C2-fractures: part II. A morphometrical analysis of computerized atlantoaxial motion, anatomical alignment and related clinical outcomes.
ABSTRACT: Knowledge on the outcome of C2-fractures is founded on heterogenous samples with cross-sectional outcome assessment focusing on union rates, complications and technical concerns related to surgical treatment. Reproducible clinical and functional outcome assessments are scant. Validated generic and disease specific outcome measures were rarely applied. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to investigate the radiographic, functional and clinical outcome of a patient sample with C2-fractures. Out of a consecutive series of 121 patients with C2 fractures, 44 met strict inclusion criteria and 35 patients with C2-fractures treated either nonsurgically or surgically with motion-preserving techniques were surveyed. Outcome analysis included validated measures (SF-36, NPDI, CSOQ), and a functional CT-scanning protocol for the evaluation of C1-2 rotation and alignment. Mean follow-up was 64 months and mean age of patients was 52 years. Classification of C2-fractures at injury was performed using a detailed morphological description: 24 patients had odontoid fractures type II or III, 18 patients had fracture patterns involving the vertebral body and 11 included a dislocated or a burst lateral mass fracture. Thirty-one percent of patients were treated with a halo, 34% with a Philadelphia collar and 34% had anterior odontoid screw fixation. At follow-up mean atlantoaxial rotation in left and right head position was 20.2 degrees and 20.6 degrees, respectively. According to the classification system of posttreatment C2-alignment established by our group in part I of the C2-fracture study project, mean malunion score was 2.8 points. In 49% of patients the fractures healed in anatomical shape or with mild malalignment. In 51% fractures healed with moderate or severe malalignment. Self-rated outcome was excellent or good in 65% of patients and moderate or poor in 35%. The raw data of varying nuances allow for comparison in future benchmark studies and metaanalysis. Detailed investigation of C2-fracture morphology, posttreatment C2-alignment and atlantoaxial rotation allowed a unique outcome analysis that focused on the identification of risk factors for poor outcome and the interdependencies of outcome variables that should be addressed in studies on C2-fractures. We recognized that reduced rotation of C1-2 per se was not a concern for the patients. However, patients with worse clinical outcomes had reduced total neck rotation and rotation C1-2. In turn, C2-fractures, especially fractures affecting the lateral mass that healed with atlantoaxial deformity and malunion, had higher incidence of atlantoaxial degeneration and osteoarthritis. Patients with increased severity of C2-malunion and new onset atlantoaxial arthritis had worse clinical outcomes and significantly reduced rotation C1-2. The current study offers detailed insight into the radiographical, functional and clinical outcome of C2-fractures. It significantly adds to the understanding of C2-fractures.
Project description:The posterior screw fixation in atlas via posterior arch and lateral mass, also called C1 "pedicle" screw, combined with C2 pedicle screw fixiation has shown better biomechanical stability in unstable atlantoaxial fractures. However, its popularization has to fulfill the limitation imposed by anatomical characteristics. The aim of this study was to explore the manipulation, effect, and safety of the atlantoaxial transpedicular screw fixation under "direct vision" for the treatment of unstable atlantoaxial fracture.All the patients diagnosed with unstable atlantoaxial fracture, who received surgery treatment of C1,C2 internal fixation from January 2012 to December 2014 were reviewed. Only these patients that were diagnosed with atlantoaxial unstability secondary to trauma and were treated with atlantoaxial transpedicular screw fixation under "direct vision" and iliac autograft were included. The safety of transpedicular screw placement, postoperative outcome, atlantoaxial stability, autograft fusion, and complications was observed and analyzed retrospectively. The pain visual analog scale (VAS) and the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score were used as surgical curative effect evaluation standards.We reviewed a total of 92 patients diagnosed with unstable atlantoaxial fracture, who received surgery treatment of C1,C2 internal fixation from January 2012 to December 2014, and 87 patients were treated with atlantoaxial transpedicular screw fixation under "direct vision" and were included this analysis. A total of 306 transpedicular screws in atlas and axis were placed successfully. All cases were followed-up >12 months. The overall breach rate was 11.36%. None of the breaches resulted in new-onset neurological sequela. The neurological status in cases with bilateral upper extremities numbness and lower extremities weakness had improved after surgery. At the latest follow-up, the neck VAS and JOA scores were significantly improved (P?<?.01) than those preoperatively. No cases demonstrated implantation failure and bone graft absorption on the postoperative x-ray films and CT scans.Atlantoaxial transpedicular screw fixation under "direct vision" and iliac autograft for the treatment of unstable atlantoaxial fracture has shown simple manipulation and efficient performance. Thus, the technique of C1-C2 fixation is feasible in treating unstable atlantoaxial fracture.
