Comparative analysis of MVA-CD40L and MVA-TRICOM vectors for enhancing the immunogenicity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.
ABSTRACT: Adenoviral transduction with CD40L and poxviral transduction with B7-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3 (TRICOM) have been used to enhance the antigen-presenting capacity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. This study compares the same vector (modified vaccinia virus strain Ankara (MVA)) encoding CD40L or TRICOM for its ability to enhance the immunogenicity of CLL cells. CLL cells from some patients showed differential responses to each vector in terms of induction of autologous T-cell responses. This study supports the rationale for the use of CLL cells modified ex vivo with pre-specified recombinant MVA vectors as a whole tumor-cell vaccine for immunotherapy in CLL patients.
Project description:In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), malignant B cells and nonmalignant T cells exhibit dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that infection of CLL cells with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing the costimulatory molecules B7-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3 (designated TRICOM) increased expression of these costimulatory molecules on the surface of CLL cells and thus augmented their antigen-presenting capability. Here, we evaluate the effect of MVA-TRICOM-modified CLL cells on T cells. Following incubation with irradiated MVA-TRICOM-modified CLL cells, allogeneic and autologous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressed significantly higher levels of B7-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3. We show that this increase was the result of physical acquisition from the antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and that purified T cells that acquired costimulatory molecules from MVA-TRICOM-modified CLL cells were able to stimulate the proliferation of untreated T cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells from CLL patients can acquire multiple costimulatory molecules from autologous CLL cells and can then act as APCs themselves. Given the immunodeficiencies characteristic of CLL, enhancing the antigen-presenting function of CLL cells and T cells simultaneously could be a distinct advantage in the effort to elicit antitumor immune responses.
Project description:Substantial protection can be provided against the pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria by vaccination first with an adenoviral and then with an modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) poxviral vector encoding the same ME.TRAP transgene. We investigated whether the two vaccine components adenovirus (Ad) and MVA could be coinjected as a mixture to enhance protection against malaria. A single-shot mixture at specific ratios of Ad and MVA (Ad+MVA) enhanced CD8(+) T cell-dependant protection of mice against challenge with Plasmodium berghei. Moreover, the degree of protection could be enhanced after homologous boosting with the same Ad+MVA mixture to levels comparable with classic heterologous Ad prime-MVA boost regimes. The mixture increased transgene-specific responses while decreasing the CD8(+) T cell antivector immunity compared to each vector used alone, particularly against the MVA backbone. Mixed vector immunization led to increased early circulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ) response levels and altered transcriptional microarray profiles. Furthermore, we found that sequential immunizations with the Ad+MVA mixture led to consistent boosting of the transgene-specific CD8(+) response for up to three mixture immunizations, whereas each vector used alone elicited progressively lower responses. Our findings offer the possibility of simplifying the deployment of viral vectors as a single mixture product rather than in heterologous prime-boost regimens.
Project description:We have developed an "off-the-shelf" vector-based vaccine platform containing transgenes for carcinoma-associated antigens and multiple costimulatory molecules (designated TRICOM). Two TRICOM platforms have been evaluated both preclinically and in clinical trials. PROSTVAC consists of rV, rF-PSA-TRICOM and is being used in prostate cancer therapy trials. PANVAC consists of rV, rF-CEA-MUC1-TRICOM; the expression of the two pan-carcinoma transgenes CEA and MUC-1 renders PANVAC vaccination applicable for therapeutic applications for a range of human carcinomas. Many new paradigms have emerged as a consequence of completed and ongoing TRICOM vaccine trials, including (1) clinical evidence of patient benefit may be delayed, because multiple vaccinations may be necessary to induce a sufficient anti-tumor immune response; (2) survival, and not strict adherence to RECIST criteria or time-to-progression, may be the most appropriate trial endpoint when TRICOM vaccines are used as monotherapy; (3) certain patient populations are more likely to benefit from vaccine therapy as compared to other therapeutics; and (4) TRICOM vaccines combined with standard-of-care therapeutics, either concomitantly or sequentially, are feasible because of the limited toxicity of vaccines.
