Fat infiltration in muscle: new evidence for familial clustering and associations with diabetes.
ABSTRACT: Increased fat infiltration in skeletal muscle has been associated with diabetes. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can be used to measure muscle density, which reflects the lipid content of skeletal muscle such that greater fat infiltration in skeletal muscle is associated with lower muscle density. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to fat infiltration in skeletal muscle has not been assessed. Therefore, our aim is to determine genetic and environmental contributions to measures of skeletal muscle composition, and describe their associations with type 2 diabetes in multigenerational families of African ancestry.Peripheral QCT (pQCT) measures of skeletal muscle density were obtained for the calf in 471 individuals (60% women; mean 43 years) belonging to eight large, multigenerational Afro-Caribbean families (mean family size 51 individuals; 3,535 relative pairs).The proportion of variance in muscle density due to additive genetic effects (residual heritability) was 35.0% (P < 0.001) and significant covariates (age, gender, BMI, and parity) explained 55.0% of the total phenotypic variation in muscle density. Muscle density was lower (P < 0.001) in 62 diabetics (69.5 mg/cm(3)) than in 339 nondiabetics (74.3 mg/cm(3)) and remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI (P = 0.005) or age, gender, and waist circumference (P = 0.01).Our results provide new evidence that ectopic lipid deposition in skeletal muscle is a heritable trait and is associated with diabetes, independent of overall and central obesity in families of African heritage. Genome-wide screens and candidate gene studies are warranted to identify the genetic factors contributing to ectopic deposition of skeletal muscle fat.
Project description:Abstract Background: Skeletal muscle adipose tissue (AT) infiltration, or myosteatosis, appears to be greater in African compared with European ancestry individuals and may play a role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease that disproportionally affects African ancestry populations. Inflammation is one mechanism that may link myosteatosis with increased T2DM risk, but studies examining the relationship between inflammation and myosteatosis are lacking.To examine these associations, we measured skeletal muscle subcutaneous AT, intermuscular AT, and skeletal muscle density using quantitative computed tomography and serum markers of inflammation in 471 individuals from 8 Afro-Caribbean multigenerational families [mean family size 67; mean age 43 years; mean body mass index (BMI) 28?kg/m(2)].After removing the variation attributable to significant covariates, heritabilities of inflammation markers [C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)] ranged from 33% (TNF?) to 40% (CRP); all P<0.01. Higher CRP, IL-6, and TNF-? were associated with lower subcutaneous AT around skeletal muscle (r=-0.13 to -0.19, P<0.05). Higher CRP was additionally associated with lower skeletal muscle density, indicative of greater intramuscular AT (r=-0.10, P<0.05), hyperinsulinemia (r=0.12, P<0.05), and increased homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r=0.17, P<0.01).Our findings suggest that heredity may play a significant role in the determination of several markers of inflammation in African ancestry individuals. Higher concentrations of CRP appear to be associated with greater skeletal muscle AT infiltration, lower subcutaneous AT, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between inflammation with changes in skeletal muscle AT distribution with aging and the incidence of T2DM.
Project description:Aging is associated with declining serum levels of androgenic hormones and with increased skeletal muscle fat infiltration, an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Androgens regulate fat mass and glucose homeostasis, but the effect of androgenic hormones on skeletal muscle fat infiltration is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine the association of serum androgens and their precursors and metabolites with skeletal muscle fat infiltration and T2DM in a black male population group at high risk of T2DM. Serum androgens, estrogens, and androgen precursors and metabolites were measured using mass spectrometry; and calf skeletal muscle fat distribution (subcutaneous and intermuscular fat; skeletal muscle density) was measured using quantitative computed tomography in 472 Afro-Caribbean men 65 years and older. Bioactive androgens, testosterone, free testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone were associated with less skeletal muscle fat infiltration (r = -0.14 to -0.18, P < .05) and increased skeletal muscle density (r = 0.10 to 0.14, P < .05), independent of total adiposity. In addition, glucuronidated androgen metabolites were associated with less subcutaneous fat (r = -0.11 to -0.15, P < .05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified an increased level of 3?-diol-3 glucuronide (odds ratio = 1.38, P < .01) and a decreased level of dihydrotestosterone (odds ratio = 0.66, P < .01) to be significantly associated with T2DM. Our findings suggest that, in elderly black men, independent of total adiposity, bioactive androgens and glucuronidated androgen metabolites may play previously unrecognized role in skeletal muscle fat distribution. Longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between androgens and androgen metabolites with changes in skeletal muscle fat distribution with aging and the incidence of T2DM.
