Defects in the secretory pathway and high Ca2+ induce multiple P-bodies.
ABSTRACT: mRNA is sequestered and turned over in cytoplasmic processing bodies (PBs), which are induced by various cellular stresses. Unexpectedly, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutants of the small GTPase Arf1 and various secretory pathway mutants induced a significant increase in PB number, compared with PB induction by starvation or oxidative stress. Exposure of wild-type cells to osmotic stress or high extracellular Ca(2+) mimicked this increase in PB number. Conversely, intracellular Ca(2+)-depletion strongly reduced PB formation in the secretory mutants. In contrast to PB induction through starvation or osmotic stress, PB formation in secretory mutants and by Ca(2+) required the PB components Pat1 and Scd6, and calmodulin, indicating that different stressors act through distinct pathways. Consistent with this hypothesis, when stresses were combined, PB number did not correlate with the strength of the translational block, but rather with the type of stress encountered. Interestingly, independent of the stressor, PBs appear as spheres of approximately 40-100 nm connected to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), consistent with the idea that translation and silencing/degradation occur in a spatially coordinated manner at the ER. We propose that PB assembly in response to stress occurs at the ER and depends on intracellular signals that regulate PB number.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The N-terminal proline-rich domain (Zera) of the maize storage protein ?-zein, is able to induce the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived protein bodies (PBs) when fused to proteins of interest. This encapsulation enables a recombinant fused protein to escape from degradation and facilitates its recovery from plant biomass by gradient purification. The aim of the present work was to evaluate if induced PBs encapsulate additional proteins jointly with the recombinant protein. The exhaustive analysis of protein composition of PBs is expected to facilitate a better understanding of PB formation and the optimization of recombinant protein purification approaches from these organelles. RESULTS: We analysed the proteome of PBs induced in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by transient transformation with Zera fused to a fluorescent marker protein (DsRed). Intact PBs with their surrounding ER-membrane were isolated on iodixanol based density gradients and their integrity verified by confocal and electron microscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis of isolated PBs showed that Zera-DsRed accounted for around 85% of PB proteins in term of abundance. Differential extraction of PBs was performed for in-depth analysis of their proteome and structure. Besides Zera-DsRed, 195 additional proteins were identified including a broad range of proteins resident or trafficking through the ER and recruited within the Zera-DsRed polymer. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that Zera-protein fusion is still the major protein component of the new formed organelle in tobacco leaves. The analysis also reveals the presence of an unexpected diversity of proteins in PBs derived from both the insoluble Zera-DsRed polymer formation, including ER-resident and secretory proteins, and a secretory stress response induced most likely by the recombinant protein overloading. Knowledge of PBs protein composition is likely to be useful to optimize downstream purification of recombinant proteins in molecular farming applications.
Project description:Protein bodies (PBs) are organelles found in seeds whose main function is the storage of proteins that are used during germination for sustaining growth. PBs can also be induced to form in leaves when foreign proteins are produced at high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and when fused to one of three tags: Zera®, elastin-like polypeptides (ELP), or hydrophobin-I (HFBI). In this study, we investigate the differences between ELP, HFBI and Zera PB formation, packing, and communication. Our results confirm the ER origin of all three fusion-tag-induced PBs. We show that secretory pathway proteins can be sequestered into all types of PBs but with different patterns, and that different fusion tags can target a specific protein to different PBs. Zera PBs are mobile and dependent on actomyosin motility similar to ELP and HFBI PBs. We show in vivo trafficking of proteins between PBs using GFP photoconversion. We also show that protein trafficking between ELP or HFBI PBs is faster and proteins travel further when compared to Zera PBs. Our results indicate that fusion-tag-induced PBs do not represent terminally stored cytosolic organelles, but that they form in, and remain part of the ER, and dynamically communicate with each other via the ER. We hypothesize that the previously documented PB mobility along the actin cytoskeleton is associated with ER movement rather than independent streaming of detached organelles.
