TbPRMT6 is a type I protein arginine methyltransferase that contributes to cytokinesis in Trypanosoma brucei.
ABSTRACT: Arginine methylation is a widespread posttranslational modification of proteins catalyzed by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammals, this modification affects multiple cellular processes, such as chromatin remodeling leading to transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, DNA repair, and cell signaling. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei possesses five putative PRMTs in its genome. This is a large number of PRMTs relative to other unicellular eukaryotes, suggesting an important role for arginine methylation in trypanosomes. Here, we present the in vitro and in vivo characterization of a T. brucei enzyme homologous to human PRMT6, which we term TbPRMT6. Like human PRMT6, TbPRMT6 is a type I PRMT, catalyzing the production of monomethylarginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine residues. In in vitro methylation assays, TbPRMT6 utilizes bovine histones as a substrate, but it does not methylate several T. brucei glycine/arginine-rich proteins. As such, it exhibits a relatively narrow substrate specificity compared to other T. brucei PRMTs. Knockdown of TbPRMT6 in both procyclic form and bloodstream form T. brucei leads to a modest but reproducible effect on parasite growth in culture. Moreover, upon TbPRMT6 depletion, both PF and BF exhibit aberrant morphologies indicating defects in cell division, and these defects differ in the two life cycle stages. Mass spectrometry of TbPRMT6-associated proteins reveals histones, components of the nuclear pore complex, and flagellar proteins that may represent TbPRMT6 substrates contributing to the observed growth and morphological defects.
Project description:Arginine methylation is a widespread post-translational modification of proteins catalyzed by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). The ancient protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, possesses five putative PRMTs, a relatively large number for a single-celled eukaryote. Trypanosomatids lack gene regulation at the level of transcription, instead relying on post-transcriptional control mechanisms that act at the levels of RNA turnover, translation, and editing, all processes that likely involve multiple RNA-binding proteins, which are common targets of arginine methylation. Here, we report the characterization of a trypanosome PRMT, TbPRMT7, which is homologous to human PRMT7. Interestingly, trypanosomatids are the only single-celled eukaryotes known to harbor a PRMT7 homologue. TbPRMT7 differs dramatically from all known metazoan PRMT7 homologues in lacking the second AdoMet binding-like domain that is required for activity of the human enzyme. Nevertheless, bacterially expressed TbPRMT7 exhibits robust methyltransferase activity toward multiple targets in vitro. High resolution ion exchange chromatography analysis of methylated substrates reveals that TbPRMT7 is a type III PRMT, catalyzing the formation of only monomethylarginine, thereby representing the only exclusively type III PRMT identified to date. TbPRMT7 is expressed in both mammalian and insect stage T. brucei and is apparently dispensable for growth in both life cycle stages. The enzyme is cytoplasmically localized and is a component of several higher order complexes in vivo. Together, our studies indicate that TbPRMT7 is a Type III PRMT, and its robust activity and presence in numerous complexes suggest it plays multiple roles during the complex T. brucei life cycle.
Project description:Arginine methylation plays vital roles in the cellular functions of the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. The T. brucei arginine methyltransferase 6 (TbPRMT6) is a type I arginine methyltransferase homologous to human PRMT6. In this study, we report the crystal structures of apo-TbPRMT6 and its complex with the reaction product S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH). The structure of apo-TbPRMT6 displays several features that are different from those of type I PRMTs that were structurally characterized previously, including four stretches of insertion, the absence of strand ?15, and a distinct dimerization arm. The comparison of the apo-TbPRMT6 and SAH-TbPRMT6 structures revealed the fine rearrangements in the active site upon SAH binding. The isothermal titration calorimetry results demonstrated that SAH binding greatly increases the affinity of TbPRMT6 to a substrate peptide derived from bovine histone H4. The western blotting and mass spectrometry results revealed that TbPRMT6 methylates bovine histone H4 tail at arginine 3 but cannot methylate several T. brucei histone tails. In summary, our results highlight the structural differences between TbPRMT6 and other type I PRMTs and reveal that the active site rearrangement upon SAH binding is important for the substrate binding of TbPRMT6.
Project description:In the family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) that predominantly generate either asymmetric or symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), PRMT7 is unique in producing solely monomethylarginine (MMA) products. The type of methylation on histones and other proteins dictates changes in gene expression, and numerous studies have linked altered profiles of methyl marks with disease phenotypes. Given the importance of specific inhibitor development, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms by which PRMT product specificity is conferred. We have focused our attention on active-site residues of PRMT7 from the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei We have designed 26 single and double mutations in the active site, including residues in the Glu-Xaa8-Glu (double E) loop and the Met-Gln-Trp sequence of the canonical Thr-His-Trp (THW) loop known to interact with the methyl-accepting substrate arginine. Analysis of the reaction products by high resolution cation exchange chromatography combined with the knowledge of PRMT crystal structures suggests a model where the size of two distinct subregions in the active site determines PRMT7 product specificity. A dual mutation of Glu-181 to Asp in the double E loop and Gln-329 to Ala in the canonical THW loop enables the enzyme to produce SDMA. Consistent with our model, the mutation of Cys-431 to His in the THW loop of human PRMT9 shifts its product specificity from SDMA toward MMA. Together with previous results, these findings provide a structural basis and a general model for product specificity in PRMTs, which will be useful for the rational design of specific PRMT inhibitors.
