Paramyxovirus assembly and budding: building particles that transmit infections.
ABSTRACT: The paramyxoviruses define a diverse group of enveloped RNA viruses that includes a number of important human and animal pathogens. Examples include human respiratory syncytial virus and the human parainfluenza viruses, which cause respiratory illnesses in young children and the elderly; measles and mumps viruses, which have caused recent resurgences of disease in developed countries; the zoonotic Hendra and Nipah viruses, which have caused several outbreaks of fatal disease in Australia and Asia; and Newcastle disease virus, which infects chickens and other avian species. Like other enveloped viruses, paramyxoviruses form particles that assemble and bud from cellular membranes, allowing the transmission of infections to new cells and hosts. Here, we review recent advances that have improved our understanding of events involved in paramyxovirus particle formation. Contributions of viral matrix proteins, glycoproteins, nucleocapsid proteins, and accessory proteins to particle formation are discussed, as well as the importance of host factor recruitment for efficient virus budding. Trafficking of viral structural components within infected cells is described, together with mechanisms that allow for the selection of specific sites on cellular membranes for the coalescence of viral proteins in preparation of bud formation and virion release.
Project description:Enveloped virus particles are formed by budding from infected-cell membranes. For paramyxoviruses, viral matrix (M) proteins are key drivers of virus assembly and budding. However, other paramyxovirus proteins, including glycoproteins, nucleocapsid (NP or N) proteins, and C proteins, are also important for particle formation in some cases. To investigate the role of NP protein in parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) particle formation, NP protein truncation and substitution mutants were analyzed. Alterations near the C-terminal end of NP protein completely disrupted its virus-like particle (VLP) production function and significantly impaired M-NP protein interaction. Recombinant viruses with altered NP proteins were generated, and these viruses acquired second-site mutations. Recombinant viruses propagated in Vero cells acquired mutations that mainly affected components of the viral polymerase, while recombinant viruses propagated in MDBK cells acquired mutations that mainly affected the viral M protein. Two of the Vero-propagated viruses acquired the same mutation, V/P(S157F), found previously to be responsible for elevated viral gene expression induced by a well-characterized variant of PIV5, P/V-CPI(-). Vero-propagated viruses caused elevated viral protein synthesis and spread rapidly through infected monolayers by direct cell-cell fusion, bypassing the need to bud infectious virions. Both Vero- and MDBK-propagated viruses exhibited infectivity defects and altered polypeptide composition, consistent with poor incorporation of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) into budding virions. Second-site mutations affecting M protein restored interaction with altered NP proteins in some cases and improved VLP production. These results suggest that multiple avenues are available to paramyxoviruses for overcoming defects in M-NP protein interaction.
Project description:Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of viruses is essential for discerning how viruses transmit from cell to cell and host to host. Although molecular aspects of assembly have been studied for many viruses, we still have little information about these events in real time. Enveloped viruses such as HIV that assemble at, and bud from, the plasma membrane have been studied in some detail using live cell fluorescence imaging techniques; however, these approaches provide little information about the real-time morphological changes that take place as viral components come together to form individual virus particles. Here we used correlative scanning ion conductance microscopy and fluorescence confocal microscopy to measure the topological changes, together with the recruitment of fluorescently labeled viral proteins such as Gag and Vpr, during the assembly and release of individual HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) from the top, nonadherent surfaces of living cells. We show that 1) labeling of viral proteins with green fluorescent protein affects particle formation, 2) the kinetics of particle assembly on different plasma membrane domains can vary, possibly as a consequence of differences in membrane biophysical properties, and 3) VLPs budding from the top, unimpeded surface of cells can reach full size in 20 s and disappear from the budding site in 0.5 to 3 min from the moment curvature is initially detected, significantly faster than has been previously reported.