Project description:We investigated the role of a Ca(2+) channel and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in osmotic stress-induced JNK activation and tight junction disruption in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Osmotic stress-induced tight junction disruption was attenuated by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxyl)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) depletion. Depletion of extracellular Ca(2+) at the apical surface, but not basolateral surface, also prevented tight junction disruption. Similarly, thapsigargin-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) depletion attenuated tight junction disruption. Thapsigargin or extracellular Ca(2+) depletion partially reduced osmotic stress-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i), whereas thapsigargin and extracellular Ca(2+) depletion together resulted in almost complete loss of rise in [Ca(2+)](i). L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers (isradipine and diltiazem) or knockdown of the Ca(V)1.3 channel abrogated [Ca(2+)](i) rise and disruption of tight junction. Osmotic stress-induced JNK2 activation was abolished by BAPTA and isradipine, and partially reduced by extracellular Ca(2+) depletion, thapsigargin, or Ca(V)1.3 knockdown. Osmotic stress rapidly induced c-Src activation, which was significantly attenuated by BAPTA, isradipine, or extracellular Ca(2+) depletion. Tight junction disruption by osmotic stress was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and PP2) or siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Src. Osmotic stress induced a robust increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin, which was attenuated by BAPTA, SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), or PP2. These results demonstrate that Ca(V)1.3 and rise in [Ca(2+)](i) play a role in the mechanism of osmotic stress-induced tight junction disruption in an intestinal epithelial monolayer. [Ca(2+)](i) mediate osmotic stress-induced JNK activation and subsequent c-Src activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction proteins. Additionally, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated release of ER Ca(2+) also contributes to osmotic stress-induced tight junction disruption.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the infectious cause of several AIDS-related cancers, including the endothelial cell (EC) neoplasm Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). KSHV-infected ECs secrete abundant host-derived pro-inflammatory molecules and angiogenic factors that contribute to tumorigenesis. The precise contributions of viral gene products to this secretory phenotype remain to be elucidated, but there is emerging evidence for post-transcriptional regulation. The Kaposin B (KapB) protein is thought to contribute to the secretory phenotype in infected cells by binding and activating the stress-responsive kinase MK2, thereby selectively blocking decay of AU-rich mRNAs (ARE-mRNAs) encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors. Processing bodies (PBs) are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein foci in which ARE-mRNAs normally undergo rapid 5' to 3' decay. Here, we demonstrate that PB dispersion is a feature of latent KSHV infection, which is dependent on kaposin protein expression. KapB is sufficient to disperse PBs, and KapB-mediated ARE-mRNA stabilization could be partially reversed by treatments that restore PBs. Using a combination of genetic and chemical approaches we provide evidence that KapB-mediated PB dispersion is dependent on activation of a non-canonical Rho-GTPase signaling axis involving MK2, hsp27, p115RhoGEF and RhoA. PB dispersion in latently infected cells is likewise dependent on p115RhoGEF. In addition to PB dispersion, KapB-mediated RhoA activation in primary ECs caused actin stress fiber formation, increased cell motility and angiogenesis; these effects were dependent on the activity of the RhoA substrate kinases ROCK1/2. By contrast, KapB-mediated PB dispersion occurred in a ROCK1/2-independent manner. Taken together, these observations position KapB as a key contributor to viral reprogramming of ECs, capable of eliciting many of the phenotypes characteristic of KS tumor cells, and strongly contributing to the post-transcriptional control of EC gene expression and secretion.
