Organometallic indolo[3,2-c]quinolines versus indolo[3,2-d]benzazepines: synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization, and biological efficacy.
ABSTRACT: The synthesis of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) arene complexes with the closely related indolo[3,2-c]quinolines N-(11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-6-yl)-ethane-1,2-diamine (L ( 1 )) and N'-(11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-6-yl)-N,N-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (L ( 2 )) and indolo[3,2-d]benzazepines N-(7,12-dihydroindolo-[3,2-d]benzazepin-6-yl)-ethane-1,2-diamine (L ( 3 )) and N'-(7,12-dihydroindolo-[3,2-d]benzazepin-6-yl)-N,N-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (L ( 4 )) of the general formulas [(eta(6)-p-cymene)M(II)(L ( 1 ))Cl]Cl, where M is Ru (4) and Os (6), [(eta(6)-p-cymene)M(II)(L ( 2 ))Cl]Cl, where M is Ru (5) and Os (7), [(eta(6)-p-cymene)M(II)(L ( 3 ))Cl]Cl, where M is Ru (8) and Os (10), and [(eta(6)-p-cymene)M(II)(L ( 4 ))Cl]Cl, where M is Ru (9) and Os (11), is reported. The compounds have been comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, spectroscopy (IR, UV-vis, and NMR), and X-ray crystallography (L ( 1 ).HCl, 4.H(2)O, 5, and 9.2.5H(2)O). Structure-activity relationships with regard to cytotoxicity and cell cycle effects in human cancer cells as well as cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibition and DNA intercalation in cell-free settings have been established. The metal-free indolo[3,2-c]quinolines inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro, with IC(50) values in the high nanomolar range, whereas those of the related indolo[3,2-d]benzazepines are in the low micromolar range. In cell-free experiments, these classes of compounds inhibit the activity of cdk2/cyclin E, but the much higher cytotoxicity and stronger cell cycle effects of indoloquinolines L ( 1 ) and 7 are not paralleled by a substantially higher kinase inhibition compared with indolobenzazepines L ( 4 ) and 11, arguing for additional targets and molecular effects, such as intercalation into DNA.
Project description:In this study, the indoloquinoline backbone and piperazine were combined to prepare indoloquinoline-piperazine hybrids and their ruthenium- and osmium-arene complexes in an effort to generate novel antitumor agents with improved aqueous solubility. In addition, the position of the metal-binding unit was varied, and the effect of these structural alterations on the aqueous solubility and antiproliferative activity of their ruthenium- and osmium-arene complexes was studied. The indoloquinoline-piperazine hybrids L(1-3) were prepared in situ and isolated as six ruthenium and osmium complexes [(?(6)-p-cymene)M(L(1-3))Cl]Cl, where L(1) = 6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-2-N-amine, M = Ru ([1a]Cl), Os ([1b]Cl), L(2) = 6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-4-N-amine, M = Ru ([2a]Cl), Os ([2b]Cl), L(3) = 6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-8-N-amine, M = Ru ([3a]Cl), Os ([3b]Cl). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The antiproliferative activity of the isomeric ruthenium and osmium complexes [1a,b]Cl-[3a,b]Cl was examined in vitro and showed the importance of the position of the metal-binding site for their cytotoxicity. Those complexes containing the metal-binding site located at the position 4 of the indoloquinoline scaffold ([2a]Cl and [2b]Cl) demonstrated the most potent antiproliferative activity. The results provide important insight into the structure-activity relationships of ruthenium- and osmium-arene complexes with indoloquinoline-piperazine hybrid ligands. These studies can be further utilized for the design and development of more potent chemotherapeutic agents.
Project description:The complexes [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)(CQ)Cl(2)] (1), [Ru(eta(6)-benzene)(CQ)Cl(2)] (2), [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)(CQ)(H(2)O)(2)][BF(4)](2) (3), [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)(en)(CQ)][PF(6)](2) (4), [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)(eta(6)-CQDP)][BF(4)](2) (5) (CQ = chloroquine base; CQDP = chloroquine diphosphate; en = ethylenediamine) interact with DNA to a comparable extent to that of CQ and in analogous intercalative manner with no evidence for any direct contribution of the metal, as shown by spectrophotometric and fluorimetric titrations, thermal denaturation measurements, circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoresis mobility shift assays. Complexes 1-5 induced cytotoxicity in Jurkat and SUP-T1 cancer cells primarily via apoptosis. Despite the similarities in the DNA binding behavior of complexes 1-5 with those of CQ the antitumor properties of the metal drugs do not correlate with those of CQ, indicating that DNA is not the principal target in the mechanism of cytotoxicity of these compounds. Importantly, the Ru-CQ complexes are generally less toxic toward normal mouse splenocytes and human foreskin fibroblast cells than the standard antimalarial drug CQDP and therefore this type of compound shows promise for drug development.