Project description:We describe an antiviral small molecule, LJ001, effective against numerous enveloped viruses including Influenza A, filoviruses, poxviruses, arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, paramyxoviruses, flaviviruses, and HIV-1. In sharp contrast, the compound had no effect on the infection of nonenveloped viruses. In vitro and in vivo assays showed no overt toxicity. LJ001 specifically intercalated into viral membranes, irreversibly inactivated virions while leaving functionally intact envelope proteins, and inhibited viral entry at a step after virus binding but before virus-cell fusion. LJ001 pretreatment also prevented virus-induced mortality from Ebola and Rift Valley fever viruses. Structure-activity relationship analyses of LJ001, a rhodanine derivative, implicated both the polar and nonpolar ends of LJ001 in its antiviral activity. LJ001 specifically inhibited virus-cell but not cell-cell fusion, and further studies with lipid biosynthesis inhibitors indicated that LJ001 exploits the therapeutic window that exists between static viral membranes and biogenic cellular membranes with reparative capacity. In sum, our data reveal a class of broad-spectrum antivirals effective against enveloped viruses that target the viral lipid membrane and compromises its ability to mediate virus-cell fusion.
Project description:Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a prototypical enveloped ssRNA virus of the family Togaviridae. To better understand alphavirus assembly, we analyzed newly formed nucleocapsid particles (termed pre-viral nucleocapsids) isolated from infected cells. These particles were intermediates along the virus assembly pathway, and ultimately bind membrane-associated viral glycoproteins to bud as mature infectious virus. Purified pre-viral nucleocapsids were spherical with a unimodal diameter distribution. The structure of one class of pre-viral nucleocapsids was determined with single particle reconstruction of cryo-electron microscopy images. These studies showed that pre-viral nucleocapsids assembled into an icosahedral structure with a capsid stoichiometry similar to the mature nucleocapsid. However, the individual capsomers were organized significantly differently within the pre-viral and mature nucleocapsids. The pre-viral nucleocapsid structure implies that nucleocapsids are highly plastic and undergo glycoprotein and/or lipid-driven rearrangements during virus self-assembly. This mechanism of self-assembly may be general for other enveloped viruses.
Project description:Paramyxoviruses are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that comprise many important human and animal pathogens, including human parainfluenza viruses. These viruses bud from the plasma membrane of infected cells after the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) is transported from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane via Rab11a-marked recycling endosomes. The viral proteins that are critical for mediating this important initial step in viral assembly are unknown. Here, we used the model paramyxovirus, murine parainfluenza virus 1, or Sendai virus (SeV), to investigate the roles of viral proteins in Rab11a-driven virion assembly. We previously reported that infection with SeV containing high levels of copy-back defective viral genomes (DVGs) (DVG-high SeV) generates heterogenous populations of cells. Cells enriched in full-length (FL) virus produce viral particles containing standard or defective viral genomes, while cells enriched in DVGs do not, despite high levels of defective viral genome replication. Here, we took advantage of this heterogenous cell phenotype to identify proteins that mediate interaction of vRNPs with Rab11a. We examined the roles of matrix protein and nucleoprotein and determined that their presence is not sufficient to drive interaction of vRNPs with recycling endosomes. Using a combination of mass spectrometry and comparative analyses of protein abundance and localization in DVG-high and FL-virus-high (FL-high) cells, we identified viral polymerase complex component protein L and, specifically, its cofactor C as interactors with Rab11a. We found that accumulation of L and C proteins within the cell is the defining feature that differentiates cells that proceed to viral egress from cells containing viruses that remain in replication phases.IMPORTANCE Paramyxoviruses are members of a family of viruses that include a number of pathogens imposing significant burdens on human health. In particular, human parainfluenza viruses are an important cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in children for which there are no vaccines or directly acting antivirals. These cytoplasmic replicating viruses bud from the plasma membrane and co-opt cellular endosomal recycling pathways to traffic viral ribonucleoprotein complexes from the cytoplasm to the membrane of infected cells. The viral proteins required for viral engagement with the recycling endosome pathway are still not known. Here, we used the model paramyxovirus Sendai virus, or murine parainfluenza virus 1, to investigate the role of viral proteins in this initial step of viral assembly. We found that the viral polymerase components large protein L and accessory protein C are necessary for engagement with recycling endosomes. These findings are important in identifying viral proteins as potential targets for development of antivirals.