Project description:Prolamins, the major cereal seed storage proteins, are sequestered and accumulated in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and are directly assembled into protein bodies (PBs). The content and composition of prolamins are the key determinants for protein quality and texture-related traits of the grain. Concomitantly, the PB-inducing fusion system provides an efficient target to produce therapeutic and industrial products in plants. However, the proteome of the native PB and the detailed mechanisms underlying its formation still need to be determined. We developed a method to isolate highly purified and intact PBs from developing maize endosperm and conducted proteomic analysis of intact PBs of zein, a class of prolamine protein found in maize. We thus identified 1756 proteins, which fall into five major categories: metabolic pathways, response to stimulus, transport, development, and growth, as well as regulation. By comparing the proteomes of crude and enriched extractions of PBs, we found substantial evidence for the following conclusions: (i) ribosomes, ER membranes, and the cytoskeleton are tightly associated with zein PBs, which form the peripheral border; (ii) zein RNAs are probably transported and localized to the PB-ER subdomain; and (iii) ER chaperones are essential for zein folding, quality control, and assembly into PBs. We futher confirmed that OPAQUE1 (O1) cannot directly interact with FLOURY1 (FL1) in yeast, suggesting that the interaction between myosins XI and DUF593-containing proteins is isoform-specific. This study provides a proteomic roadmap for dissecting zein PB biogenesis and reveals an unexpected diversity and complexity of proteins in PBs.
Project description:Ca2+ signals in plant cells are important for adaptive responses to environmental stresses. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis CATION/Ca2+ EXCHANGER2 (CCX2), encoding a putative cation/Ca2+ exchanger that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is strongly induced by salt and osmotic stresses. Compared with the WT, AtCCX2 loss-of-function mutant was less tolerant to osmotic stress and displayed the most noteworthy phenotypes (less root/shoot growth) during salt stress. Conversely, AtCCX2 gain-of-function mutants were more tolerant to osmotic stress. In addition, AtCCX2 partially suppresses the Ca2+ sensitivity of K667 yeast triple mutant, characterized by Ca2+ uptake deficiency. Remarkably, Cameleon Ca2+ sensors revealed that the absence of AtCCX2 activity results in decreased cytosolic and increased ER Ca2+ concentrations in comparison with both WT and the gain-of-function mutants. This was observed in both salt and nonsalt osmotic stress conditions. It appears that AtCCX2 is directly involved in the control of Ca2+ fluxes between the ER and the cytosol, which plays a key role in the ability of plants to cope with osmotic stresses. To our knowledge, Atccx2 is unique as a plant mutant to show a measured alteration in ER Ca2+ concentrations. In this study, we identified the ER-localized AtCCX2 as a pivotal player in the regulation of ER Ca2+ dynamics that heavily influence plant growth upon salt and osmotic stress.
Project description:Cereal storage proteins are major nitrogen sources for humans and livestock. Prolamins are the most abundant storage protein in most cereals. They are deposited into protein bodies (PBs) in seed endosperm. The inner structure and the storage mechanism for prolamin PBs is poorly understood. Maize opaque10 (o10) is a classic opaque endosperm mutant with misshapen PBs. Through positional cloning, we found that O10 encodes a novel cereal-specific PB protein. Its middle domain contains a seven-repeat sequence that is responsible for its dimerization. Its C terminus contains a transmembrane motif that is required for its ER localization and PB deposition. A cellular fractionation assay indicated that O10 is initially synthesized in the cytoplasm and then anchored to the ER and eventually deposited in the PB. O10 can interact with 19-kD and 22-kD ?-zeins and 16-kD and 50-kD ?-zeins through its N-terminal domain. An immunolocalization assay indicated that O10 co-localizes with 16-kD ?-zein and 22-kD ?-zein in PBs, forming a ring-shaped structure at the interface between the ?-zein-rich core and the ?-zein-rich peripheral region. The loss of O10 function disrupts this ring-shaped distribution of 22-kD and 16-kD zeins, resulting in misshapen PBs. These results showed that O10, as a newly evolved PB protein, is essential for the ring-shaped distribution of 22-kD and 16-kD zeins and controls PB morphology in maize endosperm.
