Extended LTA, TNF, LST1 and HLA gene haplotypes and their association with rubella vaccine-induced immunity.
ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested the importance of HLA genes in determining immune responses following rubella vaccine. The telomeric class III region of the HLA complex harbors several genes, including lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and leukocyte specific transcript -1 (LST1) genes, located between the class I B and class II DRB1 loci. Apart from HLA, little is known about the effect of this extended genetic region on HLA haplotypic backgrounds as applied to immune responses.We examined the association between immune responses and extended class I-class II-class III haplotypes among 714 healthy children after two doses of rubella vaccination. These extended haplotypes were then compared to the HLA-only haplotypes. The most significant association was observed between haplotypes extending across the HLA class I region, ten-SNP haplotypes, and the HLA class II region (i.e. A-C-B-LTA-TNF-LST1-DRB1-DQA1-DQB1-DPA1-DPB1) and rubella-specific antibodies (global p-value of 0.03). Associations were found between both extended A*02-C*03-B*15-AAAACGGGGC-DRB1*04-DQA1*03-DQB1*03-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (p = 0.002) and HLA-only A*02-C*03-B*15-DRB1*04-DQA1*03-DQB1*03-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 haplotypes (p = 0.009) and higher levels of rubella antibodies. The class II HLA-only haplotype DRB1*13-DQA1*01-DQB1*06-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (p = 0.04) lacking LTA-TNF-LST1 SNPs was associated with lower rubella antibody responses. Similarly, the class I-class II HLA-only A*01-C*07-B*08-DRB1*03-DQA1*05-DQB1*02-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 haplotype was associated with increased TNF-alpha secretion levels (p = 0.009). In contrast, the extended AAAACGGGGC-DRB1*01-DQA1*01-DQB1*05-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (p = 0.01) haplotype was found to trend with decreased rubella-specific IL-6 secretion levels.These data suggest the importance of examining both HLA genes and genes in the class III region as part of the extended haplotypes useful in understanding genomic drivers regulating immune responses to rubella vaccine.
Project description:Identification of the primary allele(s) in HLA class II associated diseases remains challenging because of a tight linkage between alleles of HLA-DR and -DQ loci. In the present study, we determined the genotypes of seven HLA loci (HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DPA1 and -DPB1) for 1200 Japanese patients with primary biliary cholangitis and 1196 controls. Observation of recombination derivatives facilitated an evaluation of the effects of individual HLA alleles consisting of disease-prone/disease-resistant HLA haplotypes. Consequently, a primary contribution of DQB1*06:04 (odds ratio: 0.19, p?=?1.91?×?10-22), DQB1*03:01 (odds ratio: 0.50, p?=?6.76?×?10-10), DRB1*08:03 (odds ratio: 1.75, p?=?1.01?×?10-7) and DQB1*04:01 (odds ratio: 1.50, p?=?9.20?×?10-6) was suggested. Epistasis of the protective DQB1*06:04 to risk conferred by DRB1*08:03 was demonstrated by subpopulation analysis, implicating the presence of an active immunological mechanism that alleviates pathogenic autoimmune reactions. Further, the contribution of the aforementioned HLA alleles as well as an HLA-DP allele, DPB1*02:01 to the association signals of 304 loci among 4103 SNPs in the HLA region at the genome-wide level of significance (p values less than 5?×?10-8) was demonstrated by the stepwise exclusion of the individuals possessing these HLA alleles from the comparison.