Project description:The synthesis of new modified indolo[3,2-c]quinoline ligands L(1)-L(8) with metal-binding sites is reported. By coordination to ruthenium- and osmium-arene moieties 16 complexes of the type [(?(6)-p-cymene)M(L)Cl]Cl (1a,b-8a,b), where M is Ru(II) or Os(II) and L is L(1)-L(8), have been prepared. All compounds were comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, IR, UV-vis, and NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (2a, 4a, 4b, 5a, 7a, and 7b). The complexes were tested for antiproliferative activity in vitro in three human cancer cell lines, namely, CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), SW480 (colon adenocarcinoma), and A549 (non-small-cell lung cancer), yielding IC(50) values in the submicromolar or low micromolar range.
Project description:Following our strategy of coupling cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors with organometallic moieties to improve their physicochemical properties and bioavailability, five organoruthenium complexes (1c-5c) of the general formula [RuCl(?(6)-arene)(L)]Cl have been synthesized in which the arene is 4-formylphenoxyacetyl-?(6)-benzylamide and L is a Cdk inhibitor [3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines (L1-L3) and indolo[3,2-d]benzazepines (L4 and L5)]. All of the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic and analytical methods. Upon prolonged standing (2-3 months) at room temperature, the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions of 1c and 2c(-HCl) afforded residues, which after recrystallization from EtOH and EtOH/H(2)O, respectively, were shown by X-ray diffraction to be cis,cis-[Ru(II)Cl(2)(DMSO)(2)(L1)]·H(2)O and mer-[Ru(II)Cl(DMSO)(3)(L2-H)]·H(2)O. Compound 5c, with a coordinated amidine unit, undergoes E/Z isomerization in solution. The antiproliferative activities and effects on the cell cycle of the new compounds were evaluated. Complexes 1c-5c are moderately cytotoxic to cancer cells (CH1, SW480, A549, A2780, and A2780cisR cell lines). Therefore, in order to improve their antiproliferative effects, as well as their drug targeting and delivery to cancer cells, 1c-5c were conjugated to recombinant human serum albumin, potentially exploiting the so-called "enhanced permeability and retention" effect that results in the accumulation of macromolecules in tumors. Notably, a marked increase in cytotoxicity of the albumin conjugates was observed in all cases.
Project description:A new general approach to double nitration of 6,12-di(hetero)aryl-substituted and 6,12-unsubstituted 5,11-dialkyl-5,11-dihydroindolo[3,2-b]carbazoles by acetyl nitrate has been developed to obtain their 2,8-dinitro and 6,12-dinitro derivatives, respectively. A formation of mono-nitro derivatives (at C-2 or C-6) from the same indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles has also been observed in several cases. Reduction of 2-nitro and 2,8-dinitro derivatives with zinc powder and hydrochloric acid has afforded 2-amino- and 2,8-diamino-substituted indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles, while reduction of 6,12-dinitro derivatives under similar reaction conditions has been accompanied by denitrohydrogenation of the latter compounds into 6,12-unsubstituted indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles. Formylation of 6,12-dinitro derivatives has proved to occur only at C-2, while bromination of these compounds has taken place at both C-2 and C-8 of indolo[3,2-b]carbazole scaffold. Moreover, 6,12-dinitro-substituted indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles have been modified by the reactions with S- and N-nucleophiles. Notably, the treatment of 6,12-dinitro compounds with potassium thiolates has resulted in the displacement of both nitro groups, unlike potassium salts of indole or carbazole, which have caused substitution of only one nitro group.
