The epitope of the VP1 protein of porcine parvovirus.
ABSTRACT: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is the major causative agent in a syndrome of reproductive failure in swine. Much has been learned about the structure and function of PPV in recent years, but nothing is known about the epitopes of the structural protein VP1, which is an important antigen of PPV. In this study, the monoclonal antibody C4 against VP1 of PPV was prepared and was used to biopan a 12-mer phage peptide library three times. The selected phage clones were identified by ELISA and then sequencing. The amino acid sequences detected by phage display were analyzed, and a mimic immuno-dominant epitope was identified. The epitope of VP1 is located in the N-terminal and contains the role amino acid sequence R-K-R. Immunization of mice indicated that the phage-displayed peptide induces antibodies against PPV. This study shows that peptide mimotopes have potential as alternatives to the complex antigens currently used for diagnosis of PPV infection or for development of vaccines.
Project description:Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a DNA virus that causes reproductive failure in gilts and sows, resulting in embryonic and fetal losses worldwide. Epitope mapping of PPV is important for developing new vaccines. In this study, we used spot synthesis analysis for epitope mapping of the capsid proteins of PPV (NADL-2 strain) and correlated the findings with predictive data from immunoinformatics. The virus was exposed to three conditions prior to inoculation in pigs: native (untreated), high hydrostatic pressure (350 MPa for 1 h) at room temperature and high hydrostatic pressure (350 MPa for 1 h) at - 18 °C, and was compared with a commercial vaccine produced using inactivated PPV. The screening of serum samples detected 44 positive spots corresponding to 20 antigenic sites. Each type of inoculated antigen elicited a distinct epitope set. In silico prediction located linear and discontinuous epitopes in B cells that coincided with several epitopes detected in spot synthesis of sera from pigs that received different preparations of inoculum. The conditions tested elicited antibodies against the VP1/VP2 antigen that differed in relation to the response time and the profile of structurally available regions that were recognized.
Project description:Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is one of the main causes of porcine reproductive failure. It is important for swine industries to understand the recent trends in PPV evolution. Previous data show that PPV has two genetic lineages originating in Germany. In this study, two more genetic lineages were defined, one of which was distinctly Asian. Additionally, amino acid substitutions in European strains and Asian strains showed distinct differences in several regions of the VP2 gene. The VP1 gene of the recent PPV isolate (T142_South Korea) was identical to that of Kresse strain isolated in the USA in 1985, indicating that modern PPV strains now resemble the original strains (Kresse and NADL-2). In this study, we compared strains isolated in the 20th century to recent isolates and confirmed the trend that modern strains are becoming more similar to previous strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Waterfowl parvovirus (WPV) infection causes high mortality and morbidity in both geese (Anser anser) and Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), resulting in significant losses to the waterfowl industries. The VP3 protein of WPV is a major structural protein that induces neutralizing antibodies in the waterfowl. However, B-cell epitopes on the VP3 protein of WPV have not been characterized. METHODS AND RESULTS:To understand the antigenic determinants of the VP3 protein, we used the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4A6 to screen a set of eight partially expressed overlapping peptides spanning VP3. Using western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we localized the VP3 epitope between amino acids (aa) 57 and 112. To identify the essential epitope residues, a phage library displaying 12-mer random peptides was screened with mAb 4A6. Phage clone peptides displayed a consensus sequence of YxRFHxH that mimicked the sequence 82Y/FNRFHCH88, which corresponded to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of VP3 protein of WPVs. mAb 4A6 binding to biotinylated fragments corresponding to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of the VP3 protein verified that the 82FxRFHxH88 was the VP3 epitope and that amino acids 82F is necessary to retain maximal binding to mAb 4A6. Parvovirus-positive goose and duck sera reacted with the epitope peptide by dot blotting assay, revealing the importance of these amino acids of the epitope in antibody-epitope binding reactivity. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE:We identified the motif FxRFHxH as a VP3-specific B-cell epitope that is recognized by the neutralizing mAb 4A6. This finding might be valuable in understanding of the antigenic topology of VP3 of WPV.