Project description:The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods for HLA genotyping has already had an impact on the scope and precision of HLA research. In this study, allelic resolution HLA typing was obtained for 402 individuals from Cape Town, South Africa. The data were produced by high-throughput NGS sequencing as part of a study of T-cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in collaboration with the University of Cape Town and Stanford University. All samples were genotyped for 11 HLA loci, namely HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPA1, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1, -DRB3, -DRB4, and -DRB5. NGS HLA typing of samples from Cape Town inhabitants revealed a unique cohort, including unusual haplotypes, and 22 novel alleles not previously reported in the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database. Eight novel alleles were in Class I loci and 14 were in Class II. There were 62 different alleles of HLA-A, 72 of HLA-B, and 47 of HLA-C. Alleles A?23:17, A?43:01, A?29:11, A?68:27:01, A?01:23, B?14:01:01, B?15:10:01, B?39:10:01, B?45:07, B?82:02:01 and C?08:04:01 were notably more frequent in Cape Town compared to other populations reported in the literature. Class II loci had 21 different alleles of DPA1, 46 of DPB1, 27 of DQA1, 26 of DQB1, 41 of DRB1, 5 of DRB3, 4 of DRB4 and 6 of DRB5. The Cape Town cohort exhibited high degrees of HLA diversity and relatively high heterozygosity at most loci. Genetic distances between Cape Town and five other sub-Saharan African populations were also calculated and compared to European Americans.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most widely studied complex genetic disorders, and the genes in HLA are reported to account for approximately 40-50% of the familial aggregation of T1D. The major genetic determinants of this disease are polymorphisms of class II HLA genes encoding DQ and DR. The DR-DQ haplotypes conferring the highest risk are DRB1*03:01-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (abbreviated "DR3") and DRB1*04:01/02/04/05/08-DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02/04 (or DQB1*02; abbreviated "DR4"). The risk is much higher for the heterozygote formed by these two haplotypes (OR?=?16.59; 95% CI, 13.7-20.1) than for either of the homozygotes (DR3/DR3, OR?=?6.32; 95% CI, 5.12-7.80; DR4/DR4, OR?=?5.68; 95% CI, 3.91). In addition, some haplotypes confer strong protection from disease, such as DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 (abbreviated "DR2"; OR?=?0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.07). After adjusting for the genetic correlation with DR and DQ, significant associations can be seen for HLA class II DPB1 alleles, in particular, DPB1*04:02, DPB1*03:01, and DPB1*02:02. Outside of the class II region, the strongest susceptibility is conferred by class I allele B*39:06 (OR =10.31; 95% CI, 4.21-25.1) and other HLA-B alleles. In addition, several loci in the class III region are reported to be associated with T1D, as are some loci telomeric to class I. Not surprisingly, current approaches for the prediction of T1D in screening studies take advantage of genotyping HLA-DR and HLA-DQ loci, which is then combined with family history and screening for autoantibodies directed against islet-cell antigens. Inclusion of additional moderate HLA risk haplotypes may help identify the majority of children with T1D before the onset of the disease.
Project description:The incidence of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) increased in Sweden following the 2009-2010 mass-vaccination with the influenza Pandemrix-vaccine. NT1 has been associated with Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*06:02 but full high-resolution HLA-typing of all loci in vaccine-induced NT1 remains to be done. Therefore, here we performed HLA typing by sequencing HLA-DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, DPA1 and DPB1 in 31 vaccine-associated NT1 patients and 66 of their first-degree relatives (FDR), and compared these data to 636 Swedish general population controls (GP). Previously reported disease-related alleles in the HLA-DRB5*01:01:01-DRB1*15:01:01-DQA1*01:02:01-DQB1*06:02:01 extended haplotype were increased in NT1 patients (34/62 haplotypes, 54.8%) compared to GP (194/1272 haplotypes, 15.3%, p = 6.17E-16). Indeed, this extended haplotype was found in 30/31 patients (96.8%) and 178/636 GP (28.0%). In total, 15 alleles, four extended haplotypes, and six genotypes were found to be increased or decreased in frequency among NT1 patients compared to GP. Among subjects with the HLA-DRB5*01:01:01-DRB1*15:01:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 haplotype, a second DRB4*01:03:01-DRB1*04:01:01-DQA1*03:02//*03:03:01-DQB1*03:01:01 haplotype (p = 2.02E-2), but not homozygosity for DRB1*15:01:01-DQB1*06:02:01 (p = 7.49E-1) conferred association to NT1. Alleles with increased frequency in DQA1*01:02:01 (p = 1.07E-2) and DQA1*03:02//*03:03:01 (p = 3.26E-2), as well as with decreased frequency in DRB3*01:01:02 (p = 8.09E-3), DRB1*03:01:01 (p = 1.40E-2), and DQB1*02:01:01 (p = 1.40E-2) were found among patients compared to their FDR. High-resolution HLA sequencing in Pandemrix-associated NT1 confirmed the strong association with the DQB1*06:02:01-containing haplotype but also revealed an increased association to the not previously reported extended HLA-DRB4*01:03:01-DRB1*04:01:01-DQA1*03:02//*03:03:01-DQB1*03:01:01 haplotype. High-resolution HLA typing should prove useful in dissecting the immunological mechanisms of vaccination-associated NT1.
