The C-terminal alpha-alpha superhelix of Pat is required for mRNA decapping in metazoa.
ABSTRACT: Pat proteins regulate the transition of mRNAs from a state that is translationally active to one that is repressed, committing targeted mRNAs to degradation. Pat proteins contain a conserved N-terminal sequence, a proline-rich region, a Mid domain and a C-terminal domain (Pat-C). We show that Pat-C is essential for the interaction with mRNA decapping factors (i.e. DCP2, EDC4 and LSm1-7), whereas the P-rich region and Mid domain have distinct functions in modulating these interactions. DCP2 and EDC4 binding is enhanced by the P-rich region and does not require LSm1-7. LSm1-7 binding is assisted by the Mid domain and is reduced by the P-rich region. Structural analysis revealed that Pat-C folds into an alpha-alpha superhelix, exposing conserved and basic residues on one side of the domain. This conserved and basic surface is required for RNA, DCP2, EDC4 and LSm1-7 binding. The multiplicity of interactions mediated by Pat-C suggests that certain of these interactions are mutually exclusive and, therefore, that Pat proteins switch decapping partners allowing transitions between sequential steps in the mRNA decapping pathway.
Project description:The removal of the 5' cap structure by the decapping enzyme DCP2 inhibits translation and generally commits the mRNA to irreversible 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic degradation by XRN1. DCP2 catalytic activity is stimulated by DCP1, and these proteins form the conserved core of the decapping complex. Additional decapping factors orchestrate the recruitment and activity of this complex in vivo. These factors include enhancer of decapping 3 (EDC3), EDC4, like Sm14A (LSm14A), Pat, the LSm1-7 complex, and the RNA helicase DDX6. Decapping factors are often modular and feature folded domains flanked or connected by low-complexity disordered regions. Recent studies have made important advances in understanding how these disordered regions contribute to the assembly of decapping complexes and promote phase transitions that drive RNP granule formation. These studies have also revealed that the decapping network is governed by interactions mediated by short linear motifs (SLiMs) in these disordered regions. Consequently, the network has rapidly evolved, and although decapping factors are conserved, individual interactions between orthologs have been rewired during evolution. The plasticity of the network facilitates the acquisition of additional subunits or domains in pre-existing subunits, enhances opportunities for regulating mRNA degradation, and eventually leads to the emergence of novel functions.
Project description:The removal of the 5'-cap structure by the decapping enzyme DCP2 and its coactivator DCP1 shuts down translation and exposes the mRNA to 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic degradation by XRN1. Although yeast DCP1 and DCP2 directly interact, an additional factor, EDC4, promotes DCP1-DCP2 association in metazoan. Here, we elucidate how the human proteins interact to assemble an active decapping complex and how decapped mRNAs are handed over to XRN1. We show that EDC4 serves as a scaffold for complex assembly, providing binding sites for DCP1, DCP2 and XRN1. DCP2 and XRN1 bind simultaneously to the EDC4 C-terminal domain through short linear motifs (SLiMs). Additionally, DCP1 and DCP2 form direct but weak interactions that are facilitated by EDC4. Mutational and functional studies indicate that the docking of DCP1 and DCP2 on the EDC4 scaffold is a critical step for mRNA decapping in vivo. They also revealed a crucial role for a conserved asparagine-arginine containing loop (the NR-loop) in the DCP1 EVH1 domain in DCP2 activation. Our data indicate that DCP2 activation by DCP1 occurs preferentially on the EDC4 scaffold, which may serve to couple DCP2 activation by DCP1 with 5'-to-3' mRNA degradation by XRN1 in human cells.
Project description:DCP1 stimulates the decapping enzyme DCP2, which removes the mRNA 5' cap structure committing mRNAs to degradation. In multicellular eukaryotes, DCP1-DCP2 interaction is stabilized by additional proteins, including EDC4. However, most information on DCP2 activation stems from studies in S. cerevisiae, which lacks EDC4. Furthermore, DCP1 orthologs from multicellular eukaryotes have a C-terminal extension, absent in fungi. Here, we show that in metazoa, a conserved DCP1 C-terminal domain drives DCP1 trimerization. Crystal structures of the DCP1-trimerization domain reveal an antiparallel assembly comprised of three kinked alpha-helices. Trimerization is required for DCP1 to be incorporated into active decapping complexes and for efficient mRNA decapping in vivo. Our results reveal an unexpected connectivity and complexity of the mRNA decapping network in multicellular eukaryotes, which likely enhances opportunities for regulating mRNA degradation.
