Diversity of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) in a salt marsh impacted by long-term acid mine drainage.
ABSTRACT: Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) play a major role in the coupled biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and chalcophilic metal(loid)s. By implication, they can exert a strong influence on the speciation and mobility of multiple metal(loid) contaminants. In this study, we combined DsrAB gene sequencing and sulfur isotopic profiling to identify the phylogeny and distribution of SRB and to assess their metabolic activity in salt marsh sediments exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) for over 100 years. Recovered dsrAB sequences from three sites sampled along an AMD flow path indicated the dominance of a single Desulfovibrio species. Other major sequence clades were related most closely to Desulfosarcina, Desulfococcus, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfosporosinus species. The presence of metal sulfides with low delta(34)S values relative to delta(34)S values of pore water sulfate showed that sediment SRB populations were actively reducing sulfate under ambient conditions (pH of approximately 2), although possibly within less acidic microenvironments. Interestingly, delta(34)S values for pore water sulfate were lower than those for sulfate delivered during tidal inundation of marsh sediments. 16S rRNA gene sequence data from sediments and sulfur isotope data confirmed that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria drove the reoxidation of biogenic sulfide coupled to oxygen or nitrate reduction over a timescale of hours. Collectively, these findings imply a highly dynamic microbially mediated cycling of sulfate and sulfide, and thus the speciation and mobility of chalcophilic contaminant metal(loid)s, in AMD-impacted marsh sediments.
Project description:Sulfur cycling is primarily driven by sulfate reduction mediated by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in marine sediments. The dissimilatory sulfate reduction drives the production of enormous quantities of reduced sulfide and thereby the formation of highly insoluble metal sulfides in marine sediments. Here, a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium designated <i>Pseudodesulfovibrio cashew</i> SRB007 was isolated and purified from the deep-sea cold seep and proposed to represent a novel species in the genus of <i>Pseudodesulfovibrio</i>. A detailed description of the phenotypic traits, phylogenetic status and central metabolisms of strain SRB007 allowed the reconstruction of the metabolic potential and lifestyle of a novel member of deep-sea SRB. Notably, <i>P. cashew</i> SRB007 showed a strong ability to resist and remove different heavy metal ions including Co<sup>2+</sup>, Ni<sup>2+</sup>, Cd<sup>2+</sup> and Hg<sup>2+</sup>. The dissimilatory sulfate reduction was demonstrated to contribute to the prominent removal capability of <i>P. cashew</i> SRB007 against different heavy metals via the formation of insoluble metal sulfides.
Project description:Microbial sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation are vital processes to enhance organic matter degradation in sediments. However, the diversity and composition of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and their environmental driving factors are still poorly understood in aquaculture ponds, which received mounting of organic matter. In this study, bacterial communities, SRB and SOB from sediments of aquaculture ponds with different sizes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) were analysed using high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results indicated that microbial communities in aquaculture pond sediments of large juvenile fish showed the highest richness and abundance of SRB and SOB, potentially further enhancing microbial sulfur cycling. Specifically, SRB were dominated by Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio, whereas SOB were dominated by Dechloromonas and Leptothrix. Although large juvenile fish ponds had relatively lower concentrations of sulfur compounds (i.e. total sulfur, acid-volatile sulfide and elemental sulfur) than those of larval fish ponds, more abundant SRB and SOB were found in the large juvenile fish ponds. Further redundancy analysis (RDA) and linear regression indicated that sulfur compounds and sediment suspension are the major environmental factors shaping the abundance and community structure of SRB and SOB in aquaculture pond sediments. Findings of this study expand our current understanding of microbial driving sulfur cycling in aquaculture ecosystems and also provide novel insights for ecological and green aquaculture managements.
Project description:Patterns of microbial biogeography result from a combination of dispersal, speciation and extinction, yet individual contributions exerted by each of these mechanisms are difficult to isolate and distinguish. The influx of endospores of thermophilic microorganisms to cold marine sediments offers a natural model for investigating passive dispersal in the ocean. We investigated the activity, diversity and abundance of thermophilic endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in Aarhus Bay by incubating pasteurized sediment between 28 and 85?°C, and by subsequent molecular diversity analyses of 16S rRNA and of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes within the endospore-forming SRB genus Desulfotomaculum. The thermophilic Desulfotomaculum community in Aarhus Bay sediments consisted of at least 23 species-level 16S rRNA sequence phylotypes. In two cases, pairs of identical 16S rRNA and dsrAB sequences in Arctic surface sediment 3000?km away showed that the same phylotypes are present in both locations. Radiotracer-enhanced most probable number analysis revealed that the abundance of endospores of thermophilic SRB in Aarhus Bay sediment was ca. 10(4) per cm(3) at the surface and decreased exponentially to 10(0) per cm(3) at 6.5?m depth, corresponding to 4500 years of sediment age. Thus, a half-life of ca. 300 years was estimated for the thermophilic SRB endospores deposited in Aarhus Bay sediments. These endospores were similarly detected in the overlying water column, indicative of passive dispersal in water masses preceding sedimentation. The sources of these thermophiles remain enigmatic, but at least one source may be common to both Aarhus Bay and Arctic sediments.
