Intrinsic properties of immunoglobulin IgG1 isotype-switched B cell receptors promote microclustering and the initiation of signaling.
ABSTRACT: Memory B cells express high-affinity, immunoglobulin GB cell receptors (IgG BCRs) that enhance B cell responses, giving rise to the rapid production of high-affinity, IgG antibodies. Despite the central role of IgG BCRs in memory responses, the mechanisms by which the IgG BCRs function to enhance B cell responses are not fully understood. Using high-resolution live-cell imaging, we showed that IgG1 BCRs dramatically enhanced the earliest BCR-intrinsic events that followed within seconds of B cells' encounter with membrane bound antigen, including BCR oligomerization and BCR microcluster growth, leading to Syk kinase recruitment and calcium responses. The enhancement of these early events was dependent on a membrane proximal region of the IgG1 cytoplasmic tail not previously appreciated to play a role in IgG1 BCR signaling. Thus, intrinsic properties of the IgG1 BCR enhance early antigen-driven events that ultimately translate into heightened signaling.
Project description:It is known from experiments that in the presence of soluble antigen, B-cell receptors (BCRs) assemble into microclusters and then collect into a macrocluster known as a 'cap'. However, the mechanisms of BCR cluster formation during recognition of soluble antigens remain unclear. In previous work, we demonstrated that effective intrinsic attractions among BCRs can lead to the formation of small microclusters of BCR molecules. The effective intrinsic attractions could be caused by multivalent antigen binding, association with lipid rafts, or other biochemical factors. In the present study, we have developed and studied a Monte Carlo model of BCR clustering mediated by explicit binding and crosslinking of soluble bivalent antigens. Antigen crosslinking is shown to microcluster BCRs in an affinity-dependent manner and also in a biologically relevant timescale; however, antigen crosslinking alone does not appear to be sufficient for the formation of a single macrocluster of receptor molecules. We show that directed transport of BCRs is needed to drive the formation of large macroclusters. We constructed a simple model of directed transport, where BCR molecules diffuse towards the largest cluster or towards a random BCR microcluster, which results in a single macrocluster of receptor molecules. The mechanisms for both types of directed transport are compared using network-based metrics. We also develop and use appropriate network measures to analyze the effect of BCR and antigen concentration on BCR clustering, the stability of the formed clusters over time and the size of BCR-antigen crosslinked chains.
Project description:B-cell activation is initiated by the binding of antigen to the B-cell receptor (BCR). Here we used dSTORM superresolution imaging to characterize the nanoscale spatial organization of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG BCRs on the surfaces of resting and antigen--activated human peripheral blood B-cells. We provide insights into both the fundamental process of antigen-driven BCR clustering and differences in the spatial organization of IgM and IgG BCRs that may contribute to the characteristic differences in the responses of naive and memory B-cells to antigen. We provide evidence that although both IgM and IgG BCRs reside in highly heterogeneous protein islands that vary in size and number of BCR single-molecule localizations, both resting and activated B-cells intrinsically maintain a high -frequency of single isolated BCR localizations, which likely represent BCR monomers. IgG BCRs are more clustered than IgM BCRs on resting cells and form larger protein islands after antigen activation. Small, dense BCR clusters likely formed via protein-protein interactions are present on the surface of resting cells, and antigen activation induces these to come together to form less dense, larger islands, a process likely governed, at least in part, by protein-lipid interactions.
Project description:After their first encounter with a foreign antigen, naïve B cells that have immunoglobulin M (IgM) B cell receptors (BCRs) trigger the primary antibody response and the generation of memory B cells with IgG BCRs. When these memory B cells reencounter the same antigen, the cell surface IgG BCRs stimulate their rapid differentiation into plasma cells that release large amounts of IgG antibodies. We showed that the conserved cytoplasmic tail of the IgG BCR, which contains a putative PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/disc large/zona occludens 1)-binding motif, associated with synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97), a PDZ domain-containing scaffolding molecule that is involved in controlling receptor density and signal strength at neuronal synapses. SAP97 accumulated and bound to IgG BCRs in the immunological synapses that formed in response to B cell engagement with antigen. Knocking down SAP97 in IgG? B cells or mutating the putative PDZ-binding motif in the BCR tail impaired formation of the immunological synapse, initiation of IgG BCR signaling, and downstream activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. Thus, heightened B cell memory responses are encoded, in part, by a mechanism that involves SAP97 serving as a scaffolding protein in the IgG BCR immunological synapse.