Project description:fat infiltration within and around skeletal muscle (i.e. myosteatosis) increases with ageing, is greater in African versus European ancestry men and is associated with poor health. Myosteatosis studies of mortality are lacking, particularly among African ancestry populations.in the Tobago Health study, a prospective longitudinal study, we evaluated the association of all-cause mortality with quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measured lower leg myosteatosis (intermuscular fat (IM fat) and muscle density) in 1,652 African ancestry men using Cox proportional hazards models. Date of death was abstracted from death certificates and/or proxy.one hundred and twelve deaths occurred during follow-up (mean 5.9 years). In all men (age range 40-91 years), higher all-cause mortality was associated with greater IM fat (HR (95% CI) per SD: 1.29 (1.06-1.57)) and lower muscle density (HR (95% CI) per SD lower: 1.37 (1.08-1.75)) in fully adjusted models. Similar mortality hazard rates were seen in the subset of elderly men (aged ?65 years) with greater IM fat (1.40 (1.11-1.78) or lower muscle density (1.66 (1.24-2.21)) in fully adjusted models.our study identified a novel, independent association between myosteatosis and all-cause mortality in African ancestry men. Further studies are needed to establish whether this association is independent of other ectopic fat depots and to identify possible biological mechanisms underlying this relationship.
Project description:Skeletal muscle fat infiltration (known as myosteatosis) is greater in African compared with European ancestry men and may play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, prospective studies examining the magnitude of changes in myosteatosis with aging and their metabolic consequences are sparse.Longitudinal changes in peripheral quantitative computed tomography measured calf myosteatosis [intermuscular fat (mm(2) ) and skeletal muscle density as a measure of intramuscular fat (mg/cm(3) )] were examined in 1515 Afro-Caribbean men aged 40+ years recruited without regard to their health status.During an average of 6.2 years of follow-up, an age-related increase in intermuscular fat and a decrease in skeletal muscle density were observed (all P < 0.0001), which remained significant in those who lost weight, gained weight, or remained weight stable (all P < 0.0001). In addition, muscle density loss accelerated with increasing age (P < 0.0001). Increased intermuscular fat during follow-up was associated with an increased incident risk of T2D independent of factors known to be associated with T2D (odds ratios per 1-SD increase in intermuscular fat = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.08-1.53).Our findings suggest that both inter- and intramuscular fat increase with advancing age and that intermuscular fat contributes to development of T2D among African ancestry men.
Project description:Fat contained within skeletal muscle is strongly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity may be a risk factor for greater fat infiltration within skeletal muscle during growth.We sought to examine the relationship between physical activity and skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh in girls.Data from 464 girls, age 8-13 yr, were used to examine the relationship between physical activity and skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh. Calf and thigh muscle density (mg·cm(-3)), an index of skeletal muscle fat content, was assessed at the 66% tibia and 20% femur sites relative to the respective distal growth plates of the nondominant limb using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Physical activity level was classified by past-year physical activity questionnaire score.Muscle densities of the calf and thigh were inversely correlated with percent total body fat (r = -0.37 and -0.48, P values < 0.001) and total body fat mass (r = -0.33 and -0.40, P values < 0.001). Multiple linear regression with physical activity, ethnicity, maturity offset, and muscle cross-sectional area as independent variables showed that physical activity was independently associated with muscle densities of the calf (? = 0.14, P = 0.002) and thigh (? = 0.15, P < 0.001). Thus, lower physical activity was associated with higher skeletal muscle fat content.Our results suggest that a lower level of physical activity may lead to excess skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh in girls.
