Effects of a novel arginine methyltransferase inhibitor on T-helper cell cytokine production.
ABSTRACT: The protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to the guanidino nitrogen atom of peptidylarginine to form monomethylarginine or dimethylarginine. We created several less polar analogs of the specific PRMT inhibitor arginine methylation inhibitor-1, and one such compound was found to have improved PRMT inhibitory activity over the parent molecule. The newly identified PRMT inhibitor modulated T-helper-cell function and thus may serve as a lead for further inhibitors useful for the treatment of immune-mediated disease.
Project description:Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a type I protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that catalyzes the conversion of arginine into monomethylarginine (MMA) and further into asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). CARM1 methylates histone 3 arginines 17 and 26, as well as numerous non-histone proteins including CBP/p300, SRC-3, NCOA2, PABP1, and SAP49, while also functioning as a coactivator for various proteins that have been linked to cancer such as p53, NF-??, ?-catenin, E2F1 and steroid hormone receptor ER?. As a result, CARM1 is involved in transcriptional activation, cellular differentiation, cell cycle progression, RNA splicing and DNA damage response. It has been associated with several human cancers including breast, colon, prostate and lung cancers and thus, is a potential oncological target. Herein, we present the design and synthesis of a series of CARM1 inhibitors. Based on a fragment hit, we discovered compound 9 as a potent inhibitor that displayed selectivity for CARM1 over other PRMTs.
Project description:Caenorhabditis elegans protein arginine methyltransferases PRMT-7 and PRMT-9 are two evolutionarily conserved enzymes, with distinct orthologs in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Biochemical characterization of these two enzymes reveals that they share much in common with their mammalian orthologs. C. elegans PRMT-7 produces only monomethylarginine (MMA) and preferentially methylates R-X-R motifs in a broad collection of substrates, including human histone peptides and RG-rich peptides. In addition, the activity of the PRMT-7 enzyme is dependent on temperature, the presence of metal ions, and the reducing agent dithiothreitol. C. elegans PRMT-7 has a substrate specificity and a substrate preference different from those of mammalian PRMT7, and the available X-ray crystal structures of the PRMT7 orthologs show differences in active site architecture. C. elegans PRMT-9, on the other hand, produces symmetric dimethylarginine and MMA on SFTB-2, the conserved C. elegans ortholog of human RNA splicing factor SF3B2, indicating a possible role in the regulation of nematode splicing. In contrast to PRMT-7, C. elegans PRMT-9 appears to be biochemically indistinguishable from its human ortholog.
Project description:Protein arginine methylation is emerging as a significant post-translational modification involved in various cell processes and human diseases. As the major arginine methylation enzyme, protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) strictly generates monomethylarginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), but not symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). The two types of dimethylarginines can lead to distinct biological outputs, as highlighted in the PRMT-dependent epigenetic control of transcription. However, it remains unclear how PRMT1 product specificity is regulated. We discovered that a single amino acid mutation (Met-48 to Phe) in the PRMT1 active site enables PRMT1 to generate both ADMA and SDMA. Due to the limited amount of SDMA formed, we carried out quantum mechanical calculations to determine the free energies of activation of ADMA and SDMA synthesis. Our results indicate that the higher energy barrier of SDMA formation (??G(‡) = 3.2 kcal/mol as compared with ADMA) may explain the small amount of SDMA generated by M48F-PRMT1. Our study reveals unique energetic challenges for SDMA-forming methyltransferases and highlights the exquisite control of product formation by active site residues in the PRMTs.
Project description:In the family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) that predominantly generate either asymmetric or symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), PRMT7 is unique in producing solely monomethylarginine (MMA) products. The type of methylation on histones and other proteins dictates changes in gene expression, and numerous studies have linked altered profiles of methyl marks with disease phenotypes. Given the importance of specific inhibitor development, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms by which PRMT product specificity is conferred. We have focused our attention on active-site residues of PRMT7 from the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei We have designed 26 single and double mutations in the active site, including residues in the Glu-Xaa8-Glu (double E) loop and the Met-Gln-Trp sequence of the canonical Thr-His-Trp (THW) loop known to interact with the methyl-accepting substrate arginine. Analysis of the reaction products by high resolution cation exchange chromatography combined with the knowledge of PRMT crystal structures suggests a model where the size of two distinct subregions in the active site determines PRMT7 product specificity. A dual mutation of Glu-181 to Asp in the double E loop and Gln-329 to Ala in the canonical THW loop enables the enzyme to produce SDMA. Consistent with our model, the mutation of Cys-431 to His in the THW loop of human PRMT9 shifts its product specificity from SDMA toward MMA. Together with previous results, these findings provide a structural basis and a general model for product specificity in PRMTs, which will be useful for the rational design of specific PRMT inhibitors.
Project description:Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyze the transfer of the methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to arginine residues. There are three types of PRMTs (I, II and III) that produce different methylation products, including asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and monomethylarginine (MMA). Since these different methylations can lead to different biological consequences, understanding the origin of product specificity of PRMTs is of considerable interest. In this article, the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy simulations are performed to study SDMA catalyzed by the Type II PRMT5 on the basis of experimental observation that the dimethylated product is generated through a distributive fashion. The simulations have identified some important interactions and proton transfers during the catalysis. Similar to the cases involving Type I PRMTs, a conserved Glu residue (Glu435) in PRMT5 is suggested to function as general base catalyst based on the result of the simulations. Moreover, our results show that PRMT5 has an energetic preference for the first methylation on N?1 followed by the second methylation on a different ?-guanidino nitrogen of arginine (N?2).The first and second methyl transfers are estimated to have free energy barriers of 19-20 and 18-19 kcal/mol respectively. The computer simulations suggest a distinctive catalytic mechanism of symmetric dimethylation that seems to be different from asymmetric dimethylation.
