Salience of loss of control for pediatric binge episodes: does size really matter?
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The subjective experience of loss of control (LOC) during eating, independent of overeating, may be a salient marker of disordered eating and risk for overweight in youth. However, few studies have directly tested this notion in an adequately powered sample. METHOD:Three-hundred-sixty-seven youth (M ± SD age = 12.7 ± 2.8 y) were categorized as reporting objective binge eating (OBE; 12.5%), subjective binge eating (SBE; 11.4%), objective overeating without LOC (OO; 18.5%), or no episodes (NE; 57.5%). Disordered eating attitudes, general psychopathology, and adiposity were assessed. RESULTS:Children with OBE and SBE generally did not differ in their disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, depressive and anxiety symptoms, or adiposity. However, both OBE and SBE youth had significantly greater disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and adiposity compared to those with OO or NE (ps < .05). DISCUSSION:For non-treatment-seeking youth, LOC during eating episodes, rather than episode size, appears to be the most salient marker of eating and weight problems.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify children and adolescents into subtypes based on the overlap of disinhibited eating behaviors-eating in the absence of hunger, emotional eating, and subjective and objective binge eating. METHOD:Participants were 411 youths (8-18 years) from the community who reported on their disinhibited eating patterns. A subset (n = 223) ate ad libitum from two test meals. RESULTS:LPA produced five subtypes that were most prominently distinguished by objective binge eating (OBE; n = 53), subjective binge eating (SBE; n = 59), emotional eating (EE; n = 62), a mix of emotional eating and eating in the absence of hunger (EE-EAH; n = 172), and no disinhibited eating (No-DE; n = 64). Accounting for age, sex, race, and body mass index z score (BMI-z), the four disinhibited eating groups had more problem behaviors than the no disinhibited eating group (p = .001). OBE and SBE subtypes had greater BMI-z, percent fat mass, disordered eating attitudes, and trait anxiety than EE, EE-EAH, and No-DE subtypes (ps < .01). However, the OBE subtype reported the highest eating concern (p < .001), and the OBE, SBE, and EE subtypes reported higher depressive symptoms than the EE-EAH and No-DE subtypes. Across both test meals, OBE and SBE subtypes consumed a lesser percentage of protein and a higher percentage of carbohydrate than the other subtypes (ps < .02), adjusting for age, sex, race, height, lean mass, percent fat mass, and total intake. EE subtypes also consumed a greater percentage of carbohydrate and a lower percentage of fat than the EE-EAH and No-DE subtypes (ps < .03). The SBE subtype consumed the least total calories (p = .01). DISCUSSION:We conclude that behavioral subtypes of disinhibited eating may be distinguished by psychological characteristics and objective eating behavior. Prospective data are required to determine whether subtypes predict the onset of eating disorders and obesity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We investigated the manifestations of pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating at different stages of pubertal development. METHOD:Participants were a nonclinical sample of 468 youth (8-17 years). Physical examination determined pubertal stage. LOC eating and disordered eating attitudes were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination. In a randomized crossover design, a subset (n?=?244) ate ad libitum from two test meals designed to capture normal and LOC eating. RESULTS:There were no differences in the prevalence rates or frequency of reported LOC eating episodes across pubertal stages (ps???0.50). There were, however, puberty by LOC eating interactions in disordered eating attitudes and palatable food consumption (ps???.05), even after adjusting for age and body composition. LOC eating was associated with elevated global disordered eating attitudes, weight concern, and shape concern in post-pubertal youth (ps ? .001), but not pre-pubertal youth (ps???.49). In late-puberty, youth with LOC eating consumed less energy from protein (p?<?.001) and more from carbohydrate (p?=?.003) and snack-type foods (p?=?.02) than those without LOC eating, whereas endorsement of LOC eating in pre- or early-to-mid-puberty was not associated with differences in eating behavior (ps???0.20). CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggest that puberty may be a critical risk period, when LOC eating behaviors in boys and girls may become accompanied by greater weight and shape concerns and more obesogenic food consumption patterns. Interventions for LOC eating during pre-puberty should be evaluated to determine if they are particularly beneficial for the prevention of exacerbated eating disorder psychopathology and adverse weight outcomes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Negative urgency (NU; tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative emotions) is a risk factor for binge eating, although few studies have examined interviewer-assessed objective binge episodes (OBEs). Moreover, research has not investigated how NU relates to the core components of OBEs: loss of control (LOC) eating and objective overeating (OO). Understanding the relationship between NU and these core components will enhance etiologic models of eating disorder development. Thus, the current study examined the associations between NU, OBEs, and the components of OBEs by comparing levels of NU in women with OBEs, LOC eating only, and OO only to women with no pathological eating. METHOD:Participants were 612 women who endorsed lifetime OBEs (5.4%), LOC eating outside of OBEs (5.7%), OO only (2.8%), or none of these eating episodes (85.9%). RESULTS:Women with OBEs, LOC only, and OO only had significantly higher levels of NU than women without these episodes, suggesting that NU is associated with both the LOC and OO components of OBEs. DISCUSSION:NU relates to the spectrum of pathology present in women with OBEs. Future research should examine the mechanisms underlying these associations, including impaired behavioral/psychological control and/or increased reward sensitivity in response to negative affect.