Project description:The Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping enzyme and the decapping activators Pat1, Dhh1, and Lsm1 regulate mRNA decapping, but their mechanistic integration is unknown. We analyzed the gene expression consequences of deleting PAT1, LSM1, or DHH1, or the DCP2 C-terminal domain, and found that: i) the Dcp2 C-terminal domain is an effector of both negative and positive regulation; ii) rather than being global activators of decapping, Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 directly target specific subsets of yeast mRNAs and loss of the functions of each of these factors has substantial indirect consequences for genome-wide mRNA expression; and iii) transcripts targeted by Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 exhibit only partial overlap, are generally translated inefficiently, and, as expected, are targeted to decapping-dependent decay. Our results define the roles of Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 in decapping of general mRNAs and suggest that these factors may monitor mRNA translation and target unique features of individual mRNAs.
Project description:In this study we identified Pdc2, the fission yeast ortholog of human Pat1b protein, which forms a complex with Lsm1-7 and plays a role in coupling deadenylation and decapping. The involvement of Pdc2 in RNA degradation and P-body function was also determined. We found that Pdc2 interacts with Dcp2 and is required for decapping in vivo. Although not absolutely essential for P-body assembly, overexpression of Pdc2 enhanced P-body formation even in the absence of Pdc1, the fission yeast functional homolog of human Edc4 protein, indicating that Pdc2 also plays a role in P-body formation. Intriguingly, in the absence of Pdc2, Lsm1 was found to accumulate in the nucleus, suggesting that Pdc2 shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm plays a role in decreasing the nuclear concentration of Lsm1 to increase Lsm1 in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, unlike other components of P-bodies, the deadenylase Ccr4 did not accumulate in P-bodies in cells growing under favorable conditions and was only recruited to P-bodies after deprivation of glucose in a Pdc2-Lsm1-dependent manner, indicating a function of Pdc2 in cellular response to environmental stress. In supporting this idea, pdc2 mutants are defective in recovery from glucose starvation with a much longer time to re-enter the cell cycle. In keeping with the notion that Pat1 is a nucleocytoplasmic protein, functioning also in the nucleus, we found that Pdc2 physically and genetically interacts with the nuclear 5'-3' exonuclease Dhp1. A function of Pdc2-Lsm1, in concert with Dhp1, regulating RNA by promoting its decapping/destruction in the nucleus was suggested.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Turnover of mRNA is a critical step in the regulation of gene expression, and an important step in mRNA decay is removal of the 5' cap. We previously demonstrated that the expression of some immediate early gene mRNAs is controlled by RNA stability during early differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Here we show that the mouse decapping protein Dcp1a is phosphorylated via the ERK signaling pathway during early differentiation of preadipocytes. Mass spectrometry analysis and site-directed mutagenesis combined with a kinase assay identified ERK pathway-mediated dual phosphorylation at Ser 315 and Ser 319 of Dcp1a. To understand the functional effects of Dcp1a phosphorylation, we examined protein-protein interactions between Dcp1a and other decapping components with co-immunoprecipitation. Dcp1a interacted with Ddx6 and Edc3 through its proline-rich C-terminal extension, whereas the conserved EVH1 (enabled vasodilator-stimulated protein homology 1) domain in the N terminus of Dcp1a showed a stronger interaction with Dcp2. Once ERK signaling was activated, the interaction between Dcp1a and Ddx6, Edc3, or Edc4 was not affected by Dcp1a phosphorylation. Phosphorylated Dcp1a did, however, enhanced interaction with Dcp2. Protein complexes immunoprecipitated with the recombinant phosphomimetic Dcp1a(S315D/S319D) mutant contained more Dcp2 than did those immunoprecipitated with the nonphosphorylated Dcp1a(S315A/S319A) mutant. In addition, Dcp1a associated with AU-rich element (ARE)-containing mRNAs such as MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), whose mRNA stability was analyzed under the overexpression of Dcp1a constructs in the Dcp1a knockdown 3T3-L1 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our findings suggest that ERK-phosphorylated Dcp1a enhances its interaction with the decapping enzyme Dcp2 during early differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.
