53BP1 loss rescues BRCA1 deficiency and is associated with triple-negative and BRCA-mutated breast cancers.
ABSTRACT: Germ-line mutations in breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) result in predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA1-mutated tumors show genomic instability, mainly as a consequence of impaired recombinatorial DNA repair. Here we identify p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) as an essential factor for sustaining the growth arrest induced by Brca1 deletion. Depletion of 53BP1 abrogates the ATM-dependent checkpoint response and G2 cell-cycle arrest triggered by the accumulation of DNA breaks in Brca1-deleted cells. This effect of 53BP1 is specific to BRCA1 function, as 53BP1 depletion did not alleviate proliferation arrest or checkpoint responses in Brca2-deleted cells. Notably, loss of 53BP1 partially restores the homologous-recombination defect of Brca1-deleted cells and reverts their hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. We find reduced 53BP1 expression in subsets of sporadic triple-negative and BRCA-associated breast cancers, indicating the potential clinical implications of our findings.
Project description:Loss of 53BP1 rescues BRCA1 deficiency and is associated with BRCA1-deficient and triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) and with resistance to genotoxic drugs. The mechanisms responsible for decreased 53BP1 transcript and protein levels in tumors remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that BRCA1 loss activates cathepsin L (CTSL)-mediated degradation of 53BP1. Activation of this pathway rescued homologous recombination repair and allowed BRCA1-deficient cells to bypass growth arrest. Importantly, depletion or inhibition of CTSL with vitamin D or specific inhibitors stabilized 53BP1 and increased genomic instability in response to radiation and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, compromising proliferation. Analysis of human breast tumors identified nuclear CTSL as a positive biomarker for TNBC, which correlated inversely with 53BP1. Importantly, nuclear levels of CTSL, vitamin D receptor, and 53BP1 emerged as a novel triple biomarker signature for stratification of patients with BRCA1-mutated tumors and TNBC, with potential predictive value for drug response. We identify here a novel pathway with prospective relevance for diagnosis and customization of breast cancer therapy.
Project description:BRCA1 and 53BP1 play decisive roles in the choice of DNA double-strand break repair mechanisms. BRCA1 promotes DNA end resection and homologous recombination (HR) during S/G 2 phases of the cell cycle, while 53BP1 inhibits end resection and facilitates non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), primarily during G 1. This competitive relationship is critical for genome integrity during cell division. However, their relationship in the many cells in our body that are not cycling is unknown. We discovered profound differences in 53BP1 and BRCA1 regulation between cycling and non-cycling cells. Cellular growth arrest results in transcriptional downregulation of BRCA1 and activation of cathepsin-L (CTSL)-mediated degradation of 53BP1. Accordingly, growth-arrested cells do not form BRCA1 or 53BP1 ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF). Interestingly, cell cycle re-entry reverts this scenario, with upregulation of BRCA1, downregulation of CTSL, stabilization of 53BP1, and 53BP1 IRIF formation throughout the cycle, indicating that BRCA1 and 53BP1 are important in replicating cells and dispensable in non-cycling cells. We show that CTSL-mediated degradation of 53BP1, previously associated with aggressive breast cancers, is an endogenous mechanism of non-cycling cells to balance NHEJ (53BP1) and HR (BRCA1). Breast cancer cells exploit this mechanism to ensure genome stability and viability, providing an opportunity for targeted therapy.
Project description:BRCA1 mutations strongly predispose affected individuals to breast and ovarian cancer, but the mechanism by which BRCA1 acts as a tumor suppressor is not fully understood. Homozygous deletion of exon 2 of the mouse Brca1 gene normally causes embryonic lethality, but we show that exon 2-deleted alleles of Brca1 are expressed as a mutant isoform that lacks the N-terminal RING domain. This "RING-less" BRCA1 protein is stable and efficiently recruited to the sites of DNA damage. Surprisingly, robust RAD51 foci form in cells expressing RING-less BRCA1 in response to DNA damage, but the cells nonetheless display the substantial genomic instability. Genomic instability can be rescued by the deletion of Trp53bp1, which encodes the DNA damage response factor 53BP1, and mice expressing RING-less BRCA1 do not show an increased susceptibility to tumors in the absence of 53BP1. Genomic instability in cells expressing RING-less BRCA1 correlates with the loss of BARD1 and a defect in restart of replication forks after hydroxyurea treatment, suggesting a role of BRCA1-BARD1 in genomic integrity that is independent of RAD51 loading.
