The Drosophila casein kinase Iepsilon/delta Discs overgrown promotes cell survival via activation of DIAP1 expression.
ABSTRACT: The proper number of cells in developing tissues is achieved by coordinating cell division with apoptosis. In Drosophila, the adult wing is derived from wing imaginal discs, which undergo a period of growth and proliferation during larval stages without much programmed cell death. In this report, we demonstrate that the Drosophila casein kinase Iepsilon/delta, known as Discs overgrown (Dco), is required for maintaining this low level of apoptosis. Expression of dco can suppress the apoptotic activity of Head involution defective (Hid) in the developing eye. Loss of dco in the wing disc results in a dramatic reduction in expression of the caspase inhibitor DIAP1 and a concomitant activation of caspases. The regulation of DIAP1 by Dco occurs by a post-transcriptional mechanism that is independent of hid. Mutant clones of dco are considerably smaller than controls even when apoptosis is inhibited, suggesting that Dco promotes cell division/growth in addition to its role in cell survival. The dco phenotype cannot be explained by defects Wingless (Wg) signaling. We propose that Dco coordinates tissue size by stimulating cell division/growth and blocking apoptosis via activation of DIAP1 expression.
Project description:Apoptosis has essential roles in a variety of cellular and developmental processes. Although the pathway is well studied, how the activities of individual components in the pathway are regulated is less understood. In Drosophila, a key component in apoptosis is Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1), which is required to prevent caspase activation. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila CG42593 (ubr3), encoding the homolog of mammalian UBR3, has an essential role in regulating the apoptosis pathway. We show that loss of ubr3 activity causes caspase-dependent apoptosis in Drosophila eye and wing discs. Our genetic epistasis analyses show that the apoptosis induced by loss of ubr3 can be suppressed by loss of initiator caspase Drosophila Nedd2-like caspase (Dronc), or by ectopic expression of the apoptosis inhibitor p35, but cannot be rescued by overexpression of DIAP1. Importantly, we show that the activity of Ubr3 in the apoptosis pathway is not dependent on its Ring-domain, which is required for its E3 ligase activity. Furthermore, we find that through the UBR-box domain, Ubr3 physically interacts with the neo-epitope of DIAP1 that is exposed after caspase-mediated cleavage. This interaction promotes the recruitment and ubiquitination of substrate caspases by DIAP1. Together, our data indicate that Ubr3 interacts with DIAP1 and positively regulates DIAP1 activity, possibly by maintaining its active conformation in the apoptosis pathway.
Project description:Although much has been learned in recent years about the apoptotic machinery, the mechanisms underlying survival and death choices during development of metazoans remain less clearly understood. During early oogenesis in Drosophila, a small excess in the number of specialized somatic cells, called polar cells (PCs), produced at follicle extremities is reduced to exactly two cells through apoptosis by mid-oogenesis. We have found that PCs destined to die first lose their apical contacts and then round up and shrink progressively until they disappear. Caspases are activated only once the cells have begun to shrink, suggesting that they are implicated in this part of the process, but not in the initial loss of cell polarity. Loss-of-function analyses based on mutant, clonal and RNAi approaches show that among the RHG family of pro-apoptotic factors, Hid is specifically necessary for PC apoptosis, as well as the initiator caspase Dronc and its adaptor Dark/Apaf-1, and likely several effector caspases, in particular Drice. In addition, we show that Hid protein and transcripts accumulate specifically in PCs destined to die, while the anti-apoptotic factor Diap1 is downregulated in these cells in a hid-dependent manner. Therefore, our results implicate the Hid-Diap1 module as an important regulatory point in a developmental case of apoptosis.
Project description:The proapoptotic factors Reaper, Hid, Grim, and Sickle regulate apoptosis in Drosophila by inhibiting the antiapoptotic factor DIAP1 (Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis 1). Heat, UV light, x-rays, and developmental signals can all increase the proapoptotic factors, but the control of transcription of the diap1 gene is unclear. We show that in imaginal discs the single Drosophila STAT protein (STAT92E) when activated can directly increase DIAP1 through binding to STAT DNA-binding sites in the diap1 promoter. The STAT92E contribution to DIAP1 production is required for cell survival after x-irradiation but not under unstressed conditions. Because DIAP1 prevents apoptosis after a variety of stresses, STAT92E may have a role in regulating stress responses in general.