Project description:COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus and is currently a global pandemic. HLA variation is associated with COVID-19 because HLA plays a pivotal role in the immune response to pathogens. Here, 82 individuals with COVID-19 were genotyped for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DRB3/4/5, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DPA1, and -DPB1 loci using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Frequencies of the HLA-C*07:29, C*08:01G, B*15:27, B*40:06, DRB1*04:06, and DPB1*36:01 alleles were higher, while the frequencies of the DRB1*12:02 and DPB1*04:01 alleles were lower in COVID-19 patients than in the control population, with uncorrected statistical significance. Only HLA-C*07:29 and B*15:27 were significant when the corrected P-value was considered. These data suggested that some HLA alleles may be associated with the occurrence of COVID-19.
Project description:DNA sequence-based typing at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 loci was performed on 496 healthy adult donors from San Diego, California, to characterize allele frequencies in support of studies of T cell responses to common allergens. Deviations from Hardy Weinberg proportions were detected at each locus except A and C. Several alleles were found in more than 15% of individuals, including the class II alleles DPB1?02:01, DPB1?04:01, DQA1?01:02, DQA1?05:01, DQB1?03:01, and the class I allele A?02:01. Genotype data will be available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database (AFND 3562).
Project description:DNA sequence-based typing at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 loci was performed on 714 healthy adult blood bank donors from Colombo, Sri Lanka, to characterize allele frequencies in support of studies on T cell immunity against pathogens, including Dengue virus. Deviations from Hardy Weinberg proportions were not detected at any locus. Several alleles were found in >30% of individuals, including the class II alleles DPB1?*?04:01, DPB1?*?02:01, DQB1?*?06:01 and DRB1?*?07:01, and the class I alleles A?*?33:03 and A?*?24:02. Genotype data will be available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database.
Project description:Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes HLA-DRB1, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DQB1 with the humoral immune response elicited by inactivated Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine (IJEV). Methods: A total of 373 individuals aged 3-12 years in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China, who received two doses of IJEV at 0 and 7 days, were enrolled in the current study. Based on the individuals' specific JE virus (JEV)-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), they were divided into a seropositive and a seronegative group. HLA-DRB1, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DQB1 were genotyped using a sequencing-based typing method. Next, the association of the HLA class II genes and their haplotypes with antibody response was evaluated. Results: Based on NAbs, a total of 161 individuals were classified as seropositive and 212 as seronegative. DQB1 * 02:01 was significantly associated with JEV seropositivity (P < 0.001, OR = 0.364, 95% CI: 0.221-0.600), while DQB1 * 02:02 was significantly associated with JEV seronegativity (P = 5.03 × 10-6, OR = 7.341, 95% CI: 2.876-18.736). The haplotypes DRB1 * 07:01-DPB1 * 04:01-DQB1 * 02:01, DRB1 * 15:01-DPB1 * 02:01-DQB1 * 06:02, DRB1 * 07:01-DQB1 * 02:01, and DPB1 * 02:01-DQB1 * 06:02 were very frequent in the seropositive group, while DRB1 * 07:01-DPB1 * 17:01-DQB1 * 02:02, DRB1 * 07:01-DQB1 * 02:02, and DPB1 * 17:01-DQB1 * 02:02 were very frequent in the seronegative group. The presence of DRB1 * 01:01, DRB1 * 04:05, DRB1 * 09:01, DRB1 * 12:02, DRB1 * 13:02, and DRB1 * 14:01 was associated with a higher geometric mean titer (GMT) of NAbs than that of DRB1 * 11:01 at the DRB1 locus (P < 0.05). At the DPB1 locus, the presence of DPB1 * 05:01 was associated with higher GMTs than that of DPB1 * 02:01 and DPB1 * 13:01 (P < 0.05), and the presence of DPB1 * 04:01 and DPB1 * 09:01 was associated with higher GMTs than that of DPB1 * 13:01 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study suggests that HLA class II genes may influence the antibody response to IJEV.
