Multiple Dynamic Processes Contribute to the Complex Steady Shear Behavior of Cross-Linked Supramolecular Networks of Semidilute Entangled Polymer Solutions.
ABSTRACT: Molecular theories of shear thickening and shear thinning in associative polymer networks are typically united in that they involve a single kinetic parameter that describes the network -- a relaxation time that is related to the lifetime of the associative bonds. Here we report the steady-shear behavior of two structurally identical metallo-supramolecular polymer networks, for which single-relaxation parameter models break down in dramatic fashion. The networks are formed by the addition of reversible cross-linkers to semidilute entangled solutions of PVP in DMSO, and they differ only in the lifetime of the reversible cross-links. Shear thickening is observed for cross-linkers that have a slower dissociation rate (17 s(-1)), while shear thinning is observed for samples that have a faster dissociation rate (ca. 1400 s(-1)). The difference in the steady shear behavior of the unentangled vs. entangled regime reveals an unexpected, additional competing relaxation, ascribed to topological disentanglement in the semidilute entangled regime that contributes to the rheological properties.
Project description:The large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior of metallo-supramolecular polymer networks formed by adding bis-Pd(II) cross-linkers to poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution is reported. The influence of scanning frequency, dissociation rate of cross-linkers, concentration of cross-linkers, and concentration of PVP solution on the large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior is explored. In semidilute unentangled PVP solutions, above a critical scanning frequency, strain hardening of both storage moduli and loss moduli is observed. In the semidilute entangled regime of PVP solution, however, strain softening is observed for samples with faster cross-linkers (k(d) ? 1450 s(-1)), whereas strain hardening is observed for samples with slower cross-linkers (k(d) ? 17 s(-1)). The mechanism of strain hardening is attributed primarily to a strain-induced increase in the number of elastically active chains, with possible contributions from non-Gaussian stretching of polymer chains at strains approaching network fracture. The divergent strain softening of samples with faster cross-linkers in semidilute entangled PVP solutions, relative to the strain hardening of samples with slower cross-linkers, is consistent with observed shear thinning/shear thickening behavior reported previously and is attributed to the fact that the average time that a cross-linker remains detached is too short to permit the local relaxation of polymer chain segments that is necessary for a net conversion of elastically inactive to elastically active cross-linkers. These and other observations paint a picture in which strain softening and shear thinning arise from the same set of molecular mechanisms, conceptually uniting the two nonlinear responses for this system.
Project description:The steady shear behavior of metallo-supramolecular polymer networks formed by bis-Pd(II) cross-linkers and semidilute entangled solutions of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) is reported. The steady shear behavior of the networks depends on the dissociation rate and association rate of the cross-linkers, the concentration of cross-linkers, and the concentration of the polymer solution. The divergent steady shear behavior-shear thinning versus shear thickening-of samples with identical structure but different cross-linker dynamics (J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1683-1686) is further explored in this paper. The divergent steady shear behavior for networks with different cross-linkers is connected to a competition between different time scales: the average time that a cross-linker remains open (?(1)) and the local relaxation time of a segment of polymer chain (?(segment)). When ?(1) is larger than ?(segment), shear thickening is observed. When ?(1) is smaller than ?(segment), only shear thinning is observed.
Project description:Surfactant molecules can self-assemble into various morphologies under proper combinations of ionic strength, temperature, and flow conditions. At equilibrium, wormlike micelles can transition from entangled to branched and multiconnected structures with increasing salt concentration. Under certain flow conditions, micellar structural transitions follow different trajectories. In this work, we consider the flow of two semidilute wormlike micellar solutions through microposts, focusing on their microstructural and rheological evolutions. Both solutions contain cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium salicylate. One is weakly viscoelastic and shear thickening, whereas the other is strongly viscoelastic and shear thinning. When subjected to strain rates of ?10(3) s(-1) and strains of ?10(3), we observe the formation of a stable flow-induced structured phase (FISP), with entangled, branched, and multiconnected micellar bundles, as evidenced by electron microscopy. The high stretching and flow alignment in the microposts enhance the flexibility and lower the bending modulus of the wormlike micelles. As flexible micelles flow through the microposts, it becomes energetically favorable to minimize the number of end caps while concurrently promoting the formation of cross-links. The presence of spatial confinement and extensional flow also enhances entropic fluctuations, lowering the energy barrier between states, thus increasing transition frequencies between states and enabling FISP formation. Whereas the rheological properties (zero-shear viscosity, plateau modulus, and stress relaxation time) of the shear-thickening precursor are smaller than those of the FISP, those of the shear-thinning precursor are several times larger than those of the FISP. This rheological property variation stems from differences in the structural evolution from the precursor to the FISP.
Project description:We report here the nonlinear rheological properties of metallo-supramolecular networks formed by the reversible cross-linking of semi-dilute unentangled solutions of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The reversible cross-linkers are bis-Pd(II) or bis-Pt(II) complexes that coordinate to the pyridine functional groups on the PVP. Under steady shear, shear thickening is observed above a critical shear rate, and that critical shear rate is experimentally correlated with the lifetime of the metal-ligand bond. The onset and magnitude of the shear thickening depend on the amount of cross-linkers added. In contrast to the behavior observed in most transient networks, the time scale of network relaxation is found to increase during shear thickening. The primary mechanism of shear thickening is ascribed to the shear-induced transformation of intrachain cross-linking to interchain cross-linking, rather than nonlinear high tension along polymer chains that are stretched beyond the Gaussian range.
