ABSTRACT: The mTOR signaling complex integrates signals from growth factors and nutrient availability to control cell growth and proliferation, in part through effects on the protein-synthetic machinery. Protein synthesis rates fluctuate throughout the cell cycle but diminish significantly during the G(2)/M transition. The fate of the mTOR complex and its role in coordinating cell growth and proliferation signals with protein synthesis during mitosis remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which stimulates protein synthesis, is actually hyperactive during mitosis despite decreased protein synthesis and reduced activity of mTORC1 upstream activators. We describe previously unknown G(2)/M-specific phosphorylation of a component of mTORC1, the protein raptor, and demonstrate that mitotic raptor phosphorylation alters mTORC1 function during mitosis. Phosphopeptide mapping and mutational analysis demonstrate that mitotic phosphorylation of raptor facilitates cell cycle transit through G(2)/M. Phosphorylation-deficient mutants of raptor cause cells to delay in G(2)/M, whereas depletion of raptor causes cells to accumulate in G(1). We identify cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (cdk1 [cdc2]) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) pathways as two probable mitosis-regulated protein kinase pathways involved in mitosis-specific raptor phosphorylation and altered mTORC1 activity. In addition, mitotic raptor promotes translation by internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) on mRNA during mitosis and is demonstrated to be associated with rapamycin resistance. These data suggest that this pathway may play a role in increased IRES-dependent mRNA translation during mitosis and in rapamycin insensitivity.
Project description:The appropriate control of mitotic entry and exit is reliant on a series of interlocking signaling events that coordinately drive the biological processes required for accurate cell division. Overlaid onto these signals that promote orchestrated cell division are checkpoints that ensure appropriate mitotic spindle formation, a lack of DNA damage, kinetochore attachment, and that each daughter cell has the appropriate complement of DNA. We recently discovered that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates the G2/M phase of cell cycle progression in part through its suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. AMPK directly phosphorylates the critical mTOR binding partner raptor inhibiting mTORC1 (mTOR-raptor rapamycin sensitive mTOR kinase complex 1). As mTOR has been previously tied to mitotic control, we examined further how raptor may contribute to this process.We have discovered that raptor becomes highly phosphorylated in cells in mitosis. Utilizing tandem mass spectrometry, we identified a number of novel phosphorylation sites in raptor, and using phospho-specific antibodies demonstrated that raptor becomes phosphorylated on phospho-serine/threonine-proline sites in mitosis. A combination of site-directed mutagenesis in a tagged raptor cDNA and analysis with a series of new phospho-specific antibodies generated against different sites in raptor revealed that Serine 696 and Threonine 706 represent two key sites in raptor phosphorylated in mitosis. We demonstrate that the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase cdc2/CDK1 is the kinase responsible for phosphorylating these sites, and its mitotic partner Cyclin B efficiently coimmunoprecipitates with raptor in mitotic cells.This study demonstrates that the key mTOR binding partner raptor is directly phosphorylated during mitosis by cdc2. This reinforces previous studies suggesting that mTOR activity is highly regulated and important for mitotic progression, and points to a direct modulation of the mTORC1 complex during mitosis.
Project description:Since nuclear envelope breakdown occurs during mitosis in metazoan cells, it has been proposed that macroautophagy must be inhibited to maintain genome integrity. However, repression of macroautophagy during mitosis remains controversial and mechanistic detail limited to the suggestion that CDK1 phosphorylates VPS34. Here, we show that initiation of macroautophagy, measured by the translocation of the ULK complex to autophagic puncta, is repressed during mitosis, even when mTORC1 is inhibited. Indeed, mTORC1 is inactive during mitosis, reflecting its failure to localize to lysosomes due to CDK1-dependent RAPTOR phosphorylation. While mTORC1 normally represses autophagy via phosphorylation of ULK1, ATG13, ATG14, and TFEB, we show that the mitotic phosphorylation of these autophagy regulators, including at known repressive sites, is dependent on CDK1 but independent of mTOR. Thus, CDK1 substitutes for inhibited mTORC1 as the master regulator of macroautophagy during mitosis, uncoupling autophagy regulation from nutrient status to ensure repression of macroautophagy during mitosis.