Project description:The Drosophila tumor suppressor gene fat encodes a large cadherin that regulates growth and a form of tissue organization known as planar cell polarity (PCP). Fat regulates growth via the Hippo kinase pathway, which controls expression of genes promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis (reviewed in). The Hippo pathway is highly conserved and is implicated in the regulation of mammalian growth and cancer development. Genetic studies suggest that Fat activity is regulated by binding to another large cadherin, Dachsous (Ds). The tumor suppressor discs overgrown (dco)/Casein Kinase I delta/epsilon also regulates Hippo activity and PCP. The biochemical nature of how Fat, Ds, and Dco interact to regulate these pathways is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Fat is cleaved to generate 450 kDa and 110 kDa fragments (Fat(450) and Fat(110)). Fat(110) contains the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domain. The cytoplasmic domain of Fat binds Dco and is phosphorylated by Dco at multiple sites. Importantly, we show Fat forms cis-dimers and that Fat phosphorylation is regulated by Dachsous and Dco in vivo. We propose that Ds regulates Dco-dependent phosphorylation of Fat and Fat-associated proteins to control Fat signaling in growth and PCP.
Project description:Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is a highly conserved cellular process that is crucial for tissue homeostasis under normal development as well as environmental stress. Misregulation of apoptosis is linked to many developmental defects and diseases such as tumour formation, autoimmune diseases and neurological disorders. In this paper, we show a novel role for the exoribonuclease Pacman/Xrn1 in regulating apoptosis. Using Drosophila wing imaginal discs as a model system, we demonstrate that a null mutation in pacman results in small imaginal discs as well as lethality during pupation. Mutant wing discs show an increase in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis, especially in the wing pouch area. Compensatory proliferation also occurs in these mutant discs, but this is insufficient to compensate for the concurrent increase in apoptosis. The phenotypic effects of the pacman null mutation are rescued by a deletion that removes one copy of each of the pro-apoptotic genes reaper, hid and grim, demonstrating that pacman acts through this pathway. The null pacman mutation also results in a significant increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic mRNAs, hid and reaper, with this increase mostly occurring at the post-transcriptional level, suggesting that Pacman normally targets these mRNAs for degradation. Our results uncover a novel function for the conserved exoribonuclease Pacman and suggest that this exoribonuclease is important in the regulation of apoptosis in other organisms.
Project description:An appropriate balance between cell survival and cell death is essential for correct pattern formation in the animal tissues and organs. Previous studies have shown that the short-range signalling molecule Hedgehog (Hh) is required for cell proliferation and pattern formation in the Drosophila central wing discs. Signal transduction by one of the Hh targets, the morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp), is required for not only cell proliferation, but also cell survival in the pouch cells. However, Hh function in cell survival and cell death has not been revealed. Here, we found that loss of Hh signal activity induces considerable Caspase-dependent cell death in the wing pouch cells, and this process was independent of both Dpp signalling and Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling. Loss of Hh induced activation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid and inhibition of diap1. Therefore, we identified an important role of Hh signalling in cell survival during Drosophila wing development.
Project description:The retinoblastoma gene, rb, ensures at least its tumor suppressor function by inhibiting cell proliferation. Its role in apoptosis is more complex and less described than its role in cell cycle regulation. Rbf1, the Drosophila homolog of Rb, has been found to be pro-apoptotic in proliferative tissue. However, the way it induces apoptosis at the molecular level is still unknown. To decipher this mechanism, we induced rbf1 expression in wing proliferative tissue. We found that Rbf1-induced apoptosis depends on dE2F2/dDP heterodimer, whereas dE2F1 transcriptional activity is not required. Furthermore, we highlight that Rbf1 and dE2F2 downregulate two major anti-apoptotic genes in Drosophila: buffy, an anti-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family and diap1, a gene encoding a caspase inhibitor. On the one hand, Rbf1/dE2F2 repress buffy at the transcriptional level, which contributes to cell death. On the other hand, Rbf1 and dE2F2 upregulate how expression. How is a RNA binding protein involved in diap1 mRNA degradation. By this way, Rbf1 downregulates diap1 at a post-transcriptional level. Moreover, we show that the dREAM complex has a part in these transcriptional regulations. Taken together, these data show that Rbf1, in cooperation with dE2F2 and some members of the dREAM complex, can downregulate the anti-apoptotic genes buffy and diap1, and thus promote cell death in a proliferative tissue.