Project description:Over half of patients with BRCA1-deficient cancers do not respond to treatment with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. In this study, we report that a combination of 53BP1 and BRCA1 may serve as a biomarker of PARP inhibitor sensitivity. Based on the mRNA levels of four homologous recombination repair (HR) genes and PARP inhibitor sensitivity, we selected BRCA1-deficient MDA-MB-436 cells to conduct RNA interference. Reducing expression of 53BP1, but not the other three HR genes, was found to lower simmiparib sensitivity. Additionally, we generated 53BP1-/-/BRCA1-/- clonal variants by the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technique and found that depleting 53BP1 impaired PARP inhibitor sensitivity with a 36.7-fold increase in their IC50 values. Consistent with its effect on PARP inhibitor sensitivity, 53BP1 loss alleviated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and partially restored HR function. Importantly, 53BP1 depletion dramatically reduced the ability of PARP inhibitors to suppress tumor growth in vivo. The inhibition rate of simmiparib was 74.16% for BRCA1-deficient MDA-MB-436 xenografts, but only 7.79% for 53BP1/BRCA1-deficient xenografts. Re-expressing 53BP1 in the dual-deficient cells restored PARP inhibitor sensitivity and the levels of HR regulators. Considering that at least 10% of BRCA1-deficient breast and ovarian cancers have reduced expression of 53BP1, using a combination of 53BP1 with BRCA1 as a biomarker for patient selection should reduce the number of patients undergoing futile treatment with PARP inhibitors.
Project description:The tumor suppressor protein 53BP1 plays key roles in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by serving as a master scaffold at the damaged chromatin. Current evidence indicates that 53BP1 assembles a cohort of DNA damage response (DDR) factors to distinctly execute its repertoire of DSB responses, including checkpoint activation and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair. Here, we have uncovered LC8 (a.k.a. DYNLL1) as an important 53BP1 effector. We found that LC8 accumulates at laser-induced DNA damage tracks in a 53BP1-dependent manner and requires the canonical H2AX-MDC1-RNF8-RNF168 signal transduction cascade. Accordingly, genetic inactivation of LC8 or its interaction with 53BP1 resulted in checkpoint defects. Importantly, loss of LC8 alleviated the hypersensitivity of BRCA1-depleted cells to ionizing radiation and PARP inhibition, highlighting the 53BP1-LC8 module in counteracting BRCA1-dependent functions in the DDR. Together, these data establish LC8 as an important mediator of a subset of 53BP1-dependent DSB responses.
Project description:P53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) mediates DNA repair pathway choice and promotes checkpoint activation. Chromatin marks induced by DNA double-strand breaks and recognized by 53BP1 enable focal accumulation of this multifunctional repair factor at damaged chromatin. Here, we unveil an additional level of regulation of 53BP1 outside repair foci. 53BP1 movements are constrained throughout the nucleoplasm and increase in response to DNA damage. 53BP1 interacts with the structural protein NuMA, which controls 53BP1 diffusion. This interaction, and colocalization between the two proteins in vitro and in breast tissues, is reduced after DNA damage. In cell lines and breast carcinoma NuMA prevents 53BP1 accumulation at DNA breaks, and high NuMA expression predicts better patient outcomes. Manipulating NuMA expression alters PARP inhibitor sensitivity of BRCA1-null cells, end-joining activity, and immunoglobulin class switching that rely on 53BP1. We propose a mechanism involving the sequestration of 53BP1 by NuMA in the absence of DNA damage. Such a mechanism may have evolved to disable repair functions and may be a decisive factor for tumor responses to genotoxic treatments.