Project description:The vigorous response of IgG-switched memory B cells to recurring pathogens involves enhanced signalling from their B-cell antigen receptors (BCRs). However, the molecular signal amplification mechanisms of memory-type BCRs remained unclear. Here, we identify the immunoglobulin tail tyrosine (ITT) motif in the cytoplasmic segments of membrane-bound IgGs (mIgGs) as the principle signal amplification device of memory-type BCRs in higher vertebrates and decipher its signalling microanatomy. We show that different families of protein tyrosine kinases act upstream and downstream of the ITT. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) activity is required for ITT phosphorylation followed by recruitment of the adaptor protein Grb2 into the mIgG-BCR signalosome. Grb2 in turn recruits Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) to amplify BCR-induced Ca(2+) mobilization. This molecular interplay of kinases and adaptors increases the antigen sensitivity of memory-type BCRs, which provides a cell-intrinsic trigger mechanism for the rapid reactivation of IgG-switched memory B cells on antigen recall.
Project description:Ig heavy chain (IgH) isotypes (e.g., IgM, IgG, and IgE) are generated as secreted/soluble antibodies (sIg) or as membrane-bound (mIg) B cell receptors (BCRs) through alternative RNA splicing. IgH isotype dictates soluble antibody function, but how mIg isotype influences B cell behavior is not well defined. We examined IgH isotype-specific BCR function by analyzing naturally switched B cells from wild-type mice, as well as by engineering polyclonal Igh?1/?1 and Igh?/? mice, which initially produce IgG1 or IgE from their respective native genomic configurations. We found that B cells from wild-type mice, as well as Igh?1/?1 and Igh?/? mice, produce transcripts that generate IgM, IgG1, and IgE in an alternative splice form bias hierarchy, regardless of cell stage. In this regard, we found that mIg? > mIg?1 > mIg?, and that these BCR expression differences influence respective developmental fitness. Restrained B cell development from Igh?1/?1 and Igh?/? mice was proportional to sIg/mIg ratios and was rescued by enforced expression of the respective mIgs. In addition, artificially enhancing BCR signal strength permitted IgE+ memory B cells-which essentially do not exist under normal conditions-to provide long-lived memory function, suggesting that quantitative BCR signal weakness contributes to restraint of IgE B cell responses. Our results indicate that IgH isotype-specific mIg/BCR dosage may play a larger role in B cell fate than previously anticipated.
Project description:B lymphocytes use B cell receptors (BCRs) to sense the chemical and physical features of antigens. The activation of isotype-switched IgG-BCR by mechanical force exhibits a distinct sensitivity and threshold in comparison with IgM-BCR. However, molecular mechanisms governing these differences remain to be identified. In this study, we report that the low threshold of IgG-BCR activation by mechanical force is highly dependent on tethering of the cytoplasmic tail of the IgG-BCR heavy chain (IgG-tail) to the plasma membrane. Mechanistically, we show that the positively charged residues in the IgG-tail play a crucial role by highly enriching phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-biphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) into the membrane microdomains of IgG-BCRs. Indeed, manipulating the amounts of PI(4,5)P2 within IgG-BCR membrane microdomains significantly altered the threshold and sensitivity of IgG-BCR activation. Our results reveal a lipid-dependent mechanism for determining the threshold of IgG-BCR activation by mechanical force.