Project description:Granular media take on great importance in industry and geophysics, posing a severe challenge to materials science. Their response properties elude known soft rheological models, even when the yield-stress discontinuity is blurred by vibro-fluidization. Here we propose a broad rheological scenario where average stress sums up a frictional contribution, generalizing conventional ?(I)-rheology, and a kinetic collisional term dominating at fast fluidization. Our conjecture fairly describes a wide series of experiments in a vibrofluidized vane setup, whose phenomenology includes velocity weakening, shear thinning, a discontinuous thinning transition, and gaseous shear thickening. The employed setup gives access to dynamic fluctuations, which exhibit a broad range of timescales. In the slow dense regime the frequency of cage-opening increases with stress and enhances, with respect to ?(I)-rheology, the decrease of viscosity. Diffusivity is exponential in the shear stress in both thinning and thickening regimes, with a huge growth near the transition.
Project description:Viscoelastic fluids exhibit rheological nonlinearity at a high shear rate. Although typical nonlinear effects, shear thinning and shear thickening, have been usually understood by variation of intrinsic quantities such as viscosity, one still requires a better understanding of the microscopic origins, currently under debate, especially on the shear-thickening mechanism. We present accurate measurements of shear stress in the bound hydration water layer using noncontact dynamic force microscopy. We find shear thickening occurs above ? 10(6) s(-1) shear rate beyond 0.3-nm layer thickness, which is attributed to the nonviscous, elasticity-associated fluidic instability via fluctuation correlation. Such a nonlinear fluidic transition is observed due to the long relaxation time (? 10(-6) s) of water available in the nanoconfined hydration layer, which indicates the onset of elastic turbulence at nanoscale, elucidating the interplay between relaxation and shear motion, which also indicates the onset of elastic turbulence at nanoscale above a universal shear velocity of ? 1 mm/s. This extensive layer-by-layer control paves the way for fundamental studies of nonlinear nanorheology and nanoscale hydrodynamics, as well as provides novel insights on viscoelastic dynamics of interfacial water.
Project description:The processing volume of bioengineering operations requires flow properties of algal mass for effective processing techniques. Chlorella Vulgaris microalgae cultured at 25 °C in Tap media under continuous illumination was considered. It showed an exponential phase of growth up to 8 days and then a stationary phase of growth from 8 days to 15 days. The rheological properties of microalgae biomass during the growth represented power law model. Microscopic analysis showed the influence of shearing on variation of algal structure from clusters to complete cell separation. The flow properties supported the microscopy analysis showing the shear thickening property at high shear rates and shear thinning nature at low shear regime. Optimal power required for the agitation of biomass based on the variations of non-Newtonian viscosity were predicted by considering the vessel geometry.
Project description:Blood viscosity decreases with shear stress, a property essential for an efficient perfusion of the vascular tree. Shear thinning is intimately related to the dynamics and mutual interactions of RBCs, the major component of blood. Because of the lack of knowledge about the behavior of RBCs under physiological conditions, the link between RBC dynamics and blood rheology remains unsettled. We performed experiments and simulations in microcirculatory flow conditions of viscosity, shear rates, and volume fractions, and our study reveals rich RBC dynamics that govern shear thinning. In contrast to the current paradigm, which assumes that RBCs align steadily around the flow direction while their membranes and cytoplasm circulate, we show that RBCs successively tumble, roll, deform into rolling stomatocytes, and, finally, adopt highly deformed polylobed shapes for increasing shear stresses, even for semidilute volume fractions of the microcirculation. Our results suggest that any pathological change in plasma composition, RBC cytosol viscosity, or membrane mechanical properties will affect the onset of these morphological transitions and should play a central role in pathological blood rheology and flow behavior.
Project description:We investigate which property of non-Newtonian fluids determines the deceleration of a high-speed impacting object. Using high-speed camera footage, we measure the velocity decrease of a high-speed spherical object impacting a typical Newtonian fluid (water) as a reference and compare it with a shear thickening fluid (cornstarch) and a shear thinning viscoelastic fluid (a weakly cross-linked polymer gel). Three models describing the kinetic energy loss of the object are considered: fluid inertia, shear thickening and viscoelasticity. By fitting the three models to the experimental data, we conclude that the viscoelastic model works best for both the cornstarch and the polymer gel. Since the cornstarch is also viscoelastic, we conclude that the ability to stop objects of these complex fluids is given by their viscoelasticity rather than shear thickening or shear thinning.
Project description:When stressed sufficiently, solid materials yield and deform plastically via reorganization of microscopic constituents. Indeed, it is possible to alter the microstructure of materials by judicious application of stress, an empirical process utilized in practice to enhance the mechanical properties of metals. Understanding the interdependence of plastic flow and microscopic structure in these nonequilibrium states, however, remains a major challenge. Here, we experimentally investigate this relationship, between the relaxation dynamics and microscopic structure of disordered colloidal solids during plastic deformation. We apply oscillatory shear to solid colloidal monolayers and study their particle trajectories as a function of shear rate in the plastic regime. Under these circumstances, the strain rate, the relaxation rate associated with plastic flow, and the sample microscopic structure oscillate together, but with different phases. Interestingly, the experiments reveal that the relaxation rate associated with plastic flow at time t is correlated with the strain rate and sample microscopic structure measured at earlier and later times, respectively. The relaxation rate, in this nonstationary condition, exhibits power-law, shear-thinning behavior and scales exponentially with sample excess entropy. Thus, measurement of sample static structure (excess entropy) provides insight about both strain rate and constituent rearrangement dynamics in the sample at earlier times.