Project description:Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in the progression of many diseases. Understanding substrate recognition and specificity of individual PRMT would facilitate the discovery of selective inhibitors towards future drug discovery. Herein, we reported the design and synthesis of bisubstrate analogues for PRMTs that incorporate a <i>S</i>-adenosylmethionine (SAM) analogue moiety and a tripeptide through an alkyl substituted guanidino group. Compound AH237 is a potent and selective inhibitor for PRMT4 and PRMT5 with a half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) of 2.8 and 0.42 nmol/L, respectively. Computational studies provided a plausible explanation for the high potency and selectivity of AH237 for PRMT4/5 over other 40 methyltransferases. This proof-of-principle study outlines an applicable strategy to develop potent and selective bisubstrate inhibitors for PRMTs, providing valuable probes for future structural studies.
Project description:Full-length human protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli was initially found to generate only ?-N(G)-monomethylated arginine residues in small peptides, suggesting that it is a type III enzyme. A later study, however, characterized fusion proteins of PRMT7 expressed in bacterial and mammalian cells as a type II/type I enzyme, capable of producing symmetrically dimethylated arginine (type II activity) as well as small amounts of asymmetric dimethylarginine (type I activity). We have sought to clarify the enzymatic activity of human PRMT7. We analyzed the in vitro methylation products of a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-PRMT7 fusion protein with robust activity using a variety of arginine-containing synthetic peptides and protein substrates, including a GST fusion with the N-terminal domain of fibrillarin (GST-GAR), myelin basic protein, and recombinant human histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Regardless of the methylation reaction conditions (incubation time, reaction volume, and substrate concentration), we found that PRMT7 only produces ?-N(G)-monomethylarginine with these substrates. In control experiments, we showed that mammalian GST-PRMT1 and Myc-PRMT5 were, unlike PRMT7, able to dimethylate both peptide P-SmD3 and SmB/D3 to give the expected asymmetric and symmetric products, respectively. These experiments show that PRMT7 is indeed a type III human methyltransferase capable of forming only ?-N(G)-monomethylarginine, not asymmetric ?-N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine or symmetric ?-N(G),N(G')-dimethylarginine, under the conditions tested.
Project description:Arginine methylation is a widespread posttranslational modification of proteins catalyzed by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammals, this modification affects multiple cellular processes, such as chromatin remodeling leading to transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, DNA repair, and cell signaling. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei possesses five putative PRMTs in its genome. This is a large number of PRMTs relative to other unicellular eukaryotes, suggesting an important role for arginine methylation in trypanosomes. Here, we present the in vitro and in vivo characterization of a T. brucei enzyme homologous to human PRMT6, which we term TbPRMT6. Like human PRMT6, TbPRMT6 is a type I PRMT, catalyzing the production of monomethylarginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine residues. In in vitro methylation assays, TbPRMT6 utilizes bovine histones as a substrate, but it does not methylate several T. brucei glycine/arginine-rich proteins. As such, it exhibits a relatively narrow substrate specificity compared to other T. brucei PRMTs. Knockdown of TbPRMT6 in both procyclic form and bloodstream form T. brucei leads to a modest but reproducible effect on parasite growth in culture. Moreover, upon TbPRMT6 depletion, both PF and BF exhibit aberrant morphologies indicating defects in cell division, and these defects differ in the two life cycle stages. Mass spectrometry of TbPRMT6-associated proteins reveals histones, components of the nuclear pore complex, and flagellar proteins that may represent TbPRMT6 substrates contributing to the observed growth and morphological defects.
Project description:Protein arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that impacts cellular functions, such as RNA processing, transcription, DNA repair, and signal transduction. The majority of our knowledge regarding arginine methylation derives from studies of yeast and mammals. Here, we describe a protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT), TbPRMT5, from the early-branching eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei. TbPRMT5 shares the greatest sequence similarity with PRMT5 and Skb1 type II enzymes from humans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, respectively, although it is significantly divergent at the amino acid level from its mammalian and yeast counterparts. Recombinant TbPRMT5 displays broad substrate specificity in vitro, including methylation of a mitochondrial-gene-regulatory protein, RBP16. TbPRMT5 catalyzes the formation of omega-N(G)-monomethylarginine and symmetric omega-N(G),N(G')-dimethylarginine and does not require trypanosome cofactors for this activity. These data establish that type II PRMTs evolved early in the eukaryotic lineage. In vivo, TbPRMT5 is constitutively expressed in the bloodstream form and procyclic-form (insect host) life stages of the parasite and localizes to the cytoplasm. Genetic disruption via RNA interference in procyclic-form trypanosomes indicates that TbPRMT5 is not essential for growth in this life cycle stage. TbPRMT5-TAP ectopically expressed in procyclic-form trypanosomes is present in high-molecular-weight complexes and associates with an RG domain-containing DEAD box protein related to yeast Ded1 and two kinetoplastid-specific proteins. Thus, TbPRMT5 is likely to be involved in novel methylation-regulated functions in trypanosomes, some of which may include RNA processing and/or translation.
Project description:Two methylated derivatives of arginine were isolated from the encephalitogenic protein of myelin from the central nervous system. Evidence is presented for the proposed structures, omega-NN'-dimethylarginine and omega-N-monomethylarginine. In the encephalitogenic protein from human brain the proportion 1:6:10 for arginine:monomethylarginine:dimethylarginine residues was found to occur at position 107. Possible roles for the methylated arginine in conformational changes and altered ion-exchange behaviour are discussed.