Project description:Recently, neurabin-I and SAMD14 have been described as the autoantigenic target of approximately 66% of B-cell receptors (BCRs) of primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL). Neurabin-I and SAMD14 share a highly homologous SAM domain that becomes immunogenic after atypical hyper-N-glycosylation (SAMD14 at ASN339 and neurabin-I at ASN1277). This post-translational modification of neurabin-I and SAMD14 seems to lead to a chronic immune reaction with B-cell receptor activation contributing to lymphoma genesis of PCNSLs. The selective tropism of PCNSL to the CNS corresponds well to the neurabin-I and SAMD14 protein expression pattern. When conjugated to Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (ETA´), the PCNSL reactive epitope exerts cytotoxic effects on lymphoma cells expressing a SAMD14/neurabin-I reactive BCR. Thus, the reactive epitopes of SAMD14/neurabin-I might be useful to establish additional therapeutic strategies against PCNSL. To test this possibility, we integrated the PCNSL-reactive epitope of SAMD14/neurabin-I into a heavy-chain-only Fab antibody format in substitution of the variable region. Specific binding of the prokaryotically produced SAMD14/neurabin-I Fab-antibody to lymphoma cells and their internalization were determined by flow cytometry. Since no established EBV-negative PCNSL cell line exists, we used the ABC-DLBCL cell lines OCI-Ly3 and U2932, which were transfected to express a SAMD14/neurabin-I reactive BCR. The SAMD14/neurabin-I Fab antibody bound specifically to DLBCL cells expressing a BCR with reactivity to SAMD14/neurabin-I and not to unmanipulated DLBCL cell lines. Eukaryotically produced full-length IgG antibodies are well established as immunotherapy format. Therefore, the PCNSL-reactive epitope of SAMD14/neurabin-I was cloned into a full-length IgG1 format replacing the variable domains of the light and heavy chains. The IgG1-format SAMD14/neurabin-I construct was found to specifically bind to target lymphoma cells expressing a SAMD14/neurabin-I reactive B cell receptor. In addition, it induced dose-dependent relative cytotoxicity against these lymphoma cells when incubated with PBMCs. Control DLBCL cells are not affected at any tested concentration. When integrated into the Fab-format and IgG1-format, the PCNSL-reactive epitope of SAMD14/neurabin-I functions as <b>B</b>-cell receptor <b>A</b>ntigen for <b>R</b>everse targeting (BAR). In particular, the IgG1-format BAR-body approach represents a very attractive therapeutic format for the treatment of PCNSLs, considering its specificity against SAMD14/neurabin-I reactive BCRs and the well-known pharmacodynamic properties of IgG antibodies.
Project description:B lymphocyte cell senses and acquires foreign antigens through clonal distributed B cell receptors (BCRs) expressed on the surface of plasma membrane. The presentation formats of antigens are quite diverse. Based on their Brownian diffusion mobility, there are three forms: free mobile soluble antigens, lateral mobile membrane bound antigens, and fixed immobile antigens. Here, using high resolution high speed live cell imaging approaches, we provide evidence that BCR microclusters are formed on the surface of B cells shortly after B cell's encountering of antigens with each format of motion features. Through high speed live cell imaging, we determine that these BCR microclusters show dynamic growth feature and by doing so function as the basic platforms for B cells to acquire the antigens. We propose that the formation and dynamic growth of BCR microcluster is a universal mechanism for B cell to response to antigens with diverse motion features.
Project description:Antigen binding to the B-cell receptor (BCR) induces several responses, resulting in B-cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation. However, it has been difficult to study these responses due to their dynamic, fast, and transient nature. Here, we attempted to solve this problem by developing a controllable trigger point for BCR and antigen recognition through the construction of a photoactivatable antigen, caged 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl (caged-NP). This photoactivatable antigen system in combination with live cell and single molecule imaging techniques enabled us to illuminate the previously unidentified B-cell probing termination behaviors and the precise BCR sorting mechanisms during B-cell activation. B cells in contact with caged-NP exhibited probing behaviors as defined by the unceasing extension of membrane pseudopods in random directions. Further analyses showed that such probing behaviors are cell intrinsic with strict dependence on F-actin remodeling but not on tonic BCR signaling. B-cell probing behaviors were terminated within 4 s after photoactivation, suggesting that this response was sensitive and specific to BCR engagement. The termination of B-cell probing was concomitant with the accumulation response of the BCRs into the BCR microclusters. We also determined the Brownian diffusion coefficient of BCRs from the same B cells before and after BCR engagement. The analysis of temporally segregated single molecule images of both BCR and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) demonstrated that antigen binding induced trapping of BCRs into the BCR microclusters is a fundamental mechanism for B cells to acquire antigens.
Project description:Antibody responses are initiated by the binding of antigens to clonally distributed cell surface B cell receptors (BCRs) that trigger signaling cascades resulting in B cell activation. Using conventional biochemical approaches, the components of the downstream BCR signaling pathways have been described in considerable detail. However, far less is known about the early molecular events by which the binding of antigens to the BCRs initiates BCR signaling. With the recent advent of high resolution, high speed, live cell, and single molecule imaging technologies, these events are just beginning to be elucidated. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of BCR signaling may provide new targets for therapeutics to block dysregulated BCR signaling in systemic autoimmune diseases and in B cell tumors and to aid in the design of protein subunit vaccines. In this chapter, we describe the general procedures for using these new imaging techniques to investigate the early events in the initiation of BCR signaling.