Temporal interleukin-1beta secretion from primary human peripheral blood monocytes by P2X7-independent and P2X7-dependent mechanisms.
ABSTRACT: The processing and regulated secretion of IL-1beta are critical points of control of the biological activity of this important pro-inflammatory cytokine. IL-1beta is produced by both monocytes and macrophages, but the rate and mechanism of release differ according to the differentiation status and the origin of these cells. We aimed to study the control of processing and release in human blood monocytes and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced IL-1beta production and release were investigated for dependence upon caspase-1, P2X7 receptor activation, and loss of membrane asymmetry associated with microvesicle shedding. TLR agonists induced P2X7 receptor-dependent IL-1beta release in both monocytes and macrophages; however, only monocytes also showed P2X7 receptor-independent release of mature IL-1beta. Furthermore, in monocytes ATP-mediated PS exposure could be activated independently of IL-1beta production. Release of IL-1beta from monocytes showed selectivity for specific TLR agonists and was accelerated by P2X7 receptor activation. Human monocytes released more IL-1beta/cell than macrophages. These data have important implications for inflammatory diseases that involve monocyte activation and IL-1 release.
Project description:P2X7 receptor is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated ion channel within the multiprotein inflammasome complex. Until now, little is known about regulation of P2X7 effector functions in macrophages. In this study, we show that nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (NTPDase1)/CD39 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by murine peritoneal macrophages and that it regulates P2X7-dependent responses in these cells. Macrophages isolated from NTPDase1-null mice (Entpd1(-/-)) were devoid of all ADPase and most ATPase activities when compared with WT macrophages (Entpd1(+/+)). Entpd1(-/-) macrophages exposed to millimolar concentrations of ATP were more susceptible to cell death, released more IL-1beta and IL-18 after TLR2 or TLR4 priming, and incorporated the fluorescent dye Yo-Pro-1 more efficiently (suggestive of increased pore formation) than Entpd1(+/+) cells. Consistent with these observations, NTPDase1 regulated P2X7-associated IL-1beta release after synthesis, and this process occurred independently of, and prior to, cytokine maturation by caspase-1. NTPDase1 also inhibited IL-1beta release in vivo in the air pouch inflammatory model. Exudates of LPS-injected Entpd1(-/-) mice had significantly higher IL-1beta levels when compared with Entpd1(+/+) mice. Altogether, our studies suggest that NTPDase1/CD39 plays a key role in the control of P2X7-dependent macrophage responses.
Project description:Immune cells of myeloid origin show robust expression of ATP-gated P2X7 receptors, two-transmembrane ion channels permeable to Na+, K+, and Ca2+ Receptor activation promotes inflammasome activation and release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. In this study, we show that ATP generates facilitating cationic currents in monocyte-derived human macrophages and permeabilizes the plasma membrane to polyatomic cationic dyes. We find that antagonists of PLA2 and Cl- channels abolish P2X7 receptor-mediated current facilitation, membrane permeabilization, blebbing, phospholipid scrambling, inflammasome activation, and IL-1? release. Our data demonstrate significant differences in the actions of ATP in murine and human macrophages and suggest that PLA2 and Cl- channels mediate innate immunity downstream of P2X7 receptors in human macrophages.
Project description:The P2X7 receptor is a ligand-gated cation channel that is normally expressed by a variety of immune cells, including macrophages and lymphocytes. Because it leads to membrane blebbing, release of IL-1beta, and cell death by apoptosis or necrosis, it is a potential therapeutic target for a variety of inflammatory diseases. Although the P2X7 receptor is usually not detectable in normal renal tissue, we previously reported increased expression of both mRNA and protein in mesangial cells and macrophages infiltrating the glomeruli in animal models of antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis. In this study, we used P2X7-knockout mice in the same experimental model of glomerulonephritis and found that P2X7 deficiency was significantly renoprotective compared with wild-type controls, evidenced by better renal function, a striking reduction in proteinuria, and decreased histologic glomerular injury. In addition, the selective P2X7 antagonist A-438079 prevented the development of antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis in rats. These results support a proinflammatory role for P2X7 in immune-mediated renal injury and suggest that the P2X7 receptor is a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Relative to monocytes, human macrophages are deficient in their ability to process and release IL-1beta. In an effort to explain this difference, we used a model of IL-1beta processing and release that is dependent upon bacterial escape into the cytosol. Fresh human blood monocytes were compared with monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) for their IL-1beta release in response to challenge with Francisella novicida. Although both cell types produced similar levels of IL-1beta mRNA and intracellular pro-IL-1beta, only monocytes readily released processed mature IL-1beta. Baseline mRNA expression profiling of candidate genes revealed a remarkable deficiency in the pyrin gene, MEFV, expression in MDM compared with monocytes. Immunoblots confirmed a corresponding deficit in MDM pyrin protein. To determine whether pyrin levels were responsible for the monocyte/MDM difference in mature IL-1beta release, pyrin expression was knocked down by nucleofecting small interfering RNA against pyrin into monocytes or stably transducing small interfering RNA against pyrin into the monocyte cell line, THP-1. Pyrin knockdown was associated with a significant drop in IL-1beta release in both cell types. Importantly, M-CSF treatment of MDM restored pyrin levels and IL-1beta release. Similarly, the stable expression of pyrin in PMA-stimulated THP-1-derived macrophages induces caspase-1 activation, associated with increased IL-1beta release after infection with F. novicida. In summary, intracellular pyrin levels positively regulate MDM IL-1beta responsiveness to Francisella challenge.