Project description:Mitochondrial proteins such as cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO and Omi/HtrA2 play important roles in the cell death pathways of mammalian cells. In Drosophila, the role of mitochondria in cell death is less clear. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the Drosophila ortholog of human Omi/HtrA2. We show that Drosophila Omi/HtrA2 is imported into the mitochondria where it undergoes proteolytic maturation to yield two isoforms, dOmi-L and dOmi-S. dOmi-L contains a canonical N-terminal IAP-binding motif (AVVS), whereas dOmi-S contains a distinct N-terminal motif (SKMT). DIAP1 was able to bind to both isoforms via its BIR1 and BIR2 domains. This resulted in cleavage of the linker region of DIAP1 between the BIR1 and BIR2 domains and further degradation of the BIR1 domain by the proteolytic activity of dOmi. The binding of DIAP1 to dOmi also resulted in DIAP1-mediated polyubiquitination of dOmi, suggesting that DIAP1 could target dOmi for proteasomal degradation. Consistent with this, expression of DIAP1 in Drosophila eye discs protected them from dOmi-induced eye ablation, indicating that DIAP1 plays an important role in protecting cells from the potentially lethal effects of dOmi. The ability of IAPs to bind to and ubiquitinate mitochondrial proteins such as dOmi may be a key conserved function to counterbalance the lethal effects of these proteins if accidentally released into the cytosol.
Project description:Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) counteract ubiquitin ligases to modulate the ubiquitination and stability of target signaling molecules. In Drosophila, the ubiquitin-proteasome system has a key role in the regulation of apoptosis, most notably, by controlling the abundance of the central apoptotic regulator DIAP1. Although the mechanism underlying DIAP1 ubiquitination has been extensively studied, the precise role of DUB(s) in controlling DIAP1 activity has not been fully investigated. Here we report the identification of a DIAP1-directed DUB using two complementary approaches. First, a panel of putative Drosophila DUBs was expressed in S2 cells to determine whether DIAP1 could be stabilized, despite treatment with death-inducing stimuli that would induce DIAP1 degradation. In addition, RNAi fly lines were used to detect modifiers of DIAP1 antagonist-induced cell death in the developing eye. Together, these approaches identified a previously uncharacterized protein encoded by CG8830, which we named DeUBiquitinating-Apoptotic-Inhibitor (DUBAI), as a novel DUB capable of preserving DIAP1 to dampen Drosophila apoptosis. DUBAI interacts with DIAP1 in S2 cells, and the putative active site of its DUB domain (C367) is required to rescue DIAP1 levels following apoptotic stimuli. DUBAI, therefore, represents a novel locus of apoptotic regulation in Drosophila, antagonizing cell death signals that would otherwise result in DIAP1 degradation.
Project description:The Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) gene Diap1 encodes a protein referred to as DIAP1 (D rosophila Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 1) that acts to supress apoptosis in "normal" cells in the fly. In this study we investigate the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to control two dipteran pests, Musca domestica and Delia radicum, by disrupting the control of apoptosis. Larval injections of 125-500?ng of Diap1 dsRNA resulted in dose-dependent mortality which was shown to be attributable to down-regulation of target mRNA. Insects injected with Diap1 dsRNA have approx. 1.5-2-fold higher levels of caspase activity than controls 24?hours post injection, providing biochemical evidence that inhibition of apoptotic activity by the Diap1 gene product has been decreased. By contrast adults were insensitive to injected dsRNA. Oral delivery failed to induce RNAi effects and we suggest this is attributable to degradation of ingested dsRNA by intra and extracellular RNAses. Non-target effects were demonstrated via mortality and down-regulation of Diap1 mRNA levels in M. domestica larvae injected with D. radicum Diap1 dsRNA, despite the absence of 21?bp identical sequence regions in the dsRNA. Here we show that identical 15?bp regions in dsRNA are sufficient to trigger non-target RNAi effects.