Project description:The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety and characteristics of live, recombinant viral vector vaccines. The Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector system is being explored as a platform for development of multiple vaccines. This paper reviews the molecular and biological features specifically of the MVA-BN vector system, followed by a template with details on the safety and characteristics of an MVA-BN based vaccine against Zaire ebolavirus and other filovirus strains. The MVA-BN-Filo vaccine is based on a live, highly attenuated poxviral vector incapable of replicating in human cells and encodes glycoproteins of Ebola virus Zaire, Sudan virus and Marburg virus and the nucleoprotein of the Thai Forest virus. This vaccine has been approved in the European Union in July 2020 as part of a heterologous Ebola vaccination regimen. The MVA-BN vector is attenuated following over 500 serial passages in eggs, showing restricted host tropism and incompetence to replicate in human cells. MVA has six major deletions and other mutations of genes outside these deletions, which all contribute to the replication deficiency in human and other mammalian cells. Attenuation of MVA-BN was demonstrated by safe administration in immunocompromised mice and non-human primates. In multiple clinical trials with the MVA-BN backbone, more than 7800 participants have been vaccinated, demonstrating a safety profile consistent with other licensed, modern vaccines. MVA-BN has been approved as smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada in 2013, and as smallpox and monkeypox vaccine in the US in 2019. No signal for inflammatory cardiac disorders was identified throughout the MVA-BN development program. This is in sharp contrast to the older, replicating vaccinia smallpox vaccines, which have a known risk for myocarditis and/or pericarditis in up to 1 in 200 vaccinees. MVA-BN-Filo as part of a heterologous Ebola vaccination regimen (Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo) has undergone clinical testing including Phase III in West Africa and is currently in use in large scale vaccination studies in Central African countries. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the MVA-BN vector, which has reached regulatory approvals, both as MVA-BN backbone for smallpox/monkeypox, as well as for the MVA-BN-Filo construct as part of an Ebola vaccination regimen, and therefore aims to provide solutions to prevent disease from high-consequence human pathogens.
Project description:Intravesical BCG is a highly effective treatment for high-grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer and carcinoma in situ (CIS); however, for patients who are either resistant or become unresponsive to BCG therapy there is a need for alternative treatment approaches. This study examined the safety and feasibility of intravesically administered recombinant fowlpox virus encoding GM-CSF (Arm A) or TRICOM (Arm B); and the local and systemic immunologic responses generated to the vector(s). Twenty bladder cancer patients scheduled for cystectomy as their standard of care received preoperatively four weekly doses of intravesical recombinant fowlpox. Treatment was well tolerated, however, three patients experienced transient elevations of liver transaminases, with one rising to the level of a DLT. Cystectomy derived tumor and normal bladder mucosa demonstrated mRNA for the virally encoded LacZ gene supporting effective infection/transfection. Detected serum antibody to the LacZ encoding ?-galactosidase indicated successful expression of vector-encoding gene products and the ability to immunize via the bladder site. H&E and IHC using a panel of immune cell specific antigens demonstrated immune cell infiltration of the bladder wall. These findings demonstrate good safety profile, successful infection/transfection, ability to generate systemic immune response, and local recruitment of immune cell populations with intravesical administration of fowlpox-based constructs encoding for GM-CSF(rF-GM-CSF) or TRICOM (rF-TRICOM), and support further evaluation of this treatment modality for bladder cancer.
Project description:Poxviral vectors have a proven safety record and can be used to incorporate multiple transgenes. Prior clinical trials with poxviral vaccines have shown that immunologic tolerance to self-antigens can be broken. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and MUC-1 are overexpressed in a substantial proportion of common solid carcinomas. The primary end point of this study was vaccine safety, with immunologic and clinical responses as secondary end points.We report here a pilot study of 25 patients treated with a poxviral vaccine regimen consisting of the genes for CEA and MUC-1, along with a triad of costimulatory molecules (TRICOM; composed of B7.1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) engineered into vaccinia (PANVAC-V) as a prime vaccination and into fowlpox (PANVAC-F) as a booster vaccination.The vaccine was well tolerated. Apart from injection-site reaction, no grade > or =2 toxicity was seen in more than 2% of the cycles. Immune responses to MUC-1 and/or CEA were seen following vaccination in 9 of 16 patients tested. A patient with clear cell ovarian cancer and symptomatic ascites had a durable (18-month) clinical response radiographically and biochemically, and one breast cancer patient had a confirmed decrease of >20% in the size of large liver metastasis.This vaccine strategy seems to be safe, is associated with both CD8 and CD4 immune responses, and has shown evidence of clinical activity. Further trials with this agent, either alone or in combination with immunopotentiating and other therapeutic agents, are warranted.