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Evidence suggests that while objective binge eating (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) differ in the amount of food consumed, both are associated with impairment in people with eating disorders. However, only OBE is accounted for in the diagnostic criteria of eating disorders. This study compared the sociodemographic profile and burden of OBE versus SBE at a population level. DESIGN:Population-based survey. PARTICIPANTS:A representative sample of 3028 men and women. Participants were categorised into four groups based on their reporting of binge eating in the past 3 months: non-binge eating group (no OBE or SBE), OBE group, SBE group and OSBE group (both OBE and SBE). OUTCOME MEASURES:Demographics (age, genderand body mass index, BMI), binge eating, distress, weight/shape overvaluation and health-related quality of life. Groups were compared on sociodemographic information, overvaluation and health-related quality of life. The OBE and SBE groups were also compared on the distress related to binge eating. RESULTS:No differences were found between the SBE group and OBE group in age, gender, BMI, mental health-related quality of life and overvaluation (all p>0.05). However, differences were found in the OSBE participants, namely that they were younger, had a higher mean BMI, lower mental health-related quality of life and higher overvaluation of weight/shape than the non-binge-eating participants (all p<0.001). Proportions of participants who reported distress related to binge eating in the OBE and SBE groups also did not differ (p=0.678). CONCLUSION:There is little difference in the demographic profile or burden of people who engage in OBE versus SBE, supporting the proposed inclusion of SBE in the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders in International Classification of Diseases-11. People who experience both OBE and SBE may experience a relatively higher eating disorder severity and impairment.
Project description:Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth is associated with excess body weight and adiposity. After adjusting for fat mass, youth with LOC eating have higher blood pressure and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to youth without LOC eating. Increased inflammation may account for this relationship, although few data have examined this hypothesis. Therefore, this study explored the association between LOC eating and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of inflammation.We investigated hsCRP concentrations in relation to LOC eating in a convenience sample of 194 youth (age 14.3?±?2.1 years; 63.9% female; BMI-z 1.64?±?1.06). The presence of LOC eating in the past month was assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Serum hsCRP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiposity was measured by air displacement plethysmography or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We compared hsCRP in those with and without LOC eating in analyses accounting for sex, adiposity, height, depressive symptoms, and eating psychopathology.Youth with LOC eating had significantly greater hsCRP than youth without LOC eating (p?=?0.02), after accounting for all covariates. The number of LOC eating episodes in the past month was positively associated with hsCRP (p?=?0.01). The relationship between LOC eating and hsCRP was not mediated by depressive symptoms or eating psychopathology (ps?>?0.05).Youth with disinhibited eating may manifest increased chronic inflammation. Those with LOC eating may be an important subgroup at risk for adverse health outcomes associated with both chronic inflammation and obesity. Future research should examine whether hsCRP concentrations mediate the relationship between LOC eating and its association with cardiometabolic risk.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Preadolescent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) is a risk factor for excess weight gain and binge-eating-disorder. We evaluated feasibility and acceptability of a preventive family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) program. FB-IPT was compared to family-based health education (FB-HE) to evaluate changes in children's psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, and body mass. METHOD:A randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted with 29 children, 8 to 13 years who had overweight/obesity and LOC-eating. Youth-parent dyads were randomized to 12-week FB-IPT (n?=?15) or FB-HE (n?=?14) and evaluated at post-treatment, six-months, and one-year. Changes in child psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, BMI, and adiposity by dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry were assessed. Missing follow-up data were multiply imputed. RESULTS:FB-IPT feasibility and acceptability were indicated by good attendance (83%) and perceived benefits to social interactions and eating. Follow-up assessments were completed by 73% FB-IPT and 86% FB-HE at post-treatment, 60% and 64% at six-months, and 47% and 57% at one-year. At post-treatment, children in FB-IPT reported greater decreases in depression (95% CI -7.23, -2.01, Cohen's d?=?1.23) and anxiety (95% CI -6.08, -0.70, Cohen's d?=?.79) and less odds of LOC-eating (95% CI -3.93, -0.03, Cohen's d?=?.38) than FB-HE. At six-months, children in FB-IPT had greater reductions in disordered-eating attitudes (95% CI -0.72, -0.05, Cohen's d?=?.66) and at one-year, tended to have greater decreases in depressive symptoms (95% CI -8.82, 0.44, Cohen's d?=?.69) than FB-HE. There was no difference in BMI gain between the groups. DISCUSSION:Family-based approaches that address interpersonal and emotional underpinnings of LOC-eating in preadolescents with overweight/obesity show preliminary promise, particularly for reducing internalizing symptoms. Whether observed psychological benefits translate into sustained prevention of disordered-eating or excess weight gain requires further study.
