Nucleolar targeting of the chaperone hsc70 is regulated by stress, cell signaling, and a composite targeting signal which is controlled by autoinhibition.
ABSTRACT: Hsc70s are constitutively synthesized members of the 70-kDa chaperone family; they are essential for viability and conserved among all organisms. When eukaryotic cells recover from stress, hsc70s accumulate in nucleoli by an unknown mechanism. Our studies were undertaken to characterize the signaling events and the targeting sequence required to concentrate hsc70 in the nucleoli of human cells. Here, we show that pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and MEK kinases as well as protein-tyrosine phosphatases abolished the stress-dependent nucleolar accumulation of hsc70. Furthermore, to identify the hsc70 nucleolar targeting sequence, green fluorescent protein-tagged fusion proteins with defined segments of hsc70 were generated and their subcellular distribution was analyzed in growing cells. These studies demonstrated that residues 225 to 297 serve as a heat-inducible nucleolar targeting signal. This segment directs green fluorescent protein to nucleoli in response to stress, but fails to do so under nonstress conditions. Fine mapping of the nucleolar targeting signal revealed that it has two separable functions. First, residues 225 to 262 direct reporter proteins constitutively to nucleoli, even without stress. Second, segment 263 to 287 functions as an autoinhibitory element that prevents hsc70 from concentrating in nucleoli when cells are not stressed. Taken together, PI 3-kinase and MEK kinase signaling as well as tyrosine dephosphorylation are essential for the accumulation of hsc70 in nucleoli of stressed cells. This process relies on a stress-dependent composite targeting signal that combines multiple functions.
Project description:Ilf3 and NF90, two proteins containing double-stranded RNA-binding domains, are generated by alternative splicing and involved in several functions. Their heterogeneity results from posttranscriptional and posttranslational modifications. Alternative splicing of exon 3, coding for a 13 aa N-terminal motif, generates for each protein a long and short isoforms. Subcellular fractionation and localization of recombinant proteins showed that this motif acts as a nucleolar localization signal. Deletion and substitution mutants identified four arginines, essential for nucleolar targeting, and three histidines to stabilize the proteins within the nucleolus. The short isoforms are never found in the nucleoli, whereas the long isoforms are present in the nucleoplasm and the nucleoli. For Ilf3, only the posttranslationally-unmodified long isoform is nucleolar, suggesting that this nucleolar targeting is abrogated by posttranslational modifications. Confocal microscopy and FRAP experiments have shown that the long Ilf3 isoform localizes to the granular component of the nucleolus, and that L-Ilf3 and L-NF90 exchange rapidly between nucleoli. The presence of this 13 aminoacid motif, combined with posttranslational modifications, is responsible for the differences in Ilf3 and NF90 isoforms subcellular localizations. The protein polymorphism of Ilf3/NF90 and the various subcellular localizations of their isoforms may partially explain the various functions previously reported for these proteins.
Project description:The nucleolus, the ribosomal factory of the cell, has emerged as a key player that regulates many aspects of cell biology. Several thousand proteins associate at least transiently with nucleoli, thereby generating a highly dynamic compartment with a protein profile which is sensitive to changes in cell physiology and pharmacological agents. Powerful tools that reliably demarcate the nucleoli are a prerequisite to measure their composition and activities. Previously, we developed quantitative methods to measure fluorescently labeled molecules in nucleoli. While these tools identify nucleoli under control and mild stress conditions, the accurate detection of nucleolar boundaries under harsh experimental conditions is complicated by the lack of appropriate markers for the nucleolar compartment. Using fluorescence microscopy we have now identified new marker proteins to detect nucleoli upon (a) severe stress and (b) drug treatments that trigger a pronounced reorganization of nucleoli. Our results demonstrate that nucleolin is an ideal marker to delimit nucleoli when cells are exposed to heat or oxidative stress. Furthermore, we show for the first time that cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) and human antigen R protein (HuR) are excluded from nucleoli and can be employed to delimit these compartments under severe conditions that redistribute major nucleolar proteins. As proof-of-principle, we used these markers to demarcate nucleoli in cells treated with pharmacological compounds that disrupt the nucleolar organization. Furthermore, to gain new insights into the biology of the nucleolus, we applied our protocols and quantified stress- and drug-induced changes in nucleolar organization and function. Finally, we show that CAS, HuR and nucleolin not only identify nucleoli in optical sections, but are also suitable to demarcate the nucleolar border following 3D reconstruction. Taken together, our studies present novel marker proteins that delimit nucleoli with high confidence under a variety of experimental settings.