Project description:The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) functions as an environmental sensor to promote critical cellular processes such as protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell proliferation in response to growth factors and nutrients. While diverse stimuli regulate mTORC1 signaling, the direct molecular mechanisms by which mTORC1 senses and responds to these signals remain poorly defined. Here we investigated the role of mTOR phosphorylation in mTORC1 function. By employing mass spectrometry and phospho-specific antibodies, we demonstrated novel phosphorylation on S2159 and T2164 within the mTOR kinase domain. Mutational analysis of these phosphorylation sites indicates that dual S2159/T2164 phosphorylation cooperatively promotes mTORC1 signaling to S6K1 and 4EBP1. Mechanistically, S2159/T2164 phosphorylation modulates the mTOR-raptor and raptor-PRAS40 interactions and augments mTORC1-associated mTOR S2481 autophosphorylation. Moreover, mTOR S2159/T2164 phosphorylation promotes cell growth and cell cycle progression. We propose a model whereby mTOR kinase domain phosphorylation modulates the interaction of mTOR with regulatory partner proteins and augments intrinsic mTORC1 kinase activity to promote biochemical signaling, cell growth, and cell cycle progression.
Project description:The rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) promotes protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell proliferation in response to growth factors and nutritional cues. To elucidate the poorly defined mechanisms underlying mTORC1 regulation, we have studied the phosphorylation of raptor, an mTOR-interacting partner. We have identified six raptor phosphorylation sites that lie in two centrally localized clusters (cluster 1, Ser(696)/Thr(706) and cluster 2, Ser(855)/Ser(859)/Ser(863)/Ser(877)) using tandem mass spectrometry and generated phosphospecific antibodies for each of these sites. Here we focus primarily although not exclusively on raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation. We report that insulin promotes mTORC1-associated phosphorylation of raptor Ser(863) via the canonical PI3K/TSC/Rheb pathway in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. mTORC1 activation by other stimuli (e.g. amino acids, epidermal growth factor/MAPK signaling, and cellular energy) also promote raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation. Rheb overexpression increases phosphorylation on raptor Ser(863) as well as on the five other identified sites (e.g. Ser(859), Ser(855), Ser(877), Ser(696), and Thr(706)). Strikingly, raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation is absolutely required for raptor Ser(859) and Ser(855) phosphorylation. These data suggest that mTORC1 activation leads to raptor multisite phosphorylation and that raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation functions as a master biochemical switch that modulates hierarchical raptor phosphorylation (e.g. on Ser(859) and Ser(855)). Importantly, mTORC1 containing phosphorylation site-defective raptor exhibits reduced in vitro kinase activity toward the substrate 4EBP1, with a multisite raptor 6A mutant more strongly defective that single-site raptor S863A. Taken together, these data suggest that complex raptor phosphorylation functions as a biochemical rheostat that modulates mTORC1 signaling in accordance with environmental cues.