Project description:To assess the roles of the Dcp2 C-terminal domain and the decapping activators Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 in mRNA decapping, we used RNA-Seq to analyze the expression profiles of yeast cells harboring a truncation of the Dcp2 C-terminal domain, mutations that render Dcp2 catalytically inactive, or deletions of the PAT1, LSM1, and DHH1 genes. Consistent with our recent model for decapping regulation, we found that: i) the Dcp2 C-terminal domain is an effector of both negative and positive regulation and that loss of these control functions causes significant deregulation of mRNA decapping; ii) rather than being global activators of decapping, Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 directly target specific subsets of yeast mRNAs and loss of the functions of each of these factors has substantial indirect consequences for genome-wide mRNA expression; and iii) transcripts targeted by Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 exhibit only partial overlap and, as expected, are targeted to decapping-dependent decay. Overall design: Genome-wide expression profiles of the wild-type strain and each of the mutant strains were generated by RNA-Seq, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq4000. The transcripts differentially expressed in different mutant cells were identified by comparisons to the transcripts expressed in wild-type cells.
Project description:Eukaryotic mRNA decay is a highly regulated process allowing cells to rapidly modulate protein production in response to internal and environmental cues. Mature translatable eukaryotic mRNAs are protected from fast and uncontrolled degradation in the cytoplasm by two cis-acting stability determinants: a methylguanosine (m(7)G) cap and a poly(A) tail at their 5' and 3' extremities, respectively. The hydrolysis of the m(7)G cap structure, known as decapping, is performed by the complex composed of the Dcp2 catalytic subunit and its partner Dcp1. The Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping complex has a low intrinsic activity and requires accessory factors to be fully active. Among these factors, Pat1 is considered to be a central scaffolding protein involved in Dcp2 activation but also in inhibition of translation initiation. Here, we present the structural and functional study of the C-terminal domain from S. cerevisiae Pat1 protein. We have identified two conserved and functionally important regions located at both extremities of the domain. The first region is involved in binding to Lsm1-7 complex. The second patch is specific for fungal proteins and is responsible for Pat1 interaction with Edc3. These observations support the plasticity of the protein interaction network involved in mRNA decay and show that evolution has extended the C-terminal alpha-helical domain from fungal Pat1 proteins to generate a new binding platform for protein partners.
Project description:P bodies are cytoplasmic RNA granules containing the Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping enzymes where mRNA decay can occur. Here, we describe the characterization of P bodies in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Most information on the property and function of P bodies stems from studies in the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Edc3 was identified as a scaffold protein required for P-body assembly. However, we found that, unlike in S. cerevisiae, fission yeast Edc3 was dispensable for P-body formation. Pdc1, a novel partner of the fission yeast decapping enzyme, with a limited similarity to plant Edc4/Varicose that is required for the assembly of P bodies, was identified (tandem affinity purification-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrometry [TAP-MALDI MS/MS]). Pdc1 interacts with Dcp2 through its C terminus and contains a coiled-coil region for self-interaction to mediate P-body formation. In line with the model that Pdc1 cross-bridges different proteins, additional interactions can be demonstrated with components such as Edc3 and Ste13. Although Pdc1 is not required for the interaction between Dcp1 and Dcp2, our data suggest that Pdc1 acts as a functional homologue of Edc4, a third component of the decapping enzymes that is thought to be absent from fungi. Together, these results highlight the diverse P-body protein compositions between different species and might help to provide insight into their evolutionary paths.
Project description:Pat1 is a hub for mRNA metabolism, acting in pre-mRNA splicing, translation repression, and mRNA decay. A critical step in all 5'-3' mRNA decay pathways is removal of the 5' cap structure, which precedes and permits digestion of the RNA body by conserved exonucleases. During bulk 5'-3' decay, the Pat1/Lsm1-7 complex engages mRNA at the 3' end and promotes hydrolysis of the cap structure by Dcp1/Dcp2 at the 5' end through an unknown mechanism. We reconstitute Pat1 with 5' and 3' decay factors and show how it activates multiple steps in late mRNA decay. First, we find that Pat1 stabilizes binding of the Lsm1-7 complex to RNA using two conserved short-linear interaction motifs. Second, Pat1 directly activates decapping by binding elements in the disordered C-terminal extension of Dcp2, alleviating autoinhibition and promoting substrate binding. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of how separate domains of Pat1 coordinate the assembly and activation of a decapping messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) that promotes 5'-3' mRNA degradation.