Project description:Oxalate crystal-induced renal inflammation is associated with progressive kidney failure due to activation of the NLRP3/CASP-1 inflammasome. It has been suggested previously that purinergic P2X7 receptor signaling is critical for crystal-induced inflammasome activation and renal injury. Therefore, we investigated the role of the P2X7 receptor in response to crystal-induced cytokine release, inflammation, and kidney failure using in vitro and in vivo models. Dendritic cells and macrophages derived from murine bone marrow and human peripheral blood mononucleated cells stimulated with calcium-oxalate crystals, monosodium urate crystals, or ATP lead to the robust release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß). Treatment with the P2X7 inhibitor A740003 or the depletion of ATP by apyrase selectively abrogated ATP-induced, but not oxalate and urate crystal-induced IL-1ß release. In line with this finding, dendritic cells derived from bone marrow (BMDCs) from P2X7-/- mice released reduced amounts of IL-1ß following stimulation with ATP, while oxalate and urate crystal-induced IL-1ß release was unaffected. In sharp contrast, BMDCs from Casp1-/- mice exhibited reduced IL-1ß release following either of the three stimulants. In addition, P2X7-/- mice demonstrated similar degrees of crystal deposition, tubular damage and inflammation when compared with WT mice. In line with these findings, increases in plasma creatinine were no different between WT and P2X7-/- mice. In contrast to previous reports, our results indicate that P2X7 receptor is not required for crystal-induced CKD and it is unlikely to be a suitable therapeutic target for crystal-induced progressive kidney disease.
Project description:On the basis of studies in mouse macrophages, activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) pyrin domain-containing 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome is thought to require two signals. The first signal is provided by TLR stimulation and triggers the synthesis of the IL-1? precursor and Nlrp3. The second signal can be mediated by stimulation of the purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2X7) by millimolar concentrations of ATP. However, these high concentrations of ATP are not found normally in the in vivo extracellular milieu, raising concern about the physiological relevance of the ATP-P2X7 pathway of inflammasome activation. In this article, we show that unlike macrophages, murine bone marrow-derived and splenic dendritic cells (DCs) can secrete substantial amounts of mature IL-1? upon stimulation with TLR ligands in the absence of ATP stimulation. The differential ability of DCs to release IL-1? and activate caspase-1 was associated with increased expression of Nlrp3 under steady-state conditions and of pro-IL-1? and Nlrp3 after stimulation with TLR agonists. IL-1? secretion from stimulated DCs was largely dependent on the Nlrp3 inflammasome, but independent of P2X7 and unaffected by incubation with apyrase. More importantly, i.p. administration of LPS induced IL-1? production in serum, which was abrogated in Nlrp3-null mice but was unaffected in P2X7-deficient mice. These results demonstrate differential regulation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome in macrophages and DCs. Furthermore, they challenge the idea that the ATP-P2X7 axis is critical for TLR-induced IL-1? production via the Nlrp3 inflammasome in vivo.
Project description:IL-1? release is integral to the innate immune system. The release of mature IL-1? depends on 2 regulated events: the de novo induction of pro-IL-1?, generally via NF-?B-dependent transduction pathways; and the assembly and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. This latter step is reliant on active caspase-1, pannexin-1, and P2X7 receptor activation. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria activate IL-1? release from immune cells via TLR2 and TLR4 receptors, respectively. We found that pro-IL-1? and mature IL-1? release from human monocytes is stimulated by the TLR2 agonists Pam3CSK4 or FSL-1, as well as the TLR4 agonist LPS in the absence of additional ATP. TLR2 agonists required pannexin-1 and P2X7 receptor activation to stimulate IL-1? release. In contrast, IL-1? release stimulated by the TLR4 agonist LPS is independent of both pannexin-1 and P2X7 activation. In the absence of exogenous ATP, P2X7 activation requires endogenous ATP release, which occurs in some cells via pannexin-1. In line with this, we found that LPS-stimulated human monocytes released relatively low levels of ATP, whereas cells stimulated with TLR2 agonists released high levels of ATP. These findings suggest that in human monocytes, both TLR2 and TLR4 signaling induce pro-IL-1? expression, but the mechanism by which they activate caspase-1 diverges at the level of the pannexin-1/ATP/P2X7 axis.-Parzych, K., Zetterqvist, A. V., Wright, W. R., Kirkby, N. S., Mitchell, J. A., Paul-Clark, M. J. Differential role of pannexin-1/ATP/P2X7 axis in IL-1? release by human monocytes.