Project description:The Nipah and Hendra viruses are highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses that recently emerged from flying foxes to cause serious disease outbreaks in humans and livestock in Australia, Malaysia, Singapore and Bangladesh. Their unique genetic constitution, high virulence and wide host range set them apart from other paramyxoviruses. These characteristics have led to their classification into the new genus Henpavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae and to their designation as Biosafety Level 4 pathogens. The fusion protein, an enveloped glycoprotein essential for viral entry, belongs to the family of class I fusion proteins and is characterized by the presence of two heptad repeat (HR) regions, HR1 and HR2. These two regions associate to form a fusion-active hairpin conformation that juxtaposes the viral and cellular membranes to facilitate membrane fusion and enable subsequent viral entry. The Hendra and Nipah virus fusion core proteins were crystallized and their structures determined to 2.2 A resolution. The Nipah and Hendra fusion core structures are six-helix bundles with three HR2 helices packed against the hydrophobic grooves on the surface of a central coiled coil formed by three parallel HR1 helices in an oblique antiparallel manner. Because of the high level of conservation in core regions, it is proposed that the Nipah and Hendra virus fusion cores can provide a model for membrane fusion in all paramyxoviruses. The relatively deep grooves on the surface of the central coiled coil represent a good target site for drug discovery strategies aimed at inhibiting viral entry by blocking hairpin formation.
Project description:Enveloped viruses encompass some of the most common human pathogens causing infections of different severity, ranging from no or very few symptoms to lethal disease as seen with the viral hemorrhagic fevers. All enveloped viruses possess an envelope membrane derived from the host cell, modified with often heavily glycosylated virally encoded glycoproteins important for infectivity, viral particle formation and immune evasion. While N-linked glycosylation of viral envelope proteins is well characterized with respect to location, structure and site occupancy, information on mucin-type O-glycosylation of these proteins is less comprehensive. Studies on viral glycosylation are often limited to analysis of recombinant proteins that in most cases are produced in cell lines with a glycosylation capacity different from the capacity of the host cells. The glycosylation pattern of the produced recombinant glycoproteins might therefore be different from the pattern on native viral proteins. In this review, we provide a historical perspective on analysis of viral glycosylation, and summarize known roles of glycans in the biology of enveloped human viruses. In addition, we describe how to overcome the analytical limitations by using a global approach based on mass spectrometry to identify viral O-glycosylation in virus-infected cell lysates using the complex enveloped virus herpes simplex virus type 1 as a model. We underscore that glycans often pay important contributions to overall protein structure, function and immune recognition, and that glycans represent a crucial determinant for vaccine design. High throughput analysis of glycosylation on relevant glycoprotein formulations, as well as data compilation and sharing is therefore important to identify consensus glycosylation patterns for translational applications.
Project description:Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged paramyxovirus capable of causing fatal disease in a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans. Together with Hendra virus (HeV), they comprise the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Recombinant expression systems have played a crucial role in studying the cell biology of these Biosafety Level-4 restricted viruses. Henipavirus assembly and budding occurs at the plasma membrane, although the details of this process remain poorly understood. Multivesicular body (MVB) proteins have been found to play a role in the budding of several enveloped viruses, including some paramyxoviruses, and the recruitment of MVB proteins by viral proteins possessing late budding domains (L-domains) has become an important concept in the viral budding process. Previously we developed a system for producing NiV virus-like particles (VLPs) and demonstrated that the matrix (M) protein possessed an intrinsic budding ability and played a major role in assembly. Here, we have used this system to further explore the budding process by analyzing elements within the M protein that are critical for particle release.Using rationally targeted site-directed mutagenesis we show that a NiV M sequence YPLGVG is required for M budding and that mutation or deletion of the sequence abrogates budding ability. Replacement of the native and overlapping Ebola VP40 L-domains with the NiV sequence failed to rescue VP40 budding; however, it did induce the cellular morphology of extensive filamentous projection consistent with wild-type VP40-expressing cells. Cells expressing wild-type NiV M also displayed this morphology, which was dependent on the YPLGVG sequence, and deletion of the sequence also resulted in nuclear localization of M. Dominant-negative VPS4 proteins had no effect on NiV M budding, suggesting that unlike other viruses such as Ebola, NiV M accomplishes budding independent of MVB cellular proteins.These data indicate that the YPLGVG motif within the NiV M protein plays an important role in M budding; however, involvement of any specific components of the cellular MVB sorting pathway in henipavirus budding remains to be demonstrated. Further investigation of henipavirus assembly and budding may yet reveal a novel mechanism(s) of viral assembly and release that could be applicable to other enveloped viruses or have therapeutic implications.