Project description:Heart failure remains a major cause of hospitalization and death worldwide. Heart failure can be caused by abnormalities in the epigenome resulting from dysregulation of histone-modifying enzymes. While chromatin enzymes catalyzing lysine acetylation and methylation of histones have been the topic of many investigations, the role of arginine methyltransferases has been overlooked. In an effort to understand regulatory mechanisms implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, we assessed the expression of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) in the left ventricle of failing human hearts and control hearts. Our results show a significant up-regulation of protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) in failing human hearts compared to control hearts, which also occurs in the early phase of cardiac hypertrophy in mouse hearts subjected to pressure overload hypertrophy induced by trans-aortic constriction (TAC), and in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) stimulated with the hypertrophic agonist phenylephrine (PE). These changes are associated with a significant increase in arginine 2 asymmetric methylation of histone H3 (H3R2Me2a) and reduced lysine 4 tri-methylation of H3 (H3K4Me3) observed both in NRVM and in vivo. Importantly, forced expression of PRMT6 in NRVM enhances the expression of the hypertrophic marker, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Conversely, specific silencing of PRMT6 reduces ANP protein expression and cell size, indicating that PRMT6 is critical for the PE-mediated hypertrophic response. Silencing of PRMT6 reduces H3R2Me2a, a mark normally associated with transcriptional repression. Furthermore, evaluation of cardiac contractility and global ion channel activity in live NRVM shows a striking reduction of spontaneous beating rates and prolongation of extra-cellular field potentials in cells expressing low-level PRMT6. Altogether, our results indicate that PRMT6 is a critical regulator of cardiac hypertrophy, implicating H3R2Me2a as an important histone modification. This study identifies PRMT6 as a new epigenetic regulator and suggests a new point of control in chromatin to inhibit pathological cardiac remodeling.
Project description:Protein arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that impacts cellular functions, such as RNA processing, transcription, DNA repair, and signal transduction. The majority of our knowledge regarding arginine methylation derives from studies of yeast and mammals. Here, we describe a protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT), TbPRMT5, from the early-branching eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei. TbPRMT5 shares the greatest sequence similarity with PRMT5 and Skb1 type II enzymes from humans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, respectively, although it is significantly divergent at the amino acid level from its mammalian and yeast counterparts. Recombinant TbPRMT5 displays broad substrate specificity in vitro, including methylation of a mitochondrial-gene-regulatory protein, RBP16. TbPRMT5 catalyzes the formation of omega-N(G)-monomethylarginine and symmetric omega-N(G),N(G')-dimethylarginine and does not require trypanosome cofactors for this activity. These data establish that type II PRMTs evolved early in the eukaryotic lineage. In vivo, TbPRMT5 is constitutively expressed in the bloodstream form and procyclic-form (insect host) life stages of the parasite and localizes to the cytoplasm. Genetic disruption via RNA interference in procyclic-form trypanosomes indicates that TbPRMT5 is not essential for growth in this life cycle stage. TbPRMT5-TAP ectopically expressed in procyclic-form trypanosomes is present in high-molecular-weight complexes and associates with an RG domain-containing DEAD box protein related to yeast Ded1 and two kinetoplastid-specific proteins. Thus, TbPRMT5 is likely to be involved in novel methylation-regulated functions in trypanosomes, some of which may include RNA processing and/or translation.
Project description:Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are a family of enzymes that can methylate arginine residues on histones and other proteins. PRMTs play a crucial role in influencing various cellular functions, including cellular development and tumorigenesis. Arginine methylation by PRMTs is found on both nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Recently, there is increasing evidence regarding post-translational modifications of non-histone proteins by PRMTs, illustrating the previously unknown importance of PRMTs in the regulation of various cellular functions by post-translational modifications. In this review, we present the recent developments in the regulation of non-histone proteins by PRMTs.