Project description:Skeletal muscle fat infiltration (myosteatosis) increases with aging, and has been associated with poor metabolic and musculoskeletal health, independent of overall adiposity. Studies examining the relationship of myosteatosis and mortality among older individuals recruited without regard to their health status are sparse.We evaluated the association of peripheral computed tomography measured calf myosteatosis (intermuscular fat and muscle density as a measure of intramuscular fat) with mortality in 1,063 community-dwelling older men. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of mortality independent of potential confounders.During a mean follow-up of 7.2 years, 317 participants died. After adjustment for potential covariates and additional adjustment for whole body fat, lower skeletal muscle density was associated with increased all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] per standard deviation lower skeletal muscle density: 1.24 [1.09-1.41] and 1.46 [1.15-1.86], respectively), and to some extent with noncardiovascular disease mortality (1.18 [1.0-1.38], p = .053). After adjusting for trunk fat in a separate multivariable model, the association between skeletal muscle density and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality remained significant (both p < .01), while its association with noncardiovascular disease mortality became of borderline significance (p = .085). No other measures of adiposity, including calf intermuscular fat, were associated with mortality.Our study reveals an independent association between skeletal muscle density and mortality in a community-based sample of older, predominantly Caucasian men. Further studies are needed to establish if this association is independent of other ectopic fat depots, and to identify the biological mechanisms underlying this relationship.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Myotonic Dystrophy 1 (DM1) causes progressive myopathy of extremity muscles. DM1 may also affect muscles of the trunk. The aim of this study was to investigate fat infiltration and muscle size in trunk muscles in DM1 patients, and in an age and gender matched control group. Further, explore how fat infiltration and degree of atrophy in these muscles are associated with motor and respiratory function in DM1 patients. METHOD:We measured fat infiltration and trunk muscle size by MRI in 20 patients with genetically confirmed classic form of DM1, and compared these cases with 20 healthy, age and gender matched controls. In the DM1 group, we investigated correlations between MRI findings and clinical measures of muscle strength, mobility and respiration. We used sum scores for fat infiltration and muscle size in trunk flexors and trunk extensors in the analysis of group differences and correlations. RESULTS:Significant differences between cases and controls were present for fat infiltration in trunk flexors (p = 0.001) and trunk extensors (p = < 0.001), and for muscle size in trunk flexors (p = 0.002) and trunk extensors (p = 0.030). Fat infiltration in trunk flexors were significant correlated to back extension strength (rho = - 0.523 p = 0.018), while muscle size in trunk flexors was significantly correlated to trunk flexion strength (rho = 0.506 p = 0.023). Fat infiltration in trunk flexors was significantly correlated with lower general mobility (rho = - 0.628, p = 0.003), reduced balance (rho = 0.630, p < 0.003) and forced vital capacity (rho - 0.487 p = 0.040). CONCLUSIONS:Trunk muscles in DM1 patients had significant higher levels of fat infiltration and reduced muscle size compared to age and gender matched controls. In DM1 patients, fat infiltration was associated with reduced muscle strength, mobility, balance and lung function, while muscle size was associated with reduced muscle strength and lung function. These findings are of importance for clinical management of the disease and could be useful additional outcome measures in future intervention studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous work demonstrated that high-fat diet (HFD) triggered thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and that silencing TXNIP prevents diabetes-impaired vascular recovery. Here, we examine the impact of genetic deletion of TXNIP on HFD-impaired vascular recovery using hind limb ischemia model. METHODS:Wild type mice (WT, C57Bl/6) and TXNIP knockout mice (TKO) were fed either normal chow diet (WT-ND and TKO-ND) or 60% high-fat diet (WT-HFD and TKO-HFD). After four weeks of HFD, unilateral hind limb ischemia was performed and blood flow was measured using Laser doppler scanner at baseline and then weekly for an additional three weeks. Vascular density, nitrative stress, infiltration of CD68+ macrophages, and expression of inflammasome, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 were examined by slot blot, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:By week 8, HFD caused similar increases in weight, cholesterol and triglycerides in both WT and TKO. At week 4 and week 8, HFD significantly impaired glucose tolerance in WT and to a lesser extent in TKO. HFD significantly impaired blood flow and vascular density (CD31 labeled) in skeletal muscle of WT mice compared to ND but not in TKO. HFD and ischemia significantly induced tyrosine nitration, and systemic IL-1? and infiltration of CD68+ cells in skeletal muscle from WT but not from TKO. HFD significantly increased cleaved-caspase-1 and IL-1 ? compared to ND. Under both ND, ischemia tended to increase VEGF expression and increased VEGFR2 activation in WT only but not TKO. CONCLUSION:Similar to prior observation in diabetes, HFD-induced obesity can compromise vascular recovery in response to ischemic insult. The mechanism involves increased TXNIP-NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3) inflammasome activation, nitrative stress and impaired VEGFR2 activation. Deletion of TXNIP restored blood flow, reduced nitrative stress and blunted inflammasome-mediated inflammation; however, it did not impact VEGF/VEGFR2 in HFD. Targeting TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome can provide potential therapeutic target in obesity-induced vascular complication.
Project description:Recent evidence suggests that adipose tissue may negatively impact bone health, challenging the traditional paradigm that increased fat mass, through mechanical loading or endogenous estrogen production, is beneficial to the skeleton. We hypothesized that it is primarily the visceral compartment of body fat that is detrimental to bone metabolism, resulting in impaired bone density and architecture. In an age-stratified population sample of 218 women and 291 men (age 20-97 years), we assessed visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue areas at the L2-L3 interspace level by single slice quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and measured total body fat mass (TBF) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We then correlated these findings with volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) assessed by central QCT, and with vBMD and microstructural parameters at the ultradistal radius (UDR) by high resolution peripheral QCT (HRpQCT). In unadjusted analyses in postmenopausal women, TBF and SAT were positively correlated with total, trabecular, and cortical vBMD at the FN, LS, and UDR and with trabecular microstructure at the UDR. By contrast, VAT was not correlated with vBMD at the FN or LS but was positively correlated with UDR total and trabecular vBMD but not cortical vBMD. Adjustment for age or for bioavailable estradiol and testosterone levels reduced these correlations, while adjustment for body weight eliminated most positive associations. Assessment of the VAT/SAT ratio, however, demonstrated a negative relationship with vBMD at the FN and LS in postmenopausal women, a relationship eliminated when adjusted for age. Correlations between skeletal parameters and adipose measurements in pre-menopausal women and older men were weaker and mostly non-significant. In younger men, VAT was negatively associated with vBMD, cortical thickness, and trabecular microstructure at the UDR, and with LS vBMD and FN cortical vBMD. These associations generally remained after adjustment, with some negative associations (e.g., UDR cortical area) being accentuated. Similar results were found when the VAT/SAT ratio was correlated with FN vBMD in younger men; in contrast, VAT/SAT was positively correlated with FN vBMD in older men and this relationship was strengthened by age-adjustment. Together, our data suggest that adiposity has associations with bone that are age-, gender-, menopausal status-, adipose depot-, and bone compartment-specific. These novel observations warrant further investigations to establish any causal relationships.
Project description:Sarcopenia has been associated with several conditions relevant to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), such as aging and obesity, but a direct relationship between OSA and skeletal muscle alterations has not been identified. This study investigated associations between computed tomography (CT)-measured skeletal muscle indices and OSA severity. Analyzed were 334 patients who underwent polysomnography to diagnose OSA. Lumbar skeletal muscles were assessed with CT for the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, cross-sectional area, normalized for height squared) and skeletal muscle density (SMD, fat infiltration). The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) correlated positively with the SMI and negatively with SMD in both men and women. The AHI was weakly associated with SMI only in men (??=?0.11, P?=?0.017) after adjustment for the body mass index (BMI) (BMI: ??=?0.61, P?<?0.001 in men, ??=?0.65, P?<?0.001 in women). The association of AHI and SMD was not significant after adjustment for BMI (BMI: ??=?-0.42, P?<?0.001 in men, ??=?-0.64, P?<?0.001 in women). Severity of OSA correlated with increases in skeletal muscle mass rather than muscle depletion and skeletal muscle adiposity. These associations were limited compared with the stronger associations between obesity and skeletal muscles.