Project description:Classified as a biosafety level 4 (BSL4) select agent, Nipah virus (NiV) is a deadly henipavirus in the Paramyxoviridae family, with a nearly 75% mortality rate in humans, underscoring its global and animal health importance. Elucidating the process of viral particle production in host cells is imperative both for targeted drug design and viral particle-based vaccine development. However, little is understood concerning the functions of cellular machinery in paramyxoviral and henipaviral assembly and budding. Recent studies showed evidence for the involvement of multiple NiV proteins in viral particle formation, in contrast to the mechanisms understood for several paramyxoviruses as being reliant on the matrix (M) protein alone. Further, the levels and purposes of cellular factor incorporation into viral particles are largely unexplored for the paramyxoviruses. To better understand the involvement of cellular machinery and the major structural viral fusion (F), attachment (G), and matrix (M) proteins, we performed proteomics analyses on virus-like particles (VLPs) produced from several combinations of these NiV proteins. Our findings indicate that NiV VLPs incorporate vesicular trafficking and actin cytoskeletal factors. The involvement of these biological processes was validated by experiments indicating that the perturbation of key factors in these cellular processes substantially modulated viral particle formation. These effects were most impacted for NiV-F-modulated viral particle formation either autonomously or in combination with other NiV proteins, indicating that NiV-F budding relies heavily on these cellular processes. These findings indicate a significant involvement of the NiV fusion protein, vesicular trafficking, and actin cytoskeletal processes in efficient viral particle formation.IMPORTANCE Nipah virus is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 agent with high mortality rates in humans. The genus to which Nipah virus belongs, Henipavirus, includes five officially recognized pathogens; however, over 20 species have been identified in multiple continents within the last several years. As there are still no vaccines or treatments for NiV infection, elucidating its process of viral particle production is imperative both for targeted drug design as well as for particle-based vaccine development. Developments in high-throughput technologies make proteomic analysis of isolated viral particles a highly insightful approach to understanding the life cycle of pathogens such as Nipah virus.
Project description:An essential step in the release of an extracellular enveloped virus particle is a budding event that ultimately separates virion and host cell membranes. For many enveloped viruses, membrane fission requires the recruitment of the class E vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) machinery by short, virally encoded peptide sequences termed "late-budding" or "L" domains. Some L-domain peptide sequences (e.g., PSAP) bind directly to components of class E VPS machinery, whereas others (e.g., PPxY) access it indirectly by recruiting ubiquitin ligases. Additionally, ubiquitin itself is known to be generally important for the fission of virion from cellular membranes, and because ubiquitination of cellular transmembrane proteins can signal the recruitment of class E machinery, a popular model is that deposition of ubiquitin on viral structural proteins mediates class E machinery recruitment. To test this model, we took advantage of a retroviral Gag protein from the prototypic foamy virus (PFV) that is almost devoid of ubiquitin acceptors, and we engineered it to generate extracellular virus-like particles in the complete absence of other viral proteins. Notably, we found that particle budding, induced by a class E VPS machinery-binding L domain (PSAP), proceeded efficiently in the absence of ubiquitin acceptors in PFV Gag. Moreover, when particle release was engineered to be dependent on a viral PPXY motif, the requirement for a catalytically active ubiquitin ligase was maintained, irrespective of the presence or absence of ubiquitin acceptor sites in PFV Gag. Thus, in this model system, ubiquitin conjugation to transacting factors, not viral proteins, appears critical for ubiquitin-dependent enveloped viral particle release.