Project description:Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the (35)SO(4)(2-) radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of < or =142 +/- 20 nmol cm(-3) day(-1). Concentrations of heavy metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that approximately 80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone libraries were dominated by sequences affiliated with members of the Desulfobacterales but also the Desulfovibrionales, Syntrophobacteraceae, and Clostridiales. [(13)C]acetate- and [(13)C]lactate-biostimulated soil microcosms were dominated by sulfate and Fe(III) reduction. These processes were associated with enrichment of SRB and Geobacteraceae; enriched SRB were closely related to organisms detected in soils by using the dsrAB marker. Concentrations of soluble nickel, cobalt, and occasionally zinc declined < or =100% during anoxic soil incubations. In contrast to results in other studies, soluble uranium increased in carbon-amended treatments, reaching < or =1,407 nM in solution. Our results suggest that (i) ongoing sulfate reduction in contaminated soil resulted in in situ metal attenuation and (ii) the fate of uranium mobility is not predictable and may lead to downstream contamination of adjacent ecosystems.
Project description:Sediment samples were collected worldwide from 16 locations on four continents (in New York, California, New Jersey, Virginia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Italy, Latvia, and South Korea) to assess the extent of the diversity and the distribution patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated sediments. The SRB communities were examined by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) with NdeII digests. The fingerprints of dsrAB genes contained a total of 369 fluorescent TRFs, of which <20% were present in the GenBank database. The global sulfidogenic communities appeared to be significantly different among the anthropogenically impacted (petroleum-contaminated) sites, but nearly all were less diverse than pristine habitats, such as mangroves. A global SRB indicator species of petroleum pollution was not identified. However, several dsrAB gene sequences corresponding to hydrocarbon-degrading isolates or consortium members were detected in geographically widely separated polluted sites. Finally, a cluster analysis of the TRFLP fingerprints indicated that many SRB microbial communities were most similar on the basis of close geographic proximity (tens of kilometers). Yet, on larger scales (hundreds to thousands of kilometers) SRB communities could cluster with geographically widely separated sites and not necessarily with the site with the closest proximity. These data demonstrate that SRB populations do not adhere to a biogeographic distribution pattern similar to that of larger eukaryotic organisms, with the greatest species diversity radiating from the Indo-Pacific region. Rather, a patchy SRB distribution is encountered, implying an initially uniform SRB community that has differentiated over time.
Project description:The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) is a hydrothermal vent site where thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter forms petroliferous material which supports diverse sulfate-reducing bacteria. We explored the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the sulfate-reducing bacteria by characterizing PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) and 16S rRNA genes from the upper 4 cm of the Guaymas sediment. The dsrAB sequences revealed that there was a major clade closely related to the acetate-oxidizing delta-proteobacterial genus Desulfobacter and a clade of novel, deeply branching dsr sequences related to environmental dsr sequences from marine sediments in Aarhus Bay and Kysing Fjord (Denmark). Other dsr clones were affiliated with gram-positive thermophilic sulfate reducers (genus Desulfotomaculum) and the delta-proteobacterial species Desulforhabdus amnigena and Thermodesulforhabdus norvegica. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNAs from the same environmental samples resulted in identification of four clones affiliated with Desulfobacterium niacini, a member of the acetate-oxidizing, nutritionally versatile genus Desulfobacterium, and one clone related to Desulfobacula toluolica and Desulfotignum balticum. Other bacterial 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes were represented by non-sulfate reducers and uncultured lineages with unknown physiology, like OP9, OP8, as well as a group with no clear affiliation. In summary, analyses of both 16S rRNA and dsrAB clone libraries resulted in identification of members of the Desulfobacteriales in the Guaymas sediments. In addition, the dsrAB sequencing approach revealed a novel group of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes that could not be identified by 16S rRNA sequencing.
Project description:A large fragment of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) was PCR amplified and fully sequenced from 30 reference strains representing all recognized lineages of sulfate-reducing bacteria. In addition, the sequence of the dsrAB gene homologs of the sulfite reducer Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans was determined. In contrast to previous reports, comparative analysis of all available DsrAB sequences produced a tree topology partially inconsistent with the corresponding 16S rRNA phylogeny. For example, the DsrAB sequences of several Desulfotomaculum species (low G+C gram-positive division) and two members of the genus Thermodesulfobacterium (a separate bacterial division) were monophyletic with delta-proteobacterial DsrAB sequences. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that dsrAB genes from ancestors of as-yet-unrecognized sulfate reducers within the delta-Proteobacteria were laterally transferred across divisions. A number of insertions and deletions in the DsrAB alignment independently support these inferred lateral acquisitions of dsrAB genes. Evidence for a dsrAB lateral gene transfer event also was found within the delta-Proteobacteria, affecting Desulfobacula toluolica. The root of the dsr tree was inferred to be within the Thermodesulfovibrio lineage by paralogous rooting of the alpha and beta subunits. This rooting suggests that the dsrAB genes in Archaeoglobus species also are the result of an ancient lateral transfer from a bacterial donor. Although these findings complicate the use of dsrAB genes to infer phylogenetic relationships among sulfate reducers in molecular diversity studies, they establish a framework to resolve the origins and diversification of this ancient respiratory lifestyle among organisms mediating a key step in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur.
