Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase is a distant IPK member with a singular inositide binding site for axial 2-OH recognition.
ABSTRACT: Inositol phosphates (InsPs) are signaling molecules with multiple roles in cells. In particular (InsP(6)) is involved in mRNA export and editing or chromatin remodeling among other events. InsP(6) accumulates as mixed salts (phytate) in storage tissues of plants and plays a key role in their physiology. Human diets that are exclusively grain-based provide an excess of InsP(6) that, through chelation of metal ions, may have a detrimental effect on human health. Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 2-kinase (InsP(5) 2-kinase or Ipk1) catalyses the synthesis of InsP(6) from InsP(5) and ATP, and is the only enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to the axial 2-OH of the myo-inositide. We present the first structure for an InsP(5) 2-kinase in complex with both substrates and products. This enzyme presents a singular structural region for inositide binding that encompasses almost half of the protein. The key residues in substrate binding are identified, with Asp368 being responsible for recognition of the axial 2-OH. This study sheds light on the unique molecular mechanism for the synthesis of the precursor of inositol pyrophosphates.
Project description:myo-Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5)), an inositol polyphosphate of emerging significance in cellular signalling, and its C-2 epimer scyllo-inositol pentakisphosphate (scyllo-InsP(5)) were synthesised from the same myo-inositol-based precursor. Potentiometric and NMR titrations show that both pentakisphosphates undergo a conformational ring-flip at higher pH, beginning at pH 8 for scyllo-InsP(5) and pH 9 for Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5). Over the physiological pH range, however, the conformation of the inositol rings and the microprotonation patterns of the phosphate groups in Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) and scyllo-InsP(5) are similar. Thus, scyllo-InsP(5) should be a useful tool for identifying biologically relevant actions of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5), mediated by specific binding sites, and distinguishing them from nonspecific electrostatic effects. We also demonstrate that, although scyllo-InsP(5) and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) are both hydrolysed by multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (MINPP), scyllo-InsP(5) is not dephosphorylated by PTEN or phosphorylated by Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 2-kinases. This finding both reinforces the value of scyllo-InsP(5) as a biological control and shows that the axial 2-OH group of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) plays a part in substrate recognition by PTEN and the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 2-kinases.
Project description:Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IPK1) converts inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate(IP5) to inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). IPK1 shares structural similarity with protein kinases and is suspected to employ a similar mechanism of activation. Previous studies revealed roles for the 1- and 3-phosphates of IP5 in IPK1 activation and revealed that the N-lobe of IPK1 is unstable in the absence of inositol phosphate (IP). Here, we demonstrate the link between IPK1 substrate specificity and the stability of its N-lobe. Limited proteolysis of IPK1 revealed that N-lobe stability is dependent on the presence of the 1-phosphate of the substrate, whereas overall stability of IPK1 was increased in ternary complexes with nucleotide and IPs possessing 1- and 3-phosphates that engage the N-lobe of IPK1. Thus, the 1- and 3-phosphates possess dual roles in both IPK1 activation and IPK1 stability. To test whether kinase stability directly contributed to substrate selectivity of the kinase, we engineered IPK1 mutants with disulfide bonds that artificially stabilized the N-lobe in an IP-independent manner thereby mimicking its substrate-bound state in the absence of IP. IPK1 E82C/S142C exhibited a DTT-sensitive 5-fold increase in kcat for 3,4,5,6-inositol tetrakisphosphate (3,4,5,6-IP4) as compared with wild-type IPK1. The crystal structure of the IPK1 E82C/S142C mutant confirmed the presence of the disulfide bond and revealed a small shift in the N-lobe. Finally, we determined that IPK1 E82C/S142C is substantially more stable than wild-type IPK1 under nonreducing conditions, revealing that increased stability of IPK1 E82C/S142C correlates with changes in substrate specificity by allowing IPs lacking the stabilizing 1-phosphate to be used. Taken together, our results show that IPK1 substrate selection is linked to the ability of each potential substrate to stabilize IPK1.