Project description:Six novel ruthenium(II)- and osmium(II)-arene complexes with three modified indolo[3,2-c]quinolines have been synthesized in situ starting from 2-aminoindoloquinolines and 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde in the presence of [M(p-cymene)Cl(2)](2) (M = Ru, Os) in ethanol. All complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic techniques ((1)H, (13)C NMR, IR, UV-vis), and ESI mass spectrometry, while four complexes were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The complexes have been tested for antiproliferative activity in vitro in A549 (non-small cell lung), SW480 (colon), and CH1 (ovarian) human cancer cell lines and showed IC(50) values between 1.3 and >80 ?M. The effects of Ru vs Os and modifications of the lactam unit on intermolecular interactions, antiproliferative activity, and cell cycle are reported. One ruthenium complex and its osmium analogue have been studied for anticancer activity in vivo applied both intraperitoneally and orally against the murine colon carcinoma model CT-26. Interestingly, the osmium(II) complex displayed significant growth-inhibitory activity in contrast to its ruthenium counterpart, providing stimuli for further investigation of this class of compounds as potential antitumor drugs.
Project description:A series of half-sandwich arene-ruthenium complexes of the type [(eta(6)-p-cymene) Ru(thiosemicarbazone)Cl](+) have been synthesized and their biological activity investigated. The first structurally characterized arene-ruthenium half-sandwich complex with a thiosemicarbazone ligand is reported.
Project description:The new Ru(II) chloroquine complexes [Ru(eta(6)-arene)(CQ)Cl2] (CQ = chloroquine; arene = p-cymene 1, benzene 2), [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)(CQ)(H2O)2][BF4]2 (3), [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)(CQ)(en)][PF6]2 (en = ethylenediamine) (4), and [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)(eta(6)-CQDP)][BF4]2 (5, CQDP = chloroquine diphosphate) have been synthesized and characterized by use of a combination of NMR and FTIR spectroscopy with DFT calculations. Each complex is formed as a single coordination isomer: In 1-4, chloroquine binds to ruthenium in the eta(1)-N mode through the quinoline nitrogen atom, whereas in 5 an unprecedented eta(6) bonding through the carbocyclic ring is observed. 1, 2, 3, and 5 are active against CQ-resistant (Dd2, K1, and W2) and CQ-sensitive (FcB1, PFB, F32, and 3D7) malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum); importantly, the potency of these complexes against resistant parasites is consistently higher than that of the standard drug chloroquine diphosphate. 1 and 5 also inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells, independently of the p53 status and of liposarcoma tumor cell lines with the latter showing increased sensitivity, especially to 1 (IC50 8 microM); this is significant because this type of tumor does not respond to currently employed chemotherapies.
Project description:The investigation of the hydrogen-bonding effect on the aggregation tendency of ruthenium compounds [(?6-p-cymene)Ru(?NHR,?NOH)Cl]Cl (R = Ph (1a), Bn (1b)) and [(?6-p-cymene)Ru(?2NH(2-pic),?NOH)][PF6]2 (1c), [(?6-p-cymene)Ru(?NHBn,?NO)Cl] (2b) and [(?6-p-cymene)Ru(?NBn,?2NO)] (3b), has been performed by means of concentration dependence 1H NMR chemical shifts and DOSY experiments. The synthesis and full characterization of new compounds 1c, [(?6-p-cymene)Ru(?NPh,?2NO)] (3a) and 3b are also reported. The effect of the water soluble ruthenium complexes 1a-1c on cytotoxicity, cell adhesion and cell migration of the androgen-independent prostate cancer PC3 cells have been assessed by MTT, adhesion to type-I-collagen and recovery of monolayer wounds assays, respectively. Interactions of 1a-1c with DNA and human serum albumin have also been studied. Altogether, the properties reported herein suggest that ruthenium compounds 1a-1c have considerable potential as anticancer agents against advanced prostate cancer.
Project description:Ruthenium compounds have become promising alternatives to platinum drugs by displaying specific activities against different cancers and favourable toxicity and clearance properties. Nonetheless, their molecular targeting and mechanism of action are poorly understood. Here we study two prototypical ruthenium-arene agents-the cytotoxic antiprimary tumour compound [(?(6)-p-cymene)Ru(ethylene-diamine)Cl]PF6 and the relatively non-cytotoxic antimetastasis compound [(?(6)-p-cymene)Ru(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane)Cl2]-and discover that the former targets the DNA of chromatin, while the latter preferentially forms adducts on the histone proteins. Using a novel 'atom-to-cell' approach, we establish the basis for the surprisingly site-selective adduct formation behaviour and distinct cellular impact of these two chemically similar anticancer agents, which suggests that the cytotoxic effects arise largely from DNA lesions, whereas the protein adducts may be linked to the other therapeutic activities. Our study shows promise for developing new ruthenium drugs, via ligand-based modulation of DNA versus protein binding and thus cytotoxic potential, to target distinguishing epigenetic features of cancer cells.