Project description:Two complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) clones encoding 2 different 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSPs) were isolated from the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The cDNA clones were 2448 and 2173 bp in length and contained 1950- and 1734-bp open reading frames (ORFs), respectively. The ORFs encoded 649- and 577-amino acid polypeptides, which were named Mar-HSC70 and Mar-HSP70, respectively, according to the sequence identities with other known HSC70s and HSP70s and based on their inducibility in response to heat shock stress (at 35 degrees C). Genomic DNA sequence analysis revealed no introns in either gene. The major structural differences between the 2 proteins were a 60-amino acid segment and a 14-amino acid segment present in the N-terminal and C-terminal, respectively, of Mar-HSC70 that were not found in Mar-HSP70. Northern blotting and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that the Mar-HSP70 gene was expressed under heat shock (35 degrees C) stress in a non-tissue-specific manner. In contrast, Mar-HSC70 messenger ribonucleic acid was constitutively expressed in every tissue except muscle, and its expression in response to heat shock (at 35 degrees C) changed only in muscle.
Project description:The nucleolus is a subnuclear compartment with multiple cellular functions, including ribosome biogenesis. USP36 is a deubiquitylating enzyme that localizes to nucleoli and plays an essential role in regulating the structure and function of the organelle. However, how the localization of USP36 is regulated remains unknown. Here, we identified a short stretch of basic amino acids (RGKEKKIKKFKREKRR) that resides in the C-terminal region of USP36 and serves as a nucleolar localization signal for the protein. We found that this motif interacts with a central acidic region of nucleophosmin/B23, a major nucleolar protein involved in various nucleolar functions. Knockdown of nucleophosmin/B23 resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of USP36 in nucleoli, without affecting the cellular USP36 level. This was associated with elevated ubiquitylation levels of fibrillarin, a USP36 substrate protein in nucleoli. We conclude that nucleophosmin/B23 recruits USP36 to nucleoli, thereby serving as a platform for the regulation of nucleolar protein functions through ubiquitylation/deubiquitylation.
Project description:Nucleolar stress, characterized by loss of nucleolar integrity, has not been described in the cardiac context. In addition to ribosome biogenesis, nucleoli are critical for control of cell proliferation and stress responses. Our group previously demonstrated induction of the nucleolar protein nucleostemin (NS) in response to cardiac pathological insult. NS interacts with nucleophosmin (NPM), a marker of nucleolar stress with cytoprotective properties. The dynamic behavior of NS and NPM reveal that nucleolar disruption is an early event associated with stress response in cardiac cells. Rapid translocation of NS and NPM to the nucleoplasm and suppression of new preribosomal RNA synthesis occurs in both neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) and cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) upon exposure to doxorubicin or actinomycin D. Silencing of NS significantly increases cell death resulting from doxorubicin treatment in CPC, whereas NPM knockdown alone induces cell death. Overexpression of either NS or NPM significantly decreases caspase 8 activity in cultured cardiomyocytes challenged with doxorubicin. The presence of altered nucleolar structures resulting from myocardial infarction in mice supports the model of nucleolar stress as a general response to pathological injury. Collectively, these findings serve as the initial description of myocardial nucleolar stress and establish the postulate that nucleoli acts as sensors of stress, regulating the cellular response to pathological insults.
Project description:Nucleoli have attracted interest for their role as cellular stress sensors and as potential targets for cancer treatment. The effect of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in nucleoli on rRNA transcription and nucleolar organisation appears to depend on the agent used to introduce DSBs, DSB frequency and the presence (or not) of DSBs outside the nucleoli. To address the controversy, we targeted nucleoli with carbon ions at the ion microbeam SNAKE. Localized ion irradiation with 1-100 carbon ions per point (about 0.3-30 Gy per nucleus) did not lead to overall reduced ribonucleotide incorporation in the targeted nucleolus or other nucleoli of the same cell. However, both 5-ethynyluridine incorporation and Parp1 protein levels were locally decreased at the damaged nucleolar chromatin regions marked by γH2AX, suggesting localized inhibition of rRNA transcription. This locally restricted transcriptional inhibition was not accompanied by nucleolar segregation, a structural reorganisation observed after inhibition of rRNA transcription by treatment with actinomycin D or UV irradiation. The presented data indicate that even multiple complex DSBs do not lead to a pan-nucleolar response if they affect only a subnucleolar region.