Project description:Phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP<sub>6</sub> ) is an important phosphate store and signal molecule necessary for maintenance of basal resistance to plant pathogens. Arabidopsis thaliana ('arabidopsis') has three genes encoding myo-inositol phosphate synthases (IPS1-3), the enzymes that catalyse conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to InsP, the first step in InsP<sub>6</sub> biosynthesis. There is one gene for inositol-(1,3,4,5,6)-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IPK1), which catalyses the final step. Previously, we showed that mutation of IPS2 and IPK1 but not IPS1 increased susceptibility to pathogens. Our aim was to better understand the InsP<sub>6</sub> biosynthesis pathway in plant defence. Here we found that the susceptibility of arabidopsis (Col-0) to virulent and avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato was also increased in ips3 and ips2/3 double mutants. Also, ipk1 plants had compromised expression of local acquired resistance induced by treatment with the pathogen-derived molecular pattern (PAMP) molecule flg22, but were unaffected in other responses to flg22, including Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx and the oxidative burst, seedling root growth inhibition, and transcriptional up-regulation of the PAMP-triggered genes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE (MPK) 3, MPK11, CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE 5, and FLG22-INDUCED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 1. IPK1 mutation did not prevent the induction of systemic acquired resistance by avirulent P. syringae. Also, ips2 and ips2/3 double mutant plants, like ipk1, were hypersusceptible to P. syringae but were not compromised in flg22-induced local acquired resistance. The results support the role of InsP<sub>6</sub> biosynthesis enzymes in effective basal resistance and indicate that there is more than one basal resistance mechanism dependent upon InsP<sub>6</sub> biosynthesis.
Project description:Inositol phosphate kinases (IPKs) sequentially phosphorylate inositol phosphates (IPs) to yield a group of small signaling molecules involved in diverse cellular processes. IPK1 (inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase) phosphorylates inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate to inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate; however, the mechanism of IP recognition employed by IPK1 is currently unresolved. We demonstrated previously that IPK1 possesses an unstable N-terminal lobe in the absence of IP, which led us to propose that the phosphate profile of the IP was linked to stabilization of IPK1. Here, we describe a systematic study to determine the roles of the 1-, 3-, 5-, and 6-phosphate groups of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate in IP binding and IPK1 activation. The 5- and 6-phosphate groups were the most important for IP binding to IPK1, and the 1- and 3-phosphate groups were more important for IPK1 activation than the others. Moreover, we demonstrate that there are three critical residues (Arg-130, Lys-170, and Lys-411) necessary for IPK1 activity. Arg-130 is the only substrate-binding N-terminal lobe residue that can render IPK1 inactive; its 1-phosphate is critical for full IPK1 activity and for stabilization of the active conformation of IPK1. Taken together, our results support the model for recognition of the IP substrate by IPK1 in which (i) the 4-, 5-, and 6-phosphates are initially recognized by the C-terminal lobe, and subsequently, (ii) the interaction between the 1-phosphate and Arg-130 stabilizes the N-terminal lobe and activates IPK1. This model of IP recognition, believed to be unique among IPKs, could be exploited for selective inhibition of IPK1 in future studies that investigate the role of higher IPs.
Project description:Inositol phosphate kinases (IPKs) sequentially phosphorylate inositol phosphates (IPs) on their inositol rings to yield an array of signaling molecules. IPKs must possess the ability to recognize their physiological substrates from among a pool of over 30 cellular IPs that differ in numbers and positions of phosphates. Crystal structures from IPK subfamilies have revealed structural determinants for IP discrimination, which vary considerably between IPKs. However, recent structures of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IPK1) did not reveal how IPK1 selectively recognizes its physiological substrate, IP5, while excluding others. Here, we report that limited proteolysis has revealed the presence of multiple conformational states in the IPK1 catalytic cycle, with notable protection from protease only in the presence of IP. Further, a 3.1-Å crystal structure of IPK1 bound to ADP in the absence of IP revealed decreased order in residues 110-140 within the N-lobe of the kinase compared with structures in which IP is bound. Using this solution and crystallographic data, we propose a model for recognition of IP substrate by IPK1 wherein phosphate groups at the 4-, 5-, and 6-positions are recognized initially by the C-lobe with subsequent interaction of the 1-position phosphate by Arg130 that stabilizes this residue and the N-lobe. This model explains how IPK1 can be highly specific for a single IP substrate by linking its interactions with substrate phosphate groups to the stabilization of the N- and C-lobes and kinase activation.
