Utahmycins a and B, azaquinones produced by an environmental DNA clone.
ABSTRACT: Two new azaquinones, utahmycins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from cultures of Streptomyces albus J1704 transformed with the environmental DNA-derived Erd gene cluster. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The structure of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Both metabolites appear to arise from the addition of a nitrogen atom to erdacin biosynthetic intermediates. Utahmycin A (1) is the first example of a biologically derived 1,3-dimethyl-2-azaanthraquinone.
Project description:An actinomycete strain with a great potential to produce bioactive compounds isolated from a laterite soil was identified as Streptomyces sp. MSL based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Secondary metabolites produced by the strain in optimized nutrient broth were extracted and analyzed by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Among the different fractions, four diols, viz., (1) (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol, (2) (2R,3S)-2,3-Butanediol, (3) 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-butanediol (Pinacol), and (4) (3R)-1,3-Butanediol exhibited good antimicrobial activity. These compounds inhibited growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of these compounds was also determined against test micro-organisms in vitro. This is the first report on the occurrence of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-butanediol (Pinacol) in the genus Streptomyces. This paper also reports the extraction, purification, and antimicrobial spectrum of diols fractionated from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. MSL.
Project description:Pseudouridimycin (PUM), a selective inhibitor of bacterial RNA polymerase has been previously detected in microbial-extracts of two strains of Streptomyces species (strain ID38640 and ID38673). Here, we isolated PUM and its deoxygenated analogue desoxy-pseudouridimycin (dPUM) from Streptomyces albus DSM 40763, previously reported to produce the metabolite strepturidin (STU). The isolated compounds were characterized by HRMS and spectroscopic techniques and they selectively inhibited transcription by bacterial RNA polymerase as previously reported for PUM. In contrast, STU could not be detected in the cultures of S. albus DSM 40763. As the reported characteristics reported for STU are almost identical with that of PUM, the existence of STU was questioned. We further sequenced the genome of S. albus DSM 40763 and identified a gene cluster that contains orthologs of all PUM biosynthesis enzymes but lacks the enzymes that would conceivably allow biosynthesis of STU as an additional product.
Project description:Two new 1,3-oxazin-6-one derivatives (1 and 2) and six new bohemamine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids (3-8) were isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces spinoverrucosus strain SNB-048. Their structures including the absolute configurations were fully elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, ECD spectra, quantum chemical calculations, and chemical methods. Compounds 1 and 2 possess a ?-lactam moiety and a 1,3-oxazin-6-one system.
Project description:The propagation of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples in laboratory-grown bacteria provides a means to study natural products encoded in the genomes of uncultured bacteria. However, gene silencing often hampers the functional characterization of gene clusters captured on environmental DNA clones. Here we show that the overexpression of transcription factors found in sequenced environmental DNA-derived biosynthetic gene clusters, in conjunction with traditional culture-broth extract screening, can be used to identify new bioactive secondary metabolites from otherwise-silent gene clusters. Tetarimycin A, a tetracyclic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-active antibiotic, was isolated from the culture-broth extract of Streptomyces albus cultures cotransformed with an environmentally derived type-II polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster and its pathway-specific Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) cloned under the control of the constitutive ermE* promoter.
Project description:The beta-lactamases of Streptomyces albus G and Actinomadura R39 are inactivated by beta-iodopenicillanate. However, in contrast with the beta-lactamase I from Bacillus cereus, they also efficiently catalyse the hydrolysis of the inactivator; with the S. albus G enzyme, kcat. is larger than 25s-1 and the number of turnovers before inactivation is 515. With the A. R39 enzyme, kcat. is larger than 50s-1 and the number of turnovers before inactivation is 80. After hydrolysis of the beta-lactam amide bond, the product rearranges into 2.3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-1,4-thiazine-3,6-dicarboxylate, which exhibits an absorption maximum at 305 nm.
Project description:Rishirilide B was isolated from Streptomyces rishiriensis and Streptomyces bottropensis on the basis of its inhibitory activity towards alpha-2-macroglobulin. The biosynthesis of rishirilide B was investigated by feeding experiments with different 13C labelled precursors using the heterologous host Streptomyces albus J1074::cos4 containing a cosmid encoding of the gene cluster responsible for rishirilide B production. NMR spectroscopic analysis of labelled compounds demonstrate that the tricyclic backbone of rishirilide B is a polyketide synthesized from nine acetate units. One of the acetate units is decarboxylated to give a methyl group. The origin of the starter unit was determined to be isobutyrate.
