Influence of Nanogels on Mechanical, Dynamic Mechanical, and Thermal Properties of Elastomers.
ABSTRACT: Use of sulfur crosslinked nanogels to improve various properties of virgin elastomers was investigated for the first time. Natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) nanogels were prepared by prevulcanization of the respective rubber lattices. These nanogels were characterized by dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy (AFM), solvent swelling, mechanical, and dynamic mechanical property measurements. Intermixing of gel and matrix at various ratios was carried out. Addition of NR gels greatly improved the green strength of SBR, whereas presence of SBR nanogels induced greater thermal stability in NR. For example, addition of 16 phr of NR gel increased the maximum tensile stress value of neat SBR by more than 48%. Noticeable increase in glass transition temperature of the gel filled systems was also observed. Morphology of these gel filled elastomers was studied by a combination of energy dispersive X-ray mapping, transmission electron microscopy, and AFM techniques. Particulate filler composite reinforcement models were used to understand the reinforcement mechanism of these nanogels. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9262-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:The effect of carbon black on the mechanical properties of elastomers is of great interest, because the filler is one of principal ingredients for the manufacturing of rubber products. While fillers can be used to enhance the properties of elastomers, including stress-free swelling resistance in solvent, it is widely known that the introduction of fillers yields significant inelastic responses of elastomers under cyclic mechanical loading, such as stress-softening, hysteresis and permanent set. When a filled elastomer is under mechanical deformation, the filler acts as a strain amplifier in the rubber matrix. Since the matrix local strain has a profound effect on the material's ability to absorb solvent, the study of the effect of carbon black content on the swelling characteristics of elastomeric components exposed to solvent in the presence of mechanical deformation is a prerequisite for durability analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of carbon black content on the swelling of elastomers in solvent in the presence of static mechanical strains: simple extension and simple torsion. Three different types of elastomers are considered: unfilled, filled with 33 phr (parts per hundred) and 66 phr of carbon black. The peculiar role of carbon black on the swelling characteristics of elastomers in solvent in the presence of mechanical strain is explored.
Project description:In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (Tmix) on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR) and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR) rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr) for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA) tests. The CBT-caused viscosity changes were assessed by parallel-plate rheometry. The morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CBT became better dispersed in the rubber matrices with elevated mixing temperatures (at which CBT was in partially molten state), which resulted in improved tensile properties. With increasing mixing temperature the size of the CBT particles in the compounds decreased significantly, from few hundred microns to 5-10 microns. Compounding at temperatures above 120 °C and 140 °C for NBR and SBR, respectively, yielded reduced tensile mechanical properties most likely due to the degradation of the base rubber. The viscosity reduction by CBT was more pronounced in mixes with coarser CBT dispersions prepared at lower mixing temperatures.
Project description:As a composite of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, blending hydrophilic silica microparticles with oil-extended rubber can improve vehicle tire performance but the nanometer scale effects of microparticle inclusion have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) video imaging to closely investigate the behavior of functionalized and unmodified styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), as models for tire rubber, on mica surfaces. The hydrophilic silica microparticle surface could be simulated by a mica substrate because both have silanol groups on their surface. Using AFM video imaging, we tracked the behavior of individual SBR polymer chains on mica surfaces to reveal how polymer modification affects the interaction of SBR with mica surfaces. We measured the diffusion coefficients and spring constants of single SBR polymer chains for the first time, demonstrating that it is possible to parameterize the relationship between the molecular dynamic structure of a polymer and rubber properties of the vulcanized compound.
Project description:For the first time, phenolic formaldehyde resin (PF)-treated silica carbon black (SiCB) were prepared with different treatment conditions and their effect as fillers on the mechanical properties of filler filled natural rubber/butadiene rubber (NR/BR) composites were investigated in detail. The PF coating layer on the SiCB derived from rusk husk not only promoted the dispersion of the fillers but also improved the interfacial interactions between fillers and the rubber matrix. As a result, both the cross-link density and mechanical properties of the obtained composites were effectively enhanced. The filler SiCB with 3 wt % PF surface treatment greatly improved the tensile strength of NR/BR composites and reached 7.1 MPa, which increased by 73.7% compared with that of SiCB-filled NR/BR composites. The improved interfacial interactions promoted higher energy dissipation, leading to simultaneously enhancing the glass transition temperature of the obtained composites. Due to the easy processing and low cost of filler as well as the effectively enhanced mechanical properties of composites, the PF-coating methodology has a great potential for practical applications in SiCB reinforced high-performance composites. A commercial filler, carbon black (N774), was also used in this study and evaluated under the same conditions for comparison.
Project description:Silk composites with natural rubber (NR) were prepared by mixing degummed silk and NR latex solutions. A significant enhancement of the mechanical properties was confirmed for silk/NR composites compared to a NR-only product, indicating that silk can be applied as an effective reinforcement for rubber materials. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis revealed that a ?-sheet structure was formed in the NR matrix by increasing the silk content above 20 wt%. Then, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-modified silk was also blended with NR to give a DOPA-silk/NR composite, which showed superior mechanical properties to those of the unmodified silk-based composite. Not only the chemical structure but also the dominant secondary structure of silk in the composite was changed after DOPA modification. It was concluded that both the efficient adhesion property of DOPA residue and the secondary structure change improved the compatibility of silk and NR, resulting in the enhanced mechanical properties of the formed composite. The knowledge obtained herein should contribute to the development of the fabrication of novel silk-based elastic materials.
