistic activity between the two agents, with fractional inhibitory concentration indexes of ?0.5 in every strain. Additionally, a significantly lower hazard ratio was observed for the nematodes treated with combination therapy (0.288; <i>p</i> < 0.0001) compared with either AZT or colistin treatment. Toxicity testing indicated potentially low toxicity of the combination therapy. Thus, the AZT-colistin combination could be a potentially favorable therapeutic option for treating CCRKP.
Project description:Owing to the over usage of carbapenems, carbapenem resistance has become a vital threat worldwide, and, thus, the World Health Organization announced the carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) as the critical priority for antibiotic development in 2017. In the current situation, combination therapy would be one solution against CRE. Azidothymidine (AZT), a thymidine analog, has demonstrated its synergistically antibacterial activities with other antibiotics. The unexpected antimicrobial activity of the immunomodulator ammonium trichloro(dioxoethylene-<i>o</i>,<i>o</i>')tellurate (AS101) has been reported against carbapenem-resistant <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> (CRKP). Here, we sought to investigate the synergistic activity between AS101 and AZT against 12 CRKP clinical isolates. According to the gene detection results, the <i>bla</i><sub>OXA-1</sub> (7/12, 58.3%)<sub>,</sub> <i>bla</i><sub>DHA</sub> (7/12, 58.3%), and <i>bla</i><sub>KPC</sub> (7/12, 58.3%) genes were the most prevalent ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemase genes, respectively. The checkerboard analysis demonstrated the remarkable synergism between AS101 and AZT, with the observable decrease in the MIC value for two agents and the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index ≤0.5 in all strains. Hence, the combination of AS101 and azidothymidine could be a potential treatment option against CRKP for drug development.
Project description:Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication in patients. However, continuous HAART is required to prevent viral rebound, which may have detrimental effects in various tissues, including persistent neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we show that quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy flavones), a natural antioxidant used in Chinese traditional medicines, suppresses the neuroinflammation that is induced by chronic exposure to Zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that is commonly part of HAART regimens. We found that the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglial and astrocytic markers induced by AZT (100?mg/kg/day; 8 days) was significantly inhibited by co-administration of quercetin (50?mg/kg/day) in the mouse cortex, hippocampus and spinal cord. We further showed that quercetin attenuated AZT-induced up-regulation of Wnt5a, a key regulator of neuroinflammation. These results suggest that quercetin has an inhibitory effect on AZT-induced neuroinflammation in the CNS, and Wnt5a signaling may play an important role in this process. Our results may further our understanding of the mechanisms of HAART-related neurotoxicity and help in the development of effective adjuvant therapy.
Project description:Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked with the development of Kaposi sarcoma and the B lymphocyte disorders primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multi-centric Castleman disease. T cell immunity limits KSHV infection and disease, however the virus employs multiple mechanisms to inhibit efficient control by these effectors. Thus KSHV-specific CD4+ T cells poorly recognize most PEL cells and even where they can, they are unable to kill them. To make KSHV-infected cells more sensitive to T cell control we treated PEL cells with the thymidine analogue azidothymidine (AZT), which sensitizes PEL lines to Fas-ligand and TRAIL challenge; effector mechanisms which T cells use. PELs co-cultured with KSHV-specific CD4+ T cells in the absence of AZT showed no control of PEL outgrowth. However in the presence of AZT PEL outgrowth was controlled in an MHC-restricted manner. To investigate how AZT sensitizes PELs to immune control we first examined BJAB cells transduced with individual KSHV-latent genes for their ability to resist apoptosis mediated by stimuli delivered through Fas and TRAIL receptors. This showed that in addition to the previously described vFLIP protein, expression of vIRF3 also inhibited apoptosis delivered by these stimuli. Importantly vIRF3 mediated protection from these apoptotic stimuli was inhibited in the presence of AZT as was a second vIRF3 associated phenotype, the downregulation of surface MHC class II. Although both vFLIP and vIRF3 are expressed in PELs, we propose that inhibiting vIRF3 function with AZT may be sufficient to restore T cell control of these tumor cells.