Project description:Objective:Pediatric loss-of-control (LOC) eating is associated with, and predictive of, gains in adiposity and adverse metabolic outcomes. In addition, some preliminary data suggest that anxiety may exacerbate the relationship of LOC eating with weight and metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related measures. We therefore examined whether anxiety moderated the relationship between LOC eating and body mass index z (BMIz), adiposity, and MetS-related measures in youth. Methods:A convenience sample of non-treatment-seeking boys and girls of varying weight strata were interviewed to determine the presence of LOC eating and completed a questionnaire assessing trait anxiety. BMIz and MetS-related measures (blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and insulin) were measured after an overnight fast. Adiposity was assessed by air displacement plethysmography or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, height, fat mass, and depressive symptoms, as appropriate. Results:In all, 379 youths (13.0 ± 2.8 years; 53% female; BMIz?=?0.8 ± 1.1; 22% with LOC eating) were studied. Anxiety was not significantly related to BMIz, adiposity, or MetS-related measures. However, anxiety and LOC eating interacted such that only among youth with LOC eating, anxiety was positively associated with fasting insulin (p = .02) and insulin resistance (p = .01). The interaction of anxiety and LOC eating was not significantly related to BMIz, adiposity, or any other MetS-related measure (ps = ns). Conclusions:Only among non-treatment-seeking youth with LOC eating, anxiety may be associated with increased insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm these findings and explore mechanisms for these relationships.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both insufficiency and resistance to the actions of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin promote hunger, increased food intake and greater body weight. Some studies suggest that adults reporting binge eating have increased serum leptin compared with those without binge eating, even after adjusting for the greater adiposity that characterizes binge eaters. Pediatric binge or loss of control (LOC) eating are prospective risk factors for excessive weight gain and may predict development of metabolic abnormalities, but whether LOC eating is associated with higher leptin among children is unknown. We therefore examined leptin and LOC eating in a pediatric cohort. METHODS:A convenience sample of 506 lean and obese youth (7-18 years) was recruited from Washington, DC and its suburbs. Serum leptin was collected after an overnight fast. Adiposity was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or air displacement plethysmography. LOC eating was assessed by interview methodology. RESULTS:Leptin was strongly associated with fat mass (r=0.79, P<0.001). However, even after adjusting for adiposity and other relevant covariates, youth with LOC eating had higher serum leptin compared with those without LOC episodes (15.42±1.05 vs 12.36±1.04?ng?ml(-1), P<0.001). Neither reported amount of food consumed during a recent LOC episode nor number of LOC episodes in the previous month accounted for differences in leptin (P>0.05). The relationship between LOC eating and leptin appeared to be significant for females only (P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS:Reports of LOC eating were associated with higher fasting leptin in youth, beyond the contributions of body weight. Prospective studies are required to elucidate whether LOC eating promotes greater leptin or whether greater leptin resistance may promote LOC eating.
Project description:Binge and loss of control (LOC) eating appear to be common among youth; however, little is known about the foods consumed during such eating episodes. Two-hundred forty-nine children, age 6-18 years, were interviewed to determine if they engaged in eating episodes with LOC over the past month. In the absence of reported LOC eating, overeating episodes or normal meals without LOC were recorded. Participants were asked to describe the type and quantity of foods eaten during an episode. Eighty-one children reported LOC eating episodes and 168 reported no such episodes (No LOC). Although total energy intake did not differ between LOC and No LOC episodes, LOC episodes consisted of a lower percentage of calories from protein (14.2+/-0.7 v. 18.0+/-0.7%, p<.001) and a higher percentage from carbohydrates (49.8+/-1.6 v. 45.2+/-1.1%, p<.05). Specifically, LOC episodes consisted of a higher percentage of calories from snacks (13.2+/-2.7 v. 7.4+/-1.2%, p<.05) and desserts (18.1+/-3.1 v. 12.8+/-1.5%, p<.05). The quality of LOC episodes may help explain why LOC eating promotes excessive weight gain among children who report such episodes.