Project description:This investigation addresses the evolution of the microscopic and mesoscopic structures distribution, and micro-defects of carbon black (CB) filled natural rubber (NR) under uniaxial tensile condition during the fatigue process. NR was filled with three different grades of CB in order to understand the impact of the structural degree and specific surface areas of CB and fatigue degree on the Payne effect. It was found that the Payne effect was initially suppressed and then enhanced by increasing the degree of fatigue. The decrease of the storage modulus in the low strain area was attributed to the CB network destruction and the breakdown of the matrix cross-linking network in the early fatigue stage. However, by further increasing the degree of fatigue, the spatial rearrangement of CB aggregates with the orientation of molecular chains between adjacent CB aggregates will results in mechanical reinforcement before the appearance of micro-defects. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the structural degree of CB has a stronger impact on the mesoscopic structures than the specific surface area of CB during the tensile fatigue process.
Project description:The work covers the characteristics of the functional properties of composites bordering thermoplastics and elastomers. The research is a continuation of considerations on blends in the form of a mixture of natural rubber (NR) with an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and the addition of a lignocellulose biofiller (wheat straw). After describing the processing and rheology as well as examining the thermal properties and morphology of composites (Part 1), the second part focuses on the characteristics of their performance. The effect of both different ratios of mixed polymers and the amount of filler on tensile strength and elongation at break, resistance to thermo-oxidative aging, hardness, tear resistance, barrier and damping properties, as well as flammability were investigated. The increased EVA content has shown a positive effect on tensile strength, elongation at break, resistance to thermo-oxidative aging, hardness, relative damping, tear strength, barrier and burning delay. On the other hand, a larger amount of natural rubber provides high flexibility and promotes the creation of a reinforcing structure by the filler used. Moreover, a significant impact of the addition of cereal straw on the barrier, damping, strength and flammability properties of composites was also noted. The great advantage of the prepared compositions in relation to commercial plastics is their environmental friendliness, primarily by replacing some petroleum derivatives of plastics with natural rubber and straw fibers.
Project description:A novel class of polymers called "slide-ring" (SR) materials with slideable junctions were used for high damping composites for the first time. The SR acts as the high damping phase dispersed in the natural rubber (NR) matrix, and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) acts as the compatibilizer. The morphological, structural, and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA), rubber processing analyzer (RPA), and tensile tester. AFM and TEM results showed that the SR phase was uniformly dispersed in the composites, in a small size that is a function of ENR. DMTA and RPA results showed that the damping factor of the composites is much higher than that of NR, especially at room temperatures. Stretch hysteresis was used to study the energy dissipation of the composites at large strains. The results showed that SR and ENR can significantly improve the dissipation efficiency at strains lower than 200% strain. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study the strain-induced crystallization of the composites. The results indicated that the impact of the SR on the crystallization of NR is mitigated by the insulating effect of ENR.
Project description:Opalized white tuff (OWT) with 40 μm average particle size and 39.3 m(2)/g specific surface area has been introduced into polyisoprene rubber (NR). Their reinforcing effects were evaluated by comparisons with those from precipitated silica (PSi). The cure characteristic, apparent activation energy of cross-link (E(ac)) and reversion (E(ar)), and mechanical properties of a variety of composites based on these rubbers were studied. This was done using vulcanization techniques, mechanical testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that OWT can greatly improve the vulcanizing process by shortening the time of optimum cure (t(c90)) and the scorch time (t(s2)) of cross-linked rubber composites, which improves production efficiency and operational security. The rubber composites filled with 50 phr of OWT were found to have good mechanical and elastomeric properties. The tensile strengths of the NR/OWT composites are close to those of NR/PSi composites, but the tear strength and modulus are not as good as the corresponding properties of those containing precipitated silica. Morphology results revealed that the OWT is poorly dispersed in the rubber matrix. According to that, the lower interactions between OWT and polyisoprene rubber macromolecules are obtained, but similar mechanical properties of NR/OWT (100/50) rubber composites compared with NR/PSi (100/50) rubber composites are resulted.
Project description:The application of wastes as a filler/reinforcement phase in polymers is a new strategy to modify the performance properties and reduce the price of biocomposites. The use of these fillers, coming from agricultural waste (cellulose/lignocellulose-based fillers) and waste rubbers, constitutes a method for the management of post-consumer waste. In this paper, highly-filled biocomposites based on natural rubber (NR) and ground tire rubber (GTR)/brewers' spent grain (BSG) hybrid reinforcements, were prepared using two different curing systems: (i) sulfur-based and (ii) dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The influence of the amount of fillers (in 100/0, 50/50, and 0/100 ratios in parts per hundred of rubber) and type of curing system on the final properties of biocomposites was evaluated by the oscillating disc rheometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, swelling behavior, tensile testing, and impedance tube measurements. The results show, that the scorch time and the optimum curing time values of sulfur cured biocomposites are affected by the change of the hybrid filler ratio while using the DCP curing system, and the obtained values do not show significant variations. The results conclude that the biocomposites cured with sulfur have better physico-mechanical and acoustic absorption, and that the type of curing system does not influence their thermal stability. The overall analysis indicates that the difference in final properties of highly filled biocomposites cured with two different systems is mainly affected by the: (i) cross-linking efficiency, (ii) partial absorption and reactions between fillers and used additives, and (iii) affinity of additives to applied fillers.