Project description:The arginine methyltransferase PRMT6 (protein arginine methyltransferase 6) has been shown recently to regulate DNA repair and gene expression. As arginine methylation of histones is an important mechanism in transcriptional regulation, we asked whether PRMT6 possesses activity toward histones. We show here that PRMT6 methylates histone H3 at R2 and histones H4/H2A at R3 in vitro. Overexpression and knockdown analysis identify PRMT6 as the major H3 R2 methyltransferase in vivo. We find that H3 R2 methylation inhibits H3 K4 trimethylation and recruitment of WDR5, a subunit of the MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) K4 methyltransferase complex, to histone H3 in vitro. Upon PRMT6 overexpression, transcription of Hox genes and Myc-dependent genes, both well-known targets of H3 K4 trimethylation, decreases. This transcriptional repression coincides with enhanced occurrence of H3 R2 methylation and PRMT6 as well as reduced levels of H3 K4 trimethylation and MLL1/WDR5 recruitment at the HoxA2 gene. Upon retinoic acid-induced transcriptional activation of HoxA2 in a cell model of neuronal differentiation, PRMT6 recruitment and H3 R2 methylation are diminished and H3 K4 trimethylation increases at the gene. Our findings identify PRMT6 as the mammalian methyltransferase for H3 R2 and establish the enzyme as a crucial negative regulator of H3 K4 trimethylation and transcriptional activation.
Project description:The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transactivator protein, Tat, stimulates transcription from the viral long terminal repeats via an arginine-rich transactivating domain. Since arginines are often known to be methylated, we investigated whether HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Tat was a substrate for known protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Here we identify Tat as a substrate for the arginine methyltransferase, PRMT6. Tat is specifically associated with and methylated by PRMT6 within cells. Overexpression of wild-type PRMT6, but not a methylase-inactive PRMT6 mutant, decreased Tat transactivation of an HIV-1 long terminal repeat luciferase reporter plasmid in a dose-dependent manner. Knocking down PRMT6 consistently increased HIV-1 production in HEK293T cells and also led to increased viral infectiousness as shown in multinuclear activation of a galactosidase indicator assays. Our study demonstrates that arginine methylation of Tat negatively regulates its transactivation activity and that PRMT6 acts as a restriction factor for HIV replication.
Project description:In eukaryotes, histone arginine methylation associates with both active and repressed chromatin states depending on the residues involved and the status of methylation. Even when the amino-terminus of Entamoeba histolytica histones diverge from metazoan sequences, these regions contain arginine residues that are potential targets for methylation. However, histone arginine methylation as well as the activity of arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) has not been studied in this parasite. The aim of this work was to examine the dimethylation of arginine 3 of H4 histone (H4R3me2) and to identify the parasite PRMT that could be responsible for this modification (EhPRMT1).To examine the presence of H4R3me2 in E histolytica, we performed Western blot and immunofluorescence assays on trophozoites using an antibody against this epigenetic mark. To recognize the PRMT1 enzyme of this parasite that possibly perform that modification, we first performed a phylogenetic analysis of E. histolytica and human PRMTs. RT-PCR assays were carried out to analyze the expression of the putative PRMT1 genes. One of these genes was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was tested by its recognition by an antibody against human PRMT1 and in its ability to form homodimers and to methylate commercial histones.The arginine 3 of human H4, which is subjected to post translational methylation, was aligned with the arginine 8 of E. histolytica H4, suggesting that this residue could be methylated. The recognition of an 18 kDa nuclear protein of E. histolytica by an antibody against H4R3me2 confirmed this assumption. We found that this parasite expresses three phylogenetic and structural proteins related to PRMT1. Antibodies against the human PRMT1 detected E. histolytica proteins in cytoplasm and nuclei and recognized a recombinant PRMT1 of this parasite. The recombinant protein was able to form homodimers and homotetramers and displayed methyltransferase activity on arginine 3 of chicken H4.All these results suggest that E. histolytica contains as a minimum one structural and functional protein ortholog to PRMT1, enzyme that potentially dimethylates H4R8. This modification may play an important role in the gene expression regulation of this microorganism.
Project description:Post-translational methylation of arginine residues profoundly affects the structure and functions of protein and, hence, implicated in a myriad of essential cellular processes such as signal transduction, mRNA splicing and transcriptional regulation. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), the enzymes catalyzing arginine methylation have been extensively studied in animals, yeast and, to some extent, in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Eight genes coding for the PRMTs were identified in Oryza sativa, previously. Here, we report that these genes show distinct expression patterns in various parts of the plant. In vivo targeting experiment demonstrated that GFP-tagged OsPRMT1, OsPRMT5 and OsPRMT10 were localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas OsPRMT6a and OsPRMT6b were predominantly localized to the nucleus. OsPRMT1, OsPRMT4, OsPRMT5, OsPRMT6a, OsPRMT6b and OsPRMT10 exhibited in vitro arginine methyltransferase activity against myelin basic protein, glycine-arginine-rich domain of fibrillarin and calf thymus core histones. Furthermore, they depicted specificities for the arginine residues in histones H3 and H4 and were classified into type I and Type II PRMTs, based on the formation of type of dimethylarginine in the substrate proteins. The two homologs of OsPRMT6 showed direct interaction in vitro and further titrating different amounts of these proteins in the methyltransferase assay revealed that OsPRMT6a inhibits the methyltransferase activity of OsPRMT6b, probably, by the formation of heterodimer. The identification and characterization of PRMTs in rice suggests the conservation of arginine methylation in monocots and hold promise for gaining further insight into regulation of plant development.