Project description:mTORC1 plays critical roles in the regulation of protein synthesis, growth, and proliferation in response to nutrients, growth factors, and energy conditions. One of the substrates of mTORC1 is 4E-BP1, whose phosphorylation by mTORC1 reverses its inhibitory action on eIF4E, resulting in the promotion of protein synthesis. Raptor in mTOR complex 1 is believed to recruit 4E-BP1, facilitating phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 by the kinase mTOR. We applied chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry analysis to gain insight into interactions between mTORC1 and 4E-BP1. Using the cross-linking reagent bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate, we showed that Raptor can be cross-linked with 4E-BP1. Mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked Raptor-4E-BP1 led to the identification of several cross-linked peptide pairs. Compilation of these peptides revealed that the most N-terminal Raptor N-terminal conserved domain (in particular residues from 89 to 180) of Raptor is the major site of interaction with 4E-BP1. On 4E-BP1, we found that cross-links with Raptor were clustered in the central region (amino acid residues 56-72) we call RCR (Raptor cross-linking region). Intramolecular cross-links of Raptor suggest the presence of two structured regions of Raptor: one in the N-terminal region and the other in the C-terminal region. In support of the idea that the Raptor N-terminal conserved domain and the 4E-BP1 central region are closely located, we found that peptides that encompass the RCR of 4E-BP1 inhibit cross-linking and interaction of 4E-BP1 with Raptor. Furthermore, mutations of residues in the RCR decrease the ability of 4E-BP1 to serve as a substrate for mTORC1 in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily highly conserved atypical serine/threonine protein kinase, which regulates cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. As a regulatory protein, Raptor is awfully important for the stability and function of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). However, the studies about how Raptor/mTORC1 participates in and regulates immune response in lower vertebrates are still limited. In this study, we investigated the regulation of immune response by the Raptor/mTORC1 signaling pathway in rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. Sebastes schlegelii Raptor (Ss-Raptor) is a highly conserved protein during the evolution, in both primary and tertiary structure. Ss-Raptor mRNA was widely distributed in various tissues of rockfish and has a relative higher expression in spleen and blood. After infected by Micrococcus luteus or Listonella anguillarum, mRNA expression of Ss-Raptor rapidly increased within 48 h. Once Raptor/mTORC1 signaling was blocked by rapamycin, expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-8 was severely impaired, suggesting potential regulatory role of Raptor/mTORC1 signaling in the innate immune response of rockfish. In addition, Raptor/mTORC1 pathway participated in lymphocyte activation of rockfish through promoting 4EBP1 and S6 phosphorylation. Inhibition of Raptor/mTORC1 signaling crippled the lymphocyte expansion during primary adaptive immune response, manifesting by the decrease of lymphoid organ weight and lymphocyte numbers. More importantly, inhibition of Raptor/mTORC1 signaling impaired the lymphocyte mediated cytotoxic response, and made the fish more vulnerable to the bacterial infection. Together, our results suggested that Raptor and its tightly regulated mTORC1 signaling acts as modulatory center to regulate both innate and lymphocyte-mediated adaptive immune response during bacterial infection. This research has shed new light on regulatory mechanism of teleost immune response, and provide helpful evidences to understand the evolution of immune system.
Project description:Intestinal cell kinase (ICK), named after its cloning origin, the intestine, is actually a ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase. Recently we reported that ICK supports cell proliferation and G(1) cell cycle progression. ICK deficiency significantly disrupted the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling events. However, the biological substrates that mediate the downstream signaling effects of ICK in proliferation and the molecular mechanisms by which ICK interacts with mTORC1 are not well defined. Our prior studies also provided biochemical evidence that ICK interacts with the mTOR/Raptor complex in cells and phosphorylates Raptor in vitro. In this report, we investigated whether and how ICK targets Raptor to regulate the activity of mTORC1. Using the ICK substrate consensus sequence [R-P-X-S/T-P/A/T/S], we identified a putative phosphorylation site, RPGT908T, for ICK in human Raptor. By mass spectrometry and a phospho-specific antibody, we showed that Raptor Thr-908 is a novel in vivo phosphorylation site. ICK is able to phosphorylate Raptor Thr-908 both in vitro and in vivo and when Raptor exists in protein complexes with or without mTOR. Although expression of the Raptor T908A mutant did not affect the mTORC1 integrity, it markedly impaired the mTORC1 activation by insulin or by overexpression of the small GTP-binding protein RheB under nutrient starvation. Our findings demonstrate an important role for ICK in modulating the activity of mTORC1 through phosphorylation of Raptor Thr-908 and thus implicate a potential signaling mechanism by which ICK regulates cell proliferation and division.