Project description:Resection of the odontoid process and anterior arch of the atlas results in atlantoaxial instability, which if left uncorrected may lead to severe neurological complications. Currently, such atlantoaxial instability is corrected by anterior and/or posterior C1-C2 fusion. However, this results in considerable loss of rotation function of the atlantoaxial complex. From the viewpoint of retaining the rotation function and providing stability, we designed an artificial atlanto-odontoid joint based on anatomical measurements of 50 pairs of dry atlantoaxial specimens by digital calipers and 10 fresh cadaveric specimens by microsurgical techniques. The metal-on-metal titanium alloy joint has an arc-shaped atlas component, and a hollow cylindrical bushing into which fits a rotation axle of an inverted v-shaped axis component and is implanted through a transoral approach. After the joint was implanted onto specimens with anterior decompression, biomechanical tests were performed to compare the stability parameters in the intact state, after decompression, after artificial joint replacement, and after fatigue test. Compared to the intact state, artificial joint replacement resulted in a significant decrease in the range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ) during flexion, extension, and lateral bending (P < 0.001); however, with regard to axial rotation, there was no significant difference in ROM (P = 0.405), a significant increase in NZ (P = 0.008), and a significant decrease in stiffness (P = 0.003). Compared to the decompressed state, artificial joint replacement resulted in a significantly decreased ROM (P B 0.021) and NZ (P B 0.002) and a significantly increased stiffness (P \ 0.001) in all directions. Following artificial joint replacement, there was no significant difference in ROM (P C 0.719), NZ (P C 0.580), and stiffness (P C 0.602) in all directions before and after the fatigue test. The artificial joint showed no signs of wear and tear after the fatigue test. This artificial atlanto-odontoid joint may be useful in cases of odontoid resection due to malunion or nonunion of odontoid fracture, atraumatic odontoid fracture, irreducible atlas dislocation, posterior atlantoaxial subluxation, or congenital skull base abnormalities.
Project description:Study Design Case series of seven patients. Objective C2 stabilization can be challenging due to the complex anatomy of the upper cervical vertebrae. We describe seven cases of C1-C2 fusion using intraoperative navigation to aid in the screw placement at the atlantoaxial (C1-C2) junction. Methods Between 2011 and 2014, seven patients underwent posterior atlantoaxial fusion using intraoperative frameless stereotactic O-arm Surgical Imaging and StealthStation Surgical Navigation System (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States). Outcome measures included screw accuracy, neurologic status, radiation dosing, and surgical complications. Results Four patients had fusion at C1-C2 only, and in the remaining three, fixation extended down to C3 due to anatomical considerations for screw placement recognized on intraoperative imaging. Out of 30 screws placed, all demonstrated minimal divergence from desired placement in either C1 lateral mass, C2 pedicle, or C3 lateral mass. No neurovascular compromise was seen following the use of intraoperative guided screw placement. The average radiation dosing due to intraoperative imaging was 39.0 mGy. All patients were followed for a minimum of 12 months. All patients went on to solid fusion. Conclusion C1-C2 fusion using computed tomography-guided navigation is a safe and effective way to treat atlantoaxial instability. Intraoperative neuronavigation allows for high accuracy of screw placement, limits complications by sparing injury to the critical structures in the upper cervical spine, and can help surgeons make intraoperative decisions regarding complex pathology.
Project description:A retrospective study of 53 consecutive adult patients with 54 femoral shaft fractures treated with Perkins traction over a 25-month period was carried out. Mean length of stay was 52.1 days (range 25-108), and mean duration of traction was 45.0 days (range 23-66). At a mean follow-up of 4.6 months (range 3-9), 50 (92.6%) had healed and 5 (9.3%) had a malunion. There were 4 (7.4%) non-unions, 3 (5.5%) had shortening of more than 2.5 cm and 2 (3.7%) had a re-fracture. The rate of pin tract infection was very high at 42.6% (23 patients).
Project description:Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation in patients with unstable cervical spines may cause pathological spinal motion and resultant cord injury. Cadaver and mathematical (finite element) models of a type II odontoid fracture predict C1-C2 motions during intubation to be of low magnitude, especially with the use of a low-force videolaryngoscope. Using continuous fluoroscopy, we recorded C1-C2 motion during C-MAC D videolaryngoscopy and intubation in 2 patients with type II odontoid fractures. In these 2 patients, C1-C2 extension and change in C1-C2 canal space were comparable to motions predicted by cadaver and finite element models and did not cause neurological injury.