Project description:P2X7 receptors have emerged as potential drug targets for the treatment of medical conditions such as e.g. rheumatoid arthritis and neuropathic pain. To assess the impact of pharmaceuticals on P2X7, we screened a compound library comprising approved or clinically tested drugs and identified several compounds that augment the ATP-triggered P2X7 activity in a stably transfected HEK293 cell line. Of these, clemastine markedly sensitized Ca(2+) entry through P2X7 to lower ATP concentrations. Extracellularly but not intracellularly applied clemastine rapidly and reversibly augmented P2X7-mediated whole-cell currents evoked by non-saturating ATP concentrations. Clemastine also accelerated the ATP-induced pore formation and Yo-Pro-1 uptake, increased the fractional NMDG(+) permeability, and stabilized the open channel conformation of P2X7. Thus, clemastine is an extracellularly binding allosteric modulator of P2X7 that sensitizes P2X7 to lower ATP concentrations and facilitates its pore dilation. The activity of clemastine on native P2X7 receptors, Ca(2+) entry, and whole-cell currents was confirmed in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Similar effects were observed in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Consistent with the data on recombinant P2X7, clemastine augmented the ATP-induced cation entry and Yo-Pro-1 uptake. In accordance with the observation that P2X7 controls the cytokine release from LPS-primed macrophages, we found that clemastine augmented the IL-1? release from LPS-primed human macrophages. Collectively, these data point to a sensitization of the recombinantly or natively expressed human P2X7 receptor toward its physiological activator, ATP, possibly leading to a modulation of macrophage-dependent immune responses.
Project description:P2X7 receptor plays important roles in inflammation and immunity, and thereby it serves as a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases. Rhein, an anthraquinone derivative, exhibits significant anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities in therapy. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of rhein on P2X7 receptor-mediated responses in vitro. In HEK293 cells expressing rat P2X7 receptor, we first found that rhein concentration-dependently blocked ATP-induced cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) elevation and pore formation of the plasma membrane, two hallmarks of the P2X7 receptor activation. These two inhibitory effects of rhein were also observed in rat peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, rhein counteracted macrophage phagocytosis attenuation and suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production triggered by ATP/BzATP. Meanwhile, rhein reduced ATP/BzATP-induced IL-1? release in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. Prolonged application of ATP caused macrophage apoptosis, while the presence of rhein suppressed this cell cytotoxicity. Such ATP/BzATP-induced cellular reactions were also inhibited by a well-known rat P2X7 receptor antagonist, brilliant blue G, in a similar way to rhein. Together, our results demonstrate that rhein inhibit ATP/BzATP-induced [Ca(2+)]c increase, pore formation, ROS production, phagocytosis attenuation, IL-1? release and cell apoptosis by antagonizing the P2X7 receptor in rat peritoneal macrophages.
Project description:In healthy monocytes, Toll-like receptor (TLR) engagement induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), followed by an antioxidant response involved in IL-1beta processing and secretion. Markers of the antioxidant response include intracellular thioredoxin and extracellular release of reduced cysteine. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are autoinflammatory diseases in which Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) gene mutations lead to increased IL-1beta secretion. We show in a large cohort of patients that IL-1beta secretion by CAPS monocytes is much faster than that by healthy monocytes. This accelerated kinetics is caused by alterations in the basal redox state, as well as in the redox response to TLR triggering displayed by CAPS monocytes. Indeed, unstimulated CAPS monocytes are under a mild oxidative stress, with elevated levels of both ROS and antioxidants. The redox response to LPS is quickened, with early generation of the reducing conditions favoring IL-1beta processing and secretion, and then rapidly exhausted. Therefore, secretion of IL-1beta is accelerated, but reaches a plateau much earlier than in healthy controls. Pharmacologic inhibition of the redox response hinders IL-1beta release, confirming the functional link between redox impairment and altered kinetics of secretion. Monocytes from patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis display normal kinetics of redox response and IL-1beta secretion, excluding a role of chronic inflammation in the alterations observed in CAPS. We conclude that preexisting redox alterations distinct from CAPS monocytes anticipate the pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecule-induced generation of the reducing environment favorable to inflammasome activation and IL-1beta secretion.