Project description:Members of the Protein Kinase D (PKD) family are involved in numerous cellular processes in mammals, including cell survival after oxidative stress, polarized transport of Golgi vesicles, as well as cell migration and invasion. PKD proteins belong to the PKC/CAMK class of serine/threonine kinases, and transmit diacylglycerol-regulated signals. Whereas three PKD isoforms are known in mammals, Drosophila melanogaster contains a single PKD homolog. Previous analyses using overexpression and RNAi studies indicated likewise multi-facetted roles for Drosophila PKD, including the regulation of secretory transport and actin-cytoskeletal dynamics. Recently, involvement in growth regulation has been proposed based on the hypomorphic dPKDH allele. We have generated PKD null alleles that are homozygous viable without apparent phenotype. They largely match control flies regarding fertility, developmental timing and weight. Males, but not females, are slightly shorter lived and starvation sensitive. Furthermore, migration of pole cells in embryos and border cells in oocytes appears normal. PKD mutants tolerate heat, cold and osmotic stress like the control but are sensitive to oxidative stress, conforming to the described role for mammalian PKDs. A candidate screen to identify functionally redundant kinases uncovered genetic interactions of PKD with Pkc?, sqa and Drak mutants, further supporting the role of PKD in oxidative stress response, and suggesting its involvement in starvation induced autophagy and regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. Overall, PKD appears dispensable for fly development and survival presumably due to redundancy, but influences environmental responses.
Project description:Processing bodies (PBs, or P bodies) are cytoplasmic granules involved in mRNA storage and degradation that participate in the regulation of gene expression. PBs concentrate nontranslated mRNAs and several factors involved in mRNA decay and translational repression, including the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-transporter (4E-T). 4E-T is required for PB assembly, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate its function. Here, we demonstrate that oxidative stress promotes multisite 4E-T phosphorylation. We show that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is targeted to PBs in response to oxidative stress and promotes the phosphorylation of 4E-T. Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis reveals that JNK phosphorylates 4E-T on six proline-directed sites that are required for the formation of the 4E-T complex upon stress. We have developed an image-based computational method to quantify the size, number, and density of PBs in cells, and we find that while 4E-T is required for steady-state PB assembly, its phosphorylation facilitates the formation of larger PBs upon oxidative stress. Using polysomal mRNA profiling, we assessed global and specific mRNA translation but did not find that 4E-T phosphorylation impacts translational control. Collectively, these data support a model whereby PB assembly is regulated by a two-step mechanism involving a 4E-T-dependent assembly stage in unstressed cells and a 4E-T phosphorylation-dependent aggregation stage in response to stress stimuli.
Project description:House dust mites (HDM) are the most common source of indoor allergens and are associated with allergic diseases worldwide. To benefit allergic patients, safer and non-invasive mucosal routes of oral administration are considered to be the best alternative to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this study, transgenic rice was developed expressing derivatives of the major HDM allergen Der f 2 with reduced Der f 2-specific IgE reactivity by disrupting intramolecular disulphide bonds in Der f 2. These derivatives were produced specifically as secretory proteins in the endosperm tissue of seeds under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin GluB-1 promoter. Notably, modified Der f 2 derivatives aggregated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and were deposited in a unique protein body (PB)-like structure tentatively called the Der f 2 body. Der f 2 bodies were characterized by their intracellular localization and physico-chemical properties, and were distinct from ER-derived PBs (PB-Is) and protein storage vacuoles (PB-IIs). Unlike ER-derived organelles such as PB-Is, Der f 2 bodies were rapidly digested in simulated gastric fluid in a manner similar to that of PB-IIs. Oral administration in mice of transgenic rice seeds containing Der f 2 derivatives encapsulated in Der f 2 bodies suppressed Der f 2-specific IgE and IgG production compared with that in mice fed non-transgenic rice seeds, and the effect was dependent on the type of Der f 2 derivative expressed. These results suggest that engineered hypoallergenic Der f 2 derivatives expressed in the rice seed endosperm could serve as a basis for the development of viable strategies for the oral delivery of vaccines against HDM allergy.