Project description:Infections caused by human parvovirus B19 are known to be controlled mainly by neutralizing antibodies. To analyze the immune reaction against parvovirus B19 proteins, four cell lines secreting human immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated from two healthy donors and one human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive individual with high serum titers against parvovirus. One MAb is specific for nonstructural protein NS1 (MAb 1424), two MAbs are specific for the unique region of minor capsid protein VP1 (MAbs 1418-1 and 1418-16), and one MAb is directed to major capsid protein VP2 (MAb 860-55D). Two MAbs, 1418-1 and 1418-16, which were generated from the same individual have identity in the cDNA sequences encoding the variable domains, with the exception of four base pairs resulting in only one amino acid change in the light chain. The NS1- and VP1-specific MAbs interact with linear epitopes, whereas the recognized epitope in VP2 is conformational. The MAbs specific for the structural proteins display strong virus-neutralizing activity. The VP1- and VP2-specific MAbs have the capacity to neutralize 50% of infectious parvovirus B19 in vitro at 0.08 and 0.73 microgram/ml, respectively, demonstrating the importance of such antibodies in the clearance of B19 viremia. The NS1-specific MAb mediated weak neutralizing activity and required 47.7 micrograms/ml for 50% neutralization. The human MAbs with potent neutralizing activity could be used for immunotherapy of chronically B19 virus-infected individuals and acutely infected pregnant women. Furthermore, the knowledge gained regarding epitopes which induce strongly neutralizing antibodies may be important for vaccine development.
Project description:In the post-genomic era, validation of candidate gene targets frequently requires proteinbased strategies. Phage display is a powerful tool to define protein-protein interactions by generating peptide binders against target antigens. Epitope phage display libraries have the potential to enrich coding exon sequences from human genomic loci. We evaluated genomic and cDNA phage display strategies to identify genes in the 5q31 Interleukin gene cluster and to enrich cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase genes from a breast cancer cDNA library. A genomic display library containing 2 x 106 clones with exon-sized inserts was selected with antibodies specific for human Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-13. The library was enriched significantly after two selection rounds and DNA sequencing revealed unique clones. One clone matched a cognate IL-4 epitope; however, the majority of clone insert sequences corresponded to E. coli genomic DNA. These bacterial sequences act as 'mimotopes' (mimetic sequences of the true epitope), correspond to open reading frames, generate displayed peptides, and compete for binding during phage selection. The specificity of these mimotopes for IL-4 was confirmed by competition ELISA. Other E. coli mimotopes were generated using additional antibodies. Mimotopes for a receptor tyrosine kinase gene were also selected using a breast cancer SKBR-3 cDNA phage display library, screened against an anti-erbB2 monoclonal antibody. Identification of mimotopes in genomic and cDNA phage libraries is essential for phage display-based protein validation assays and two-hybrid phage approaches that examine protein-protein interactions. The predominance of E. coli mimotopes suggests that the E. coli genome may be useful to generate peptide diversity biased towards protein coding sequences.
Project description:The VP1 protein of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is a major structural protein that induces neutralizing antibodies in ducks; however, B-cell epitopes on the VP1 protein of duck hepatitis A genotype 1 virus (DHAV-1) have not been characterized.To characterize B-cell epitopes on VP1, we used the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2D10 against Escherichia coli-expressed VP1 of DHAV-1. In vitro, mAb 2D10 neutralized DHAV-1 virus. By using an array of overlapping 12-mer peptides, we found that mAb 2D10 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motif LPAPTS. Sequence alignment showed that the epitope 173LPAPTS178 is highly conserved among the DHAV-1 genotypes. Moreover, the six amino acid peptide LPAPTS was proven to be the minimal unit of the epitope with maximal binding activity to mAb 2D10. DHAV-1-positive duck serum reacted with the epitope in dot blotting assay, revealing the importance of the six amino acids of the epitope for antibody-epitope binding. Competitive inhibition assays of mAb 2D10 binding to synthetic LPAPTS peptides and truncated VP1 protein fragments, detected by Western blotting, also verify that LPAPTS was the VP1 epitope.We identified LPAPTS as a VP1-specific linear B-cell epitope recognized by the neutralizing mAb 2D10. Our findings have potential applications in the development of diagnostic techniques and epitope-based marker vaccines against DHAV-1.
Project description:A new porcine parvovirus (PPV), provisionally designated as PPV5, was identified in U.S. pigs. Cloning and sequencing from a circular or head-to-tail concatemeric array revealed that the PPV5 possesses the typical genomic organization of parvoviruses with two major predicted open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), and is most closely related to PPV4 with overall genomic identities of 64.1-67.3%. The amino acid identities between PPV5 and PPV4 were 84.6%-85.1% for ORF1 and 54.0%-54.3% for ORF2. Unlike PPV4, but similar to bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2), PPV5 lacks the additional ORF3 and has a much longer ORF2. Moreover, the amino acid sequences of ORF1 and ORF2 of BPV2 showed higher homologies to PPV5 than to PPV4. The conserved motifs of the Ca(2+) binding loop (YXGXG) and the catalytic