Project description:Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria that occupy diverse ecological niches including host-associations with animals and plants. Members of this genus are known for their overwhelming repertoire of natural products, which has been exploited for almost a century as a source of medicines and agrochemicals. Notwithstanding intense scientific and commercial interest in Streptomyces natural products, surprisingly little is known of the intra- and/or inter-species ecological roles played by these metabolites. In this report we describe the chemical structures, biological properties, and biosynthetic relationships between natural products produced by Streptomyces isolated from internal tissues of predatory Conus snails, collected from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using chromatographic, spectroscopic and bioassays methodology, we demonstrate that Streptomyces isolated from five different Conus species produce identical chemical and antifungal profiles - comprising a suite of polycyclic tetramic acid macrolactams (PTMs). To investigate possible ecological (and evolutionary) relationships we used genome analyses to reveal a close taxonomic relationship with other sponge-derived and free-living PTM producing Streptomyces (i.e., Streptomyces albus). In-depth phylogenomic analysis of PTM biosynthetic gene clusters indicated PTM structure diversity was governed by a small repertoire of genetic elements, including discrete gene acquisition events involving dehydrogenases. Overall, our study shows a Streptomyces-Conus ecological relationship that is concomitant with specific PTM chemical profiles. We provide an evolutionary framework to explain this relationship, driven by anti-fungal properties that protect Conus snails from fungal pathogens.
Project description:Activation of silent biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces bacteria via overexpression of cluster-specific regulatory genes is a promising strategy for the discovery of novel bioactive secondary metabolites. This approach was used in an attempt to activate a cryptic gene cluster in a marine sponge-derived Streptomyces albus PVA94-07 presumably governing the biosynthesis of peptide-based secondary metabolites. While no new peptide-based metabolites were detected in the recombinant strain, it was shown to produce at least four new analogues of deferoxamine with additional acyl and sugar moieties, for which chemical structures were fully elucidated. Biological activity tests of two of the new deferoxamine analogues revealed weak activity against Escherichia coli. The gene knockout experiment in the gene cluster targeted for activation, as well as overexpression of certain genes from this cluster did not have an effect on the production of these compounds by the strain overexpressing the regulator. It seems plausible that the production of such compounds is a response to stress imposed by the production of an as-yet unidentified metabolite specified by the cryptic cluster.
Project description:In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811(T) forms a cluster with five other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these other species, including Streptomyces almquistii NRRL B-1685(T), Streptomyces flocculus NRRL B-2465(T), Streptomyces gibsonii NRRL B-1335(T) and Streptomyces rangoonensis NRRL B-12378(T) are quite similar. This cluster is of particular taxonomic interest because Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. The related strains were subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB and confirmation of previously reported phenotypic characteristics. The five strains formed a coherent cluster supported by a 100 % bootstrap value in phylogenetic trees generated from sequence alignments prepared by concatenating the sequences of the housekeeping genes, and identical tree topology was observed using various different tree-making algorithms. Moreover, all but one strain, S. flocculus NRRL B-2465(T), exhibited identical sequences for all of the five housekeeping gene loci sequenced, but NRRL B-2465(T) still exhibited an MLSA evolutionary distance of 0.005 from the other strains, a value that is lower than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. These data support a proposal to reclassify S. almquistii, S. flocculus, S. gibsonii and S. rangoonensis as later heterotypic synonyms of S. albus with NRRL B-1811(T) as the type strain. The MLSA sequence database also demonstrated utility for quickly and conclusively confirming that numerous strains within the ARS Culture Collection had been previously misidentified as subspecies of S. albus and that Streptomyces albus subsp. pathocidicus should be redescribed as a novel species, Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov., with the type strain NRRL B-24287(T).
Project description:Four new anthraquinone analogues including galvaquinones A-C (1-3) and an isolation artifact, 5,8-dihydroxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-6-(3-methylbutyl)anthra[9,1-de][1,3]oxazin-7(2H)-one (4), were isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces spinoverrucosus based on activity in an image-based assay to identify epigenetic modifying compounds. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by comprehensive NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. Galvaquinone B (2) was found to show epigenetic modulatory activity at 1.0 ?M and exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines Calu-3 and H2887.