Project description:The distribution and activity of communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea in two contrasting Antarctic sediments were investigated. Methanogenesis dominated in freshwater Lake Heywood, while sulfate reduction dominated in marine Shallow Bay. Slurry experiments indicated that 90% of the methanogenesis in Lake Heywood was acetoclastic. This finding was supported by the limited diversity of clones detected in a Lake Heywood archaeal clone library, in which most clones were closely related to the obligate acetate-utilizing Methanosaeta concilii. The Shallow Bay archaeal clone library contained clones related to the C(1)-utilizing Methanolobus and Methanococcoides and the H(2)-utilizing Methanogenium: Oligonucleotide probing of RNA extracted directly from sediment indicated that archaea represented 34% of the total prokaryotic signal in Lake Heywood and that Methanosaeta was a major component (13.2%) of this signal. Archaea represented only 0.2% of the total prokaryotic signal in RNA extracted from Shallow Bay sediments. In the Shallow Bay bacterial clone library, 10.3% of the clones were SRB-like, related to Desulfotalea/Desulforhopalus, Desulfofaba, Desulfosarcina, and Desulfobacter as well as to the sulfur and metal oxidizers comprising the Desulfuromonas cluster. Oligonucleotide probes for specific SRB clusters indicated that SRB represented 14.7% of the total prokaryotic signal, with Desulfotalea/Desulforhopalus being the dominant SRB group (10.7% of the total prokaryotic signal) in the Shallow Bay sediments; these results support previous results obtained for Arctic sediments. Methanosaeta and Desulfotalea/Desulforhopalus appear to be important in Lake Heywood and Shallow Bay, respectively, and may be globally important in permanently low-temperature sediments.
Project description:Lateral gene transfer affects the evolutionary path of key genes involved in ancient metabolic traits, such as sulfate respiration, even more than previously expected. In this study, the phylogeny of the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase was analyzed. APS reductase is a key enzyme in sulfate respiration present in all sulfate-respiring prokaryotes. A newly developed PCR assay was used to amplify and sequence a fragment ( approximately 900 bp) of the APS reductase gene, apsA, from a taxonomically wide range of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (n = 60). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of all obtained and available ApsA sequences indicated a high degree of sequence conservation in the region analyzed. However, a comparison of ApsA- and 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic trees revealed topological incongruences affecting seven members of the Syntrophobacteraceae and three members of the Nitrospinaceae, which were clearly monophyletic with gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In addition, Thermodesulfovibrio islandicus and Thermodesulfobacterium thermophilum, Thermodesulfobacterium commune, and Thermodesulfobacterium hveragerdense clearly branched off between the radiation of the delta-proteobacterial gram-negative SRB and the gram-positive SRB and not close to the root of the tree as expected from 16S rRNA phylogeny. The most parsimonious explanation for these discrepancies in tree topologies is lateral transfer of apsA genes across bacterial divisions. Similar patterns of insertions and deletions in ApsA sequences of donor and recipient lineages provide additional evidence for lateral gene transfer. From a subset of reference strains (n = 25), a fragment of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB), which have recently been proposed to have undergone multiple lateral gene transfers (M. Klein et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:6028-6035, 2001), was also amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic comparison of DsrAB- and ApsA-based trees suggests a frequent involvement of gram-positive and thermophilic SRB in lateral gene transfer events among SRB.
Project description:Both iron- and sulfur- reducing bacteria strongly impact the mineralogy of iron, but their activity has long been thought to be spatially and temporally segregated based on the higher thermodynamic yields of iron over sulfate reduction. However, recent evidence suggests that sulfur cycling can predominate even under ferruginous conditions. In this study, we investigated the potential for bacterial iron and sulfur metabolisms in the iron-rich (1.2 mM dissolved Fe2+), sulfate-poor (< 20 ?M) Lake Pavin which is expected to host large populations of iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing microorganisms influencing the mineralogy of iron precipitates in its permanently anoxic bottom waters and sediments. 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries from at and below the oxycline revealed that highly diverse populations of sulfur/sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur/sulfide-oxidizing bacteria represented up to 10% and 5% of the total recovered sequences in situ, respectively, which together was roughly equivalent to the fraction of putative iron cycling bacteria. In enrichment cultures amended with key iron phases identified in situ (ferric iron phosphate, ferrihydrite) or with soluble iron (Fe2+), SRB were the most competitive microorganisms, both in the presence and absence of added sulfate. The large fraction of Sulfurospirillum, which are known to reduce thiosulfate and sulfur but not sulfate, present in all cultures was likely supported by Fe(III)-driven sulfide oxidation. These results support the hypothesis that an active cryptic sulfur cycle interacts with iron cycling in the lake. Analyses of mineral phases showed that ferric phosphate in cultures dominated by SRB was transformed to vivianite with concomitant precipitation of iron sulfides. As colloidal FeS and vivianite have been reported in the monimolimnion, we suggest that SRB along with iron-reducing bacteria strongly influence iron mineralogy in the water column and sediments of Lake Pavin.