Project description:Nucleoli are composed of possibly several thousand different proteins and represent the most conspicuous compartments in the nucleus; they play a crucial role in the proper execution of many cellular processes. As such, nucleoli carry out ribosome biogenesis and sequester or associate with key molecules that regulate cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, apoptosis and the stress response. Nucleoli are dynamic compartments that are characterized by a constant flux of macromolecules. Given the complex and dynamic composition of the nucleolar proteome, it is challenging to link modifications in nucleolar composition to downstream effects.In this contribution, we present quantitative immunofluorescence methods that rely on computer-based image analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these techniques by monitoring the dynamic association of proteins and RNA with nucleoli under different physiological conditions. Thus, the protocols described by us were employed to study stress-dependent changes in the nucleolar concentration of endogenous and GFP-tagged proteins. Furthermore, our methods were applied to measure de novo RNA synthesis that is associated with nucleoli. We show that the techniques described here can be easily combined with automated high throughput screening (HTS) platforms, making it possible to obtain large data sets and analyze many of the biological processes that are located in nucleoli.Our protocols set the stage to analyze in a quantitative fashion the kinetics of shuttling nucleolar proteins, both at the single cell level as well as for a large number of cells. Moreover, the procedures described here are compatible with high throughput image acquisition and analysis using HTS automated platforms, thereby providing the basis to quantify nucleolar components and activities for numerous samples and experimental conditions. Together with the growing amount of information obtained for the nucleolar proteome, improvements in quantitative microscopy as they are described here can be expected to produce new insights into the complex biological functions that are orchestrated by the nucleolus.
Project description:Feline coronavirus (FCoV) has been identified as the aetiological agent of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a highly fatal systemic disease in cats. FCoV open reading frame 3 (ORF3) encodes accessory proteins 3a, 3b and 3?c. The FCoV 3b accessory protein consists of 72 amino acid residues and localizes to nucleoli and mitochondria. The present work focused on peptide domains within FCoV 3b that drive its intracellular trafficking. Transfection of different cell types with FCoV 3b fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or 3×FLAG confirmed localization of FCoV 3b in the mitochondria and nucleoli. Using serial truncated mutants, we showed that nucleolar accumulation is controlled by a joint nucleolar and nuclear localization signal (NoLS/NLS) in which the identified overlapping pat4 motifs (residues 53-57) play a critical role. Mutational analysis also revealed that mitochondrial translocation is mediated by N-terminal residues 10-35, in which a Tom20 recognition motif (residues 13-17) and two other overlapping hexamers (residues 24-30) associated with mitochondrial targeting were identified. In addition, a second Tom20 recognition motif was identified further downstream (residues 61-65), although the mitochondrial translocation evoked by these residues seemed less efficient as a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution was also observed. Assessing the spatiotemporal distribution of FCoV 3b did not provide convincing evidence of dynamic shuttling behaviour between the nucleoli and the mitochondria.
Project description:The assembly and release of retrovirus particles from the cell membrane is directed by the Gag polyprotein. The Gag protein of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) traffics through the nucleus prior to plasma membrane localization. We previously reported that nuclear localization of RSV Gag is linked to efficient packaging of viral genomic RNA, however the intranuclear activities of RSV Gag are not well understood. To gain insight into the properties of the RSV Gag protein within the nucleus, we examined the subnuclear localization and dynamic trafficking of RSV Gag. Restriction of RSV Gag to the nucleus by mutating its nuclear export signal (NES) in the p10 domain or interfering with CRM1-mediated nuclear export of Gag by leptomycin B (LMB) treatment led to the accumulation of Gag in nucleoli and discrete nucleoplasmic foci. Retention of RSV Gag in nucleoli was reduced with cis-expression of the 5' untranslated RU5 region of the viral RNA genome, suggesting the psi (?) packaging signal may alter the subnuclear localization of Gag. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) demonstrated that the nucleolar fraction of Gag was highly mobile, indicating that there was rapid exchange with Gag proteins in the nucleoplasm. RSV Gag is targeted to nucleoli by a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in the NC domain, and similarly, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC protein also contains an NoLS consisting of basic residues. Interestingly, co-expression of HIV-1 NC or Rev with HIV-1 Gag resulted in accumulation of Gag in nucleoli. Moreover, a subpopulation of HIV-1 Gag was detected in the nucleoli of HeLa cells stably expressing the entire HIV-1 genome in a Rev-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that the RSV and HIV-1 Gag proteins undergo nucleolar trafficking in the setting of viral infection.
Project description:The contribution of nucleoli to the cellular stress response has been discussed for over a decade. Stress-induced inhibition of RNA polymerase I-dependent transcription is hypothesized as a possible effector program in such a response. In this study, we report a new mechanism by which ribosomal DNA transcription can be inhibited in response to cellular stress. Specifically, we demonstrate that mild hypoosmotic stress induces stabilization of R loops in ribosomal genes and thus provokes the nucleoli-specific DNA damage response, which is governed by the ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase. Activation of ATR in nucleoli strongly depends on Treacle, which is needed for efficient recruitment/retention of TopBP1 in nucleoli. Subsequent ATR-mediated activation of ATM results in repression of nucleolar transcription.