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Tetrameric ?(2)-macroglobulin (?(2)M), a plasma panproteinase inhibitor, is activated upon interaction with a proteinase, and undergoes a major conformational change exposing a receptor recognition site in each of its subunits. Activated ?(2)M (?(2)M*) binds to cancer cell surface GRP78 and triggers proliferative and antiapoptotic signaling. We have studied the role of ?(2)M* in the regulation of mTORC1 and TORC2 signaling in the growth of human prostate cancer cells. METHODS: Employing immunoprecipitation techniques and Western blotting as well as kinase assays, activation of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes, as well as down stream targets were studied. RNAi was also employed to silence expression of Raptor, Rictor, or GRP78 in parallel studies. RESULTS: Stimulation of cells with ?(2)M* promotes phosphorylation of mTOR, TSC2, S6-Kinase, 4EBP, Akt(T308), and Akt(S473) in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Rheb, Raptor, and Rictor also increased. ?(2)M* treatment of cells elevated mTORC1 kinase activity as determined by kinase assays of mTOR or Raptor immunoprecipitates. mTORC1 activity was sensitive to LY294002 and rapamycin or transfection of cells with GRP78 dsRNA. Down regulation of Raptor expression by RNAi significantly reduced ?(2)M*-induced S6-Kinase phosphorylation at T389 and kinase activity in Raptor immunoprecipitates. ?(2)M*-treated cells demonstrate about a twofold increase in mTORC2 kinase activity as determined by kinase assay of Akt(S473) phosphorylation and levels of p-Akt(S473) in mTOR and Rictor immunoprecipitates. mTORC2 activity was sensitive to LY294002 and transfection of cells with GRP78 dsRNA, but insensitive to rapamycin. Down regulation of Rictor expression by RNAi significantly reduces ?(2)M*-induced phosphorylation of Akt(S473) phosphorylation in Rictor immunoprecipitates. CONCLUSION: Binding of ?(2)M* to prostate cancer cell surface GRP78 upregulates mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation and promotes protein synthesis in the prostate cancer cells.
Project description:mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1; mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] in complex with raptor) is a key regulator of protein synthesis and cell growth in response to nutrient amino acids. Here we report that inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which possesses both inositol phosphate kinase and lipid kinase activities, regulates amino acid signaling to mTORC1. This regulation is independent of IPMK's catalytic function, instead reflecting its binding with mTOR and raptor, which maintains the mTOR-raptor association. Thus, IPMK appears to be a physiologic mTOR cofactor, serving as a determinant of mTORC1 stability and amino acid-induced mTOR signaling. Substances that block IPMK-mTORC1 binding may afford therapeutic benefit in nutrient amino acid-regulated conditions such as obesity and diabetes.
Project description:Mitosis is commonly thought to be associated with reduced cap-dependent protein translation. Here we show an alternative control mechanism for maintaining cap-dependent translation during mitosis revealed by a viral oncoprotein, Merkel cell polyomavirus small T (MCV sT). We find MCV sT to be a promiscuous E3 ligase inhibitor targeting the anaphase-promoting complex, which increases cell mitogenesis. MCV sT binds through its Large T stabilization domain region to cell division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) and, possibly, cdc20 homolog 1 (Cdh1) E3 ligase adapters. This activates cyclin-dependent kinase 1/cyclin B1 (CDK1/CYCB1) to directly hyperphosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein (4E-BP1) at authentic sites, generating a mitosis-specific, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-resistant ? phospho-isoform not present in G1-arrested cells. Recombinant 4E-BP1 inhibits capped mRNA reticulocyte translation, which is partially reversed by CDK1/CYCB1 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1. eIF4G binding to the eIF4E-m(7)GTP cap complex is resistant to mTOR inhibition during mitosis but sensitive during interphase. Flow cytometry, with and without sT, reveals an orthogonal pH3(S10+) mitotic cell population having higher inactive p4E-BP1(T37/T46+) saturation levels than pH3(S10-) interphase cells. Using a Click-iT flow cytometric assay to directly measure mitotic protein synthesis, we find that most new protein synthesis during mitosis is cap-dependent, a result confirmed using the eIF4E/4G inhibitor drug 4E1RCat. For most cell lines tested, cap-dependent translation levels were generally similar between mitotic and interphase cells, and the majority of new mitotic protein synthesis was cap-dependent. These findings suggest that mitotic cap-dependent translation is generally sustained during mitosis by CDK1 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 even under conditions of reduced mTOR signaling.