Project description:Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal B cell disorder of unknown origin. Accessory signals from the microenvironment are critical for the survival, expansion, and progression of malignant B cells. We found that the CLL stroma included microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) expressing BAFF and APRIL, two TNF family members related to the T cell-associated B cell-stimulating molecule CD40L. Constitutive release of soluble BAFF and APRIL increased upon engagement of CD40 on MVECs by CD40L aberrantly expressed on CLL cells. In addition to enhancing MVEC expression of CD40, leukemic CD40L induced cleavases that elicited intracellular processing of pro-BAFF and pro-APRIL proteins in MVECs. The resulting soluble BAFF and APRIL proteins delivered survival, activation, Ig gene remodeling, and differentiation signals by stimulating CLL cells through TACI, BAFF-R, and BCMA receptors. BAFF and APRIL further amplified CLL cell survival by upregulating the expression of leukemic CD40L. Inhibition of TACI, BCMA, and BAFF-R expression on CLL cells; abrogation of CD40 expression in MVECs; or suppression of BAFF and APRIL cleavases in MVECs reduced the survival and diversification of malignant B cells. These data indicate that BAFF, APRIL, and CD40L form a CLL-enhancing bidirectional signaling network linking neoplastic B cells with the microvascular stroma.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the capacity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells to undergo terminal differentiation into Ig-secreting plasma cells in T cell-independent and T cell-dependent responses. We used a two-step model involving stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and CD40L, together with cytokines (PMA/c and CD40L/c), for 7 days. We describe immunophenotypic modifications, changes in the levels of mRNA and protein for transcription factors and morphological and functional events occurring during the differentiation of CLL B cells into antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). The induction of differentiation differed significantly between the CD40L/c and PMA/c culture systems. The PMA/c culture system allowed CLL B cells to differentiate into IgM-secreting cells with an immunophenotype and molecular profile resembling those of preplasmablasts. By contrast, CD40L/c-stimulated cells had a phenotype and morphology similar to those of activated B cells and resembling those of the CLL B cells residing in the lymph node and bone marrow. These data suggest that the CLL B cells are not frozen permanently at a stage of differentiation and are able to differentiate into ASCs as appropriate stimulation are provided. The data presented here raise questions about the molecular processes and stimulation required for CLL B-cell differentiation and about the inability of CD40 ligand to induce differentiation of the CLL B cells.
Project description:Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) has been used to deliver vaccine candidate antigens against infectious diseases and cancer. MVA is a potent viral vector for inducing high magnitudes of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells; however the cellular immune responses to a recombinant antigen in MVA could be further enhanced by increasing transgene expression. Previous reports showed the importance of utilizing an early poxviral promoter for increasing transgene expression and therefore enhancing cellular immune responses. However, the vaccinia D10 decapping enzyme is reported to target and decap vaccinia virus early transcripts - a mechanism that could limit the usefulness of early promoters in MVA viral vectors if this enzyme shows the same activity in this closely related virus. Therefore, we attempted to increase transgene expression in recombinant MVA by inserting the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) upstream of a transgene sequence that is controlled by the B8R early promoter, and assessed D10 enzyme decapping activity in MVA. The aim of the IRES element was to initiate translation of the transgene transcript (after the removal of the cap structure by the D10 decapping protein) in a cap-independent manner. Here, we report that overexpression of the D10 decapping protein, in trans, in MVA reduced growth and transgene expression; however, the IRES element was not able to compensate for the negative effect of the D10 decapping protein. Recombinant MVA with EMCV IRES induced levels of both gene expression and transcription that were similar to the control recombinant MVA, encoding the same transgene but without the IRES element. Both viruses were tested in BALB/c mice and induced similar magnitudes of epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. This work indicates that the MVA version of the D10 decapping enzyme, overexpressed using a plasmid, is functional, but its negative effect on transgene expression by recombinant MVA cannot be overcome by the use of the EMCV IRES inserted upstream of the transgene initiation codon.