Project description:Displaced mid shaft fractures of the clavicle result in some degree of shortening and rotation. These fractures often heal with some degree of malunion which can be symptomatic. The question arises as to whether surgical correction of the deformity will relieve the symptoms associated with the malunion. Ten patients with a symptomatic malunion of the clavicle were treated by means of a corrective osteotomy with plate and screw fixation. Outcome measurement was a pre and postoperative DASH score, range of motion and patient satisfaction. At follow up after a mean duration of 37 months there was a significant improvement of the DASH score, eight patients were satisfied, and range of motion did not differ significantly. Two patients had a complication resulting from the surgical procedure.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Conventional techniques for atlantoaxial fixation and fusion typically pass cables or wires underneath C1 lamina to secure the bone graft between the posterior elements of C1-2, which leads to complications such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and neurological injury. With the evolution of fixation hardware, we propose a novel C1-2 fixation technique that avoids the morbidity and complications associated with sublaminar cables and wires. METHODS:This technique entails wedging and anchoring a structural iliac crest graft between C1 and C2 for interlaminar arthrodesis and securing it using a 0-Prolene suture at the time of C1 lateral mass and C2 pars interarticularis screw fixation. RESULTS:We identified 32 patients who underwent surgery for atlantoaxial with our technique. A 60% improvement in pain-related disability from preoperative baseline was demonstrated by Neck Disability Index (p < 0.001). There were no neurologic deficits. Complications included 2 patients CSF leaks related to presenting trauma, 1 patient with surgical site infection, and 1 patient with transient dysphagia. The rate of radiographic atlantoaxial fusion was 96.8% at 6 months, with no evidence of instrumentation failure, graft dislodgement, or graft related complications. CONCLUSION:We demonstrate a novel technique for C1-2 arthrodesis that is a safe and effective option for atlantoaxial fusion.
Project description:The treatment of unstable burst fractures of the atlas (Jefferson fractures) is controversial. Unstable Jefferson fractures have been managed successfully with either immobilization, typically halo traction or halo vest, or surgery. We report a patient with an unstable Jefferson fracture treated nonoperatively with a cervical collar, frequent clinical examinations, and flexion-extension radiographs. Twelve months after treatment, the patient achieved painless union of his fracture. The successful treatment confirms prior studies reporting unstable Jefferson fractures have been treated nonoperatively. The outcome challenges the clinical relevance of treatment algorithms that rely on the "rules of Spence" to guide treatment of unstable Jefferson fractures and illustrates instability may not necessarily be present in patients with considerable lateral mass widening. Additionally, it emphasizes a more reliable way of assessing C1-C2 stability in unstable Jefferson fractures is by measuring the presence and extent of anterior subluxation on lateral flexion and extension views.
Project description:Background Malunions following distal radius fractures are common, with shortening, translation, and rotation occurring. The patients frequently lose forearm rotation, but there is no data to indicate whether this is due to mechanical misalignment between the radius and the ulna or to contracture of the soft tissues. Material and Methods Seven fresh cadaveric specimens were used to determine the loss of forearm rotation with varying simulated distal radius fracture malalignment patterns. Uniplanar malunion patterns consisting of dorsal tilt, radioulnar translation, or radial shortening were simulated by creating an osteotomy at the distal end of the radius. Description of Technique By orienting the distal fragment position using an external fixator and maintaining the position with wedges and a T-plate, varying degrees of malunion of the distal radius could be simulated. Rotation of the forearm was produced by fixing the elbow in a flexed position and applying a constant torque to the forearm using deadweights. Forearm rotation was measured with a protractor. Results Dorsal tilt to 30° and radial translation to 10 mm led to no significant restriction in forearm pronation or supination ranges of motion. A 5-mm ulnar translation deformity resulted in a mean 23% loss of pronation range of motion. Radial shortening of 10 mm reduced forearm pronation by 47% and supination by 29%. Conclusion Because a severe osseous misalignment was required to produce a significant loss in rotation, contracture of the soft tissues is most likely the cause of the loss of rotation in most cases.
Project description:Bilateral angle fractures are a rare clinical phenomenon in contrast to the incidence of unilateral angle fractures. However, the rarity has garnered less attention in spite of the uniqueness of fracture pattern and distinctive biomechanics. This article is a detailed review on the etiology, clinical presentation, and management of bilateral angle fractures with the presentation of an interesting case. The bilateral angle fracture reported is a untreated, malunited fracture representing an ideal clinical model to study its biomechanics. The clinical features were anterior open bite, increased facial height, and temporomandibular joint tenderness. The management included osteotomy at the malunion and miniplate osteosynthesis. Bilateral angle fracture presents mandible in three independent fragments (left angle, right angle, and intermediate corpus), each with strong muscles acting in different vectors. This makes the fracture vulnerable to severe displacing forces and unfavorable to achieve the optimal reduction, stability, and healing. This necessitates comprehension of the biomechanical forces involved to avoid malunion following fixation. The article details the complex biomechanics of mandibular angle and its clinical implications in the rare event of bilateral angle fractures. It describes the necessity for a systematic approach and ideal osteosynthesis principles to achieve maximal treatment outcomes and minimal complications.