Project description:We conducted an association study across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex to identify loci associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Comparing 1927 SNPs in 1618 MS cases and 3413 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven SNPs that were independently associated with MS conditional on the others (each P ? 4 x 10(-6)). All associations were significant in an independent replication cohort of 2212 cases and 2251 controls (P ? 0.001) and were highly significant in the combined dataset (P ? 6 x 10(-8)). The associated SNPs included proxies for HLA-DRB1*15:01 and HLA-DRB1*03:01, and SNPs in moderate linkage disequilibrium (LD) with HLA-A*02:01, HLA-DRB1*04:01 and HLA-DRB1*13:03. We also found a strong association with rs9277535 in the class II gene HLA-DPB1 (discovery set P = 9 x 10(-9), replication set P = 7 x 10(-4), combined P = 2 x 10(-10)). HLA-DPB1 is located centromeric of the more commonly typed class II genes HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1. It is separated from these genes by a recombination hotspot, and the association is not affected by conditioning on genotypes at DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1. Hence rs9277535 represents an independent MS-susceptibility locus of genome-wide significance. It is correlated with the HLA-DPB1*03:01 allele, which has been implicated previously in MS in smaller studies. Further genotyping in large datasets is required to confirm and resolve this association.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The association between HLA-DRB1*15:01 with multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility is well established, but the contribution of the tightly associated HLA-DRB5*01:01 allele has not yet been completely ascertained. Similarly, the effects of HLA-DRB1*04:01 alleles and haplotypes, defined at the full-gene resolution level with MS risk remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES:To characterize the molecular architecture of class II HLA-DR15 and HLA-DR4 haplotypes associated with MS. METHODS:Next-generation sequencing was used to determine HLA-DQB1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DRB1/4/5 alleles in 1403 unrelated European-American patients and 1425 healthy unrelated controls. Effect sizes of HLA alleles and haplotypes on MS risk were measured by odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS:HLA-DRB1*15:01:01:01SG (OR?=?3.20, p?<?2.2E-16), HLA-DRB5*01:01:01 (OR?=?2.96, p?<?2.2E-16), and HLA-DRB5*01:01:01v1_STR1 (OR?=?8.18, p?=?4.3E-05) alleles all occurred at significantly higher frequencies in MS patients compared to controls. The most significant predis-posing haplotypes were HLA-DQB1*06:02:01~ HLA-DQA1*01:02:01:01SG~HLA-DRB1*15:01:01:01SG~HLA-DRB5*01:01:01 and HLA-DQB1*06:02:01~HLA-DQA1*01:02:01:01SG~HLA-DRB1*15:01:01:01SG~HLA-DRB5*01:01:01v1_STR1 (OR?=?3.19, p?<?2.2E-16; OR?=?9.30, p?=?9.7E-05, respectively). Analyses of the HLA-DRB1*04 cohort in the absence of HLA-DRB1*15:01 haplotypes revealed that the HLA-DQB1*03:01:01:01~HLA-DQA1*03:03:01:01~HLA-DRB1*04:01:01:01SG~HLA-DRB4*01:03:01:01 haplotype was protective (OR?=?0.64, p?=?0.028), whereas the HLA-DQB1*03:02:01~HLA-DQA1*03:01:01~HLA-DRB1*04:01:01:01SG~HLA-DRB4*01:03:01:01 haplotype was associated with MS susceptibility (OR?=?1.66, p?=?4.9E-03). CONCLUSION:HLA-DR15 haplotypes, including genomic variants of HLA-DRB5, and HLA-DR4 haplotypes affect MS risk.