Project description:NFBD1/MDC1, 53BP1 and BRCA1 are DNA damage checkpoint proteins with twin BRCT domains. In order to determine if they have redundant roles in responses to ionizing radiation, we used siRNA and shRNA to deplete NFBD1, 53BP1 and BRCA1 in single, double and triple combinations. These analyses were performed in early passage human foreskin fibroblasts so that checkpoint responses could be assessed in a normal genetic background. We report that NFBD1, 53BP1 and BRCA1 have both unique and redundant functions in radiation-induced phosphorylation and localization events in the ATM-Chk2 pathway. 53BP1, but not NFBD1 and BRCA1, mediates ionizing radiation-induced ATM S1981 autophosphorylation. In contrast, all three mediators collaborate to promote IR-induced Chk2 T68 phosphorylation. NFBD1 and 53BP1, but not BRCA1, work together to mediate pATMS1981, pChk2T68 and NBS1 ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF). However, the relative importance of NFBD1 and 53BP1 in IRIF formation differ. We also determined the interdependence among mediators in IRIF recruitment. We extend previous findings in cancer cells and mouse cells that NFBD1 is upstream of 53BP1 and BRCA1 to primary human cells. Furthermore, NFBD1 promotes BRCA1 IRIF through both 53BP1-dependent and 53BP1-independent mechanisms.
Project description:BRCA1 is critical for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR). BRCA1 deficient mice are embryonic lethal. Previous studies have shown that 53BP1 knockout (KO) rescues embryonic lethality of BRCA1 hypomorphic mutant mice by restoring HR. Here, we show that 53BP1 KO can partially rescue embryonic lethality of BRCA1 total KO mice, but HR is not restored in BRCA1-53BP1 double knockout (DKO) mice. As a result, BRCA1-53BP1 DKO cells are extremely sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPi). In addition to HR deficiency, BRCA1-53BP1 DKO cells have elevated microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) activity and G2/M cell cycle checkpoint defects, causing severe genomic instability in these cells. Interestingly, BRCA1-53BP1 DKO mice rapidly develop thymic lymphoma that is 100% penetrant, which is not observed in any BRCA1 mutant mice rescued by 53BP1 KO. Taken together, our study reveals that 53BP1 KO can partially rescue embryonic lethality caused by complete BRCA1 loss without rescuing HR-related defects. This finding suggests that loss of 53BP1 can support the development of cancers with silenced BRCA1 expression without causing PARPi resistance.
Project description:53BP1 plays a central role in dictating DNA repair choice between non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), which is important for the sensitivity to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) of BRCA1-deficient cancers. In this study, we show that FOXK1 associates with 53BP1 and regulates 53BP1-dependent functions. FOXK1-53BP1 interaction is significantly enhanced upon DNA damage during the S phase in an ATM/CHK2-dependent manner, which reduces the association of 53BP1 with its downstream factors RIF1 and PTIP. Depletion of FOXK1 impairs DNA repair and induces compromised cell survival upon DNA damage. Overexpression of FOXK1 diminishes 53BP1 foci formation, which leads to resistance to PARPis and elevation of HR in BRCA1-deficient cells and decreased telomere fusion in TRF2-depleted cells. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that FOXK1 negatively regulates 53BP1 function by inhibiting 53BP1 localization to sites of DNA damage, which alters the DSB-induced protein complexes centering on 53BP1 and thus influences DNA repair choice.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells have evolved DNA damage checkpoints in response to genome damage. They delay the cell cycle and activate repair mechanisms. The kinases at the heart of these pathways and the accessory proteins, which localize to DNA lesions and regulate kinase activation, are conserved from yeast to mammals. For Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad9, a key adaptor protein in DNA damage checkpoint pathways, no clear human ortholog has yet been described in mammals. Rad9, however, shares localized homology with both human BRCA1 and 53BP1 since they all contain tandem C-terminal BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) motifs. 53BP1 is also a key mediator in DNA damage signaling required for cell cycle arrest, which has just been reported to possess a tandem Tudor repeat upstream of the BRCT motifs. Here we show that the major globular domain upstream of yeast Rad9 BRCT domains is structurally extremely similar to the Tudor domains recently resolved for 53BP1 and SMN. By expressing several fragments encompassing the Tudor-related motif and characterizing them using various physical methods, we isolated the independently folded unit for yeast Rad9. As in 53BP1, the domain corresponds to the SMN Tudor motif plus the contiguous HCA predicted structure region at the C terminus. These domains may help to further elucidate the structural and functional features of these two proteins and improve knowledge of the proteins involved in DNA damage.