Project description:Phytic acid (InsP(6)) is considered to be the major source of phosphorus and inositol phosphates in most cereal grains. However, InsP(6) is not utilized efficiently by monogastric animals due to lack of phytase enzyme. Furthermore, due to its ability to chelate mineral cations, phytic acid is considered to be an antinutrient that renders these minerals unavailable for absorption. In view of these facts, reducing the phytic acid content in cereal grains is a desired goal for the genetic improvement of several crops. In the present study, we report the RNAi-mediated seed-specific silencing (using the Oleosin18 promoter) of the IPK1 gene, which catalyzes the last step of phytic acid biosynthesis in rice. The presence of the transgene cassette in the resulting transgenic plants was confirmed by molecular analysis, indicating the stable integration of the transgene. The subsequent T4 transgenic seeds revealed 3.85-fold down-regulation in IPK1 transcripts, which correlated to a significant reduction in phytate levels and a concomitant increase in the amount of inorganic phosphate (Pi). The low-phytate rice seeds also accumulated 1.8-fold more iron in the endosperm due to the decreased phytic acid levels. No negative effects were observed on seed germination or in any of the agronomic traits examined. The results provide evidence that silencing of IPK1 gene can mediate a substantial reduction in seed phytate levels without hampering the growth and development of transgenic rice plants.
Project description:Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK, ipk2, Arg(82), ArgRIII) is an inositide kinase with unusually flexible substrate specificity and the capacity to partake in many functional protein-protein interactions (PPIs). By merging these two activities, IPMK is able to execute gene regulatory functions that are very unique and only now beginning to be recognized. In this short review, we present a brief history of IPMK, describe the structural biology of the enzyme and highlight a few recent discoveries that have shed more light on the role IPMK plays in inositide metabolism, nuclear signalling and transcriptional regulation.
Project description:Owing to its role in cancer, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. We previously reported that the inhibition of Akt by inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (InsP(5)) results in anti-tumour properties. To further develop this compound we modified its structure to obtain more potent inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt pathway.Cell proliferation/survival was determined by cell counting, sulphorhodamine or acridine orange/ethidium bromide assay; Akt activation was determined by western blot analysis. In vivo effect of compounds was tested on PC3 xenografts, whereas in vitro activity on kinases was determined by SelectScreen Kinase Profiling Service.The derivative 2-O-benzyl-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (2-O-Bn-InsP(5)) is active towards cancer types resistant to InsP(5) in vitro and in vivo. 2-O-Bn-InsP(5) possesses higher pro-apoptotic activity than InsP(5) in sensitive cells and enhances the effect of anti-cancer compounds. 2-O-Bn-InsP(5) specifically inhibits 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) in vitro (IC(50) in the low nanomolar range) and the PDK1-dependent phosphorylation of Akt in cell lines and excised tumours. It is interesting to note that 2-O-Bn-InsP(5) also inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in vitro.InsP(5) and 2-O-Bn-InsP(5) may represent lead compounds to develop novel inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt pathway (including potential dual PDK1/mTOR inhibitors) and novel potential anti-cancer drugs.
Project description:Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP(5) 2-K) catalyzes the synthesis of inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate from ATP and IP(5). Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate is implicated in crucial processes such as mRNA export, DNA editing, and phosphorus storage in plants. We previously solved the first structure of an IP(5) 2-K, which shed light on aspects of substrate recognition. However, failure of IP(5) 2-K to crystallize in the absence of inositide prompted us to study putative conformational changes upon substrate binding. We have made mutations to residues on a region of the protein that produces a clasp over the active site. A W129A mutant allowed us to capture IP(5) 2-K in its different conformations by crystallography. Thus, the IP(5) 2-K apo-form structure displays an open conformation, whereas the nucleotide-bound form shows a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the inositide-bound form obtained previously in a closed conformation. Both nucleotide and inositide binding produce large conformational changes that can be understood as two rigid domain movements, although local changes were also observed. Changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon nucleotide and inositide binding are in agreement with the crystallographic findings. Our work suggests that the clasp might be involved in enzyme kinetics, with the N-terminal lobe being essential for inositide binding and subsequent conformational changes. We also show how IP(5) 2-K discriminates between inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate enantiomers and that substrate preference can be manipulated by Arg(130) mutation. Altogether, these results provide a framework for rational design of specific inhibitors with potential applications as biological tools for in vivo studies, which could assist in the identification of novel roles for IP(5) 2-K in mammals.
Project description:In eukaryotes, inositol polyphosphates perform essential metabolic and signaling functions. Using human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans as a model, we created mutants in three inositol polyphosphates kinases: Arg1, Ipk1 and Kcs1. Each of the mutants produces a unique repertoire of inositol polyphosphates, different from the wild type strain. Comparative phenotypic and transcriptome analyses of wild type and mutant strains indicates that inositol polyphosphate PP-IP5 (IP7) is the key regulator of gene expression, fitness and virulence in C. neoformans. Comparison of WT and mutants (Darg1, Dkcs1 and Dipk1) grown in broth culture in the absence of stress.