Kinetic and spectroscopic studies of N694C lipoxygenase: a probe of the substrate activation mechanism of a nonheme ferric enzyme.
ABSTRACT: Lipoxygenases (LOs) comprise a class of substrate activating mononuclear nonheme iron enzymes which catalyze the hydroperoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. A commonly proposed mechanism for LO catalysis involves H-atom abstraction by an FeIII-OH- site, best described as a proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) process, followed by direct reaction of O2 with the resulting substrate radical to yield product. An alternative mechanism that has also been discussed involves the abstraction of a proton from the substrate by the FeIII-OH leading to a sigma-organoiron intermediate, where the subsequent sigma bond insertion of dioxygen into the C-Fe bond completes the reaction. H-atom abstraction is favored by a high E(o) of the FeII/FeIII couple and high pK(a) of water bound to the ferrous state, while an organoiron mechanism would be favored by a low E(o) (to keep the site oxidized) and a high pK(a) of water bound to the ferric state (to deprotonate the substrate). A first coordination sphere mutant of soybean LO (N694C) has been prepared and characterized by near-infrared circular dichroism (CD) and variable-temperature, variable-field (VTVH) magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopies (FeII site), as well as UV/vis absorption, UV/vis CD, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies (FeIII site). These studies suggest that N694C has a lowered E degrees of the FeII/FeIII couple and a raised pKa of water bound to the ferric site relative to wild type soybean lipoxygenase-1 (WT sLO-1) which would favor the organoiron mechanism. However, the observation in N694C of a significant deuterium isotope effect, anaerobic reduction of iron by substrate, and a substantial decrease in k(cat) (approximately 3000-fold) support H-atom abstraction as the relevant substrate-activation mechanism in sLO-1.
Project description:The chemistry of low-valent iron porphyrin complexes with oxyl radical reagents has been explored. (Meso-tetramesityl porphyrinato) iron(III) hydroxide, (TMP)FeIII(OH) reacts with the hydroxylamine TEMPO-H (1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdine) to yield the ferrous porphyrin, (TMP)FeII, together with H2O and TEMPO. This reaction has a second order rate constant k1 = 76 ± 5 M-1 1 s-1 and likely occurs by concerted e-/H+ transfer. Hydrazines PhNHNHPh and PhNHNH2 similarly yield (TMP)FeII. A subsequent reaction between TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdinyl radical) and (TMP)FeII is observed to reversibly form the TEMPO-ligated ferric porphyrin, (TMP)FeIII(TEMPO). A combination of 1H NMR and optical spectroscopies were used to determine the thermodynamic parameters for TEMPO binding: K4 (25°C) = 535 ± 20 M-1, ?H°4 = -7.0 ± 1.5 kcal mol-1, ?S°4= -11 ± 5 cal mol-1 K-1, ?G‡4(235K) = 21.3 ± 0.5 kcal mol-1, ?G‡-4(235K) = 16.9 ± 0.5 kcal mol-1. The Fe-O bond is remarkably weak. The stable phenoxyl radical 2,4,6- t Bu3C6H2O• (ArO•) forms a stronger bond to (TMP)FeII to irreversibly make a similar FeIII(OR) complex. Both (TMP)FeII and (TMP)FeIII(OH) are catalysts for the disproportionation of excess TEMPO-H to TEMPO and TEMP-H (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdine). The lack of reactivity between (TMP)FeII and the alkylated TEMPO-H analogue, TEMPO-CH3, suggests that the disproportionation involves a hydrogen atom transfer step. These results highlight the importance and versatility of the heme FeIII/II couple that is often overshadowed by its higher-valent counterparts.
Project description:Parallel spectroscopic and computational studies of iron(III) cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and synthetic models are presented. The synthetic complexes utilize the ligand tris(4,5-diphenyl-1-methylimidazol-2-yl)phosphine (Ph2TIP), which mimics the facial three-histidine triad of CDO and other thiol dioxygenases. In addition to the previously reported [FeII(CysOEt)(Ph2TIP)]BPh4 (1; CysOEt is the ethyl ester of anionic l-cysteine), the formation and crystallographic characterization of [FeII(2-MTS)(Ph2TIP)]BPh4 (2) is reported, where the methyl 2-thiosalicylate anion (2-MTS) resembles the substrate of 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenase (MDO). One-electron chemical oxidation of 1 and 2 yields ferric species that bind cyanide and azide anions, which have been used as spectroscopic probes of O2 binding in prior studies of FeIII-CDO. The six-coordinate FeIII-CN and FeIII-N3 adducts are examined with UV-vis absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and resonance Raman (rRaman) spectroscopies. In addition, UV-vis and rRaman studies of cysteine- and cyanide-bound FeIII-CDO are reported for both the wild-type (WT) enzyme and C93G variant, which lacks the Cys-Tyr cross-link that is present in the second coordination sphere of the WT active site. Density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio calculations are employed to provide geometric and electronic structure descriptions of the synthetic and enzymatic FeIII adducts. In particular, it is shown that the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method, in tandem with n-electron valence state second-order perturbation theory (NEVPT2), is capable of elucidating the structural basis of subtle shifts in EPR g values for low-spin FeIII species.
Project description:Superoxide reduction by thiolate-ligated [FeII(SMe2N4(tren))]+ (1) involves two proton-dependent steps and a single peroxide intermediate, [FeIII(SMe2N4(tren))(OOH)]+ (2). An external proton donor is required, ruling out mechanisms involving H+ or H-atom abstraction from the ligand N-H. The initial protonation step affording 2 occurs with fairly basic proton donors (EtOH, MeOH, NH4+) in THF. More acidic proton donors are required to cleave the Fe-O(peroxide) bond in MeOH, and this occurs via a dissociative mechanism. Reaction rates are dependent on the pKa of the proton donor, and a common [FeIII(SMe2N4(tren))(MeOH)]2+ (3) intermediate is involved. Acetic acid releases H2O2 from 2 under pseudo-first-order conditions ([HOAc] = 138 mM,  = 0.49 mM) with a rate constant of 8.2 x 10(-4) s(-1) at -78 degrees C in MeOH. Reduction of 3 with Cp2Co regenerates the active catalyst 1.
Project description:A reactive hydroxoferric porphyrazine complex, [(PyPz)FeIII(OH) (OH2)]4+ (1, PyPz = tetramethyl-2,3-pyridino porphyrazine), has been prepared via one-electron oxidation of the corresponding ferrous species [(PyPz)FeII(OH2)2]4+ (2). Electrochemical analysis revealed a pH-dependent and remarkably high FeIII-OH/FeII-OH2 reduction potential of 680 mV vs Ag/AgCl at pH 5.2. Nernstian behavior from pH 2 to pH 8 indicates a one-proton, one-electron interconversion throughout that range. The O-H bond dissociation energy of the FeII-OH2 complex was estimated to be 84 kcal mol-1. Accordingly, 1 reacts rapidly with a panel of substrates via C-H hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), reducing 1 to [(PyPz)FeII(OH2)2]4+ (2). The second-order rate constant for the reaction of [(PyPz)FeIII(OH) (OH2)]4+ with xanthene was 2.22 × 103 M-1 s-1, 5-6 orders of magnitude faster than other reported FeIII-OH complexes and faster than many ferryl complexes.
Project description:ETHE1 is a member of a growing subclass of nonheme Fe enzymes that catalyzes transformations of sulfur-containing substrates without a cofactor. ETHE1 dioxygenates glutathione persulfide (GSSH) to glutathione (GSH) and sulfite in a reaction which is similar to that of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), but with monodentate (vs bidentate) substrate coordination and a 2-His/1-Asp (vs 3-His) ligand set. In this study, we demonstrate that GSS- binds directly to the iron active site, causing coordination unsaturation to prime the site for O2 activation. Nitrosyl complexes without and with GSSH were generated and spectroscopically characterized as unreactive analogues for the invoked ferric superoxide intermediate. New spectral features from persulfide binding to the FeIII include the appearance of a low-energy FeIII ligand field transition, an energy shift of a NO- to FeIII CT transition, and two new GSS- to FeIII CT transitions. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations were used to simulate the experimental spectra to determine the persulfide orientation. Correlation of these spectral features with those of monodentate cysteine binding in isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) shows that the persulfide is a poorer donor but still results in an equivalent frontier molecular orbital for reactivity. The ETHE1 persulfide dioxygenation reaction coordinate was calculated, and while the initial steps are similar to the reaction coordinate of CDO, an additional hydrolysis step is required in ETHE1 to break the S-S bond. Unlike ETHE1 and CDO, which both oxygenate sulfur, IPNS oxidizes sulfur through an initial H atom abstraction. Thus, factors that determine oxygenase vs oxidase reactivity were evaluated. In general, sulfur oxygenation is thermodynamically favored and has a lower barrier for reactivity. However, in IPNS, second-sphere residues in the active site pocket constrain the substrate, raising the barrier for sulfur oxygenation relative to oxidation via H atom abstraction.
Project description:Non-heme (L)FeIII and (L)FeIII -O-FeIII (L) complexes (L=1,1-di(pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethan-1-amine) underwent reduction under irradiation to the FeII state with concomitant oxidation of methanol to methanal, without the need for a secondary photosensitizer. Spectroscopic and DFT studies support a mechanism in which irradiation results in charge-transfer excitation of a FeIII -?-O-FeIII complex to generate [(L)FeIV =O]2+ (observed transiently during irradiation in acetonitrile), and an equivalent of (L)FeII . Under aerobic conditions, irradiation accelerates reoxidation from the FeII to the FeIII state with O2 , thus closing the cycle of methanol oxidation to methanal.
Project description:The cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 produces a monomeric hemoglobin (GlbN) implicated in the detoxification of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. GlbN contains a b heme, which can be modified under certain reducing conditions. The modified protein (GlbN-A) has one heme-histidine C-N linkage similar to the C-S linkage of cytochrome c. No clear functional role has been assigned to this modification. Here, optical absorbance and NMR spectroscopies were used to compare the reactivity of GlbN and GlbN-A toward nitric oxide (NO). Both forms of the protein are capable of NO dioxygenase activity and both undergo heme bleaching after multiple NO challenges. GlbN and GlbN-A bind NO in the ferric state and form diamagnetic complexes (FeIII-NO) that resist reductive nitrosylation to the paramagnetic FeII-NO forms. Dithionite reduction of FeIII-NO GlbN and GlbN-A, however, resulted in distinct outcomes. Whereas GlbN-A rapidly formed the expected FeII-NO complex, NO binding to FeII GlbN caused immediate heme loss and, remarkably, was followed by slow heme rebinding and HNO (nitrosyl hydride) production. Additionally, combining FeIII GlbN, 15N-labeled nitrite, and excess dithionite resulted in the formation of FeII-H15NO GlbN. Dithionite-mediated HNO production was also observed for the related GlbN from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Although ferrous GlbN-A appeared capable of trapping preformed HNO, the histidine-heme post-translational modification extinguished the NO reduction chemistry associated with GlbN. Overall, the results suggest a role for the covalent modification in FeII GlbNs: protection from NO-mediated heme loss and prevention of HNO formation.
Project description:A novel series of mixed-valent, heteroleptic transition metal diketonates that can be utilized as prospective single-source precursors for the low-temperature preparation of oxide materials are reported. The first mixed-valent iron ?-diketonates with different FeIII/FeII ratios have been synthesized by applying the mixed-ligand approach. Based on nearly quantitative reaction yields and analysis of iron-oxygen bonds, these compounds were formulated as [FeIII(acac)3][FeII(hfac)2] (1) and [FeII(hfac)2][FeIII(acac)3][FeII(hfac)2] (2). In the above heteroleptic complexes, the Lewis acidic, coordinatively unsaturated FeII centers chelated by two hfac (hexafluoroacetylacetonate) ligands with electron-withdrawing substituents maintain bridging interactions with oxygen atoms of electron-donating acac (acetylacetonate) groups that chelate the neighboring FeIII atoms. Switching the ligands on FeIII and FeII atoms in starting reagents resulted in the instant ligand exchange between iron centers and in yet another polynuclear homometallic diketonate [FeII(hfac)2][FeIII(acac)2(hfac)][FeII(hfac)2] (3) that adheres to the same bonding pattern as in complexes 1 and 2. The proposed synthetic methodology has been extended to design heterometallic diketonates with different M?:?M' ratios. Homometallic parent molecules have been used as templates to obtain heterometallic mixed-valent [FeIII(acac)3][MnII(hfac)2] (4) and [NiII(hfac)2][FeIII(acac)3][NiII(hfac)2] (5) complexes. The combination of two different diketonate ligands with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents was found to be crucial for maintaining the above mixed-valent heterometallic assemblies. Theoretical investigation of two possible "isomers", [FeIII(acac)3][MnII(hfac)2] (4) and [MnIII(acac)3][FeII(hfac)2] (4') provided an additional support for the metal site assignment giving a preference of 9.78 kcal mol-1 for the molecule 4. Heterometallic complexes obtained in the course of this study have been found to act as effective single-source precursors for the synthesis of mixed-transition metal oxide materials M x M'2-xO3 and M x M'1-xO. The title highly volatile precursors can be used for the low-temperature preparation of both amorphous and crystalline heterometallic oxides in the form of thin films or nanosized particles that are known to operate as efficient catalysts in oxygen evolution reaction.
Project description:The activation of dioxygen by FeII(Me3TACN)(S2SiMe2) (1) is reported. Reaction of 1 with O2 at -135 °C in 2-MeTHF generates a thiolate-ligated (peroxo)diiron complex FeIII2(O2)(Me3TACN)2(S2SiMe2)2 (2) that was characterized by UV-vis (?max = 300, 390, 530, 723 nm), Mössbauer (? = 0.53, |?EQ| = 0.76 mm s-1), resonance Raman (RR) (?(O-O) = 849 cm-1), and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. Complex 2 is distinct from the outer-sphere oxidation product 1ox (UV-vis (?max = 435, 520, 600 nm), Mössbauer (? = 0.45, |?EQ| = 3.6 mm s-1), and EPR (S = 5/2, g = [6.38, 5.53, 1.99])), obtained by one-electron oxidation of 1. Cleavage of the peroxo O-O bond can be initiated either photochemically or thermally to produce a new species assigned as an FeIV(O) complex, FeIV(O)(Me3TACN)(S2SiMe2) (3), which was identified by UV-vis (?max = 385, 460, 890 nm), Mössbauer (? = 0.21, |?EQ| = 1.57 mm s-1), RR (?(FeIV?O) = 735 cm-1), and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, as well as reactivity patterns. Reaction of 3 at low temperature with H atom donors gives a new species, FeIII(OH)(Me3TACN)(S2SiMe2) (4). Complex 4 was independently synthesized from 1 by the stoichiometric addition of a one-electron oxidant and a hydroxide source. This work provides a rare example of dioxygen activation at a mononuclear nonheme iron(II) complex that produces both FeIII-O-O-FeIII and FeIV(O) species in the same reaction with O2. It also demonstrates the feasibility of forming Fe/O2 intermediates with strongly donating sulfur ligands while avoiding immediate sulfur oxidation.
Project description:The impact of distal mutation on the hydrogen transfer interface properties and on the substrate mobility, conformation, and orientation in soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO) is examined. SLO catalyzes a hydrogen abstraction reaction that occurs by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism. Mutation of isoleucine 553 to less bulky residues has been found experimentally to increase the magnitude and temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect for this reaction. This residue borders the linoleic acid substrate but is approximately 15 A from the active site iron. In the present study, we model these experimental data with a vibronically nonadiabatic theory and perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations on the complete solvated wild-type and mutant enzymes. Our calculations indicate that the proton transfer equilibrium distance increases and the associated frequency decreases as residue 553 becomes less bulky. The molecular dynamics simulations illustrate that this mutation impacts the mobility, geometrical conformation, and orientation of the linoleic acid within the active site. In turn, these effects alter the proton donor-acceptor equilibrium distance and frequency, leading to the experimentally observed changes in the magnitude and temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect. This study provides insight into how the effects of distal mutations may be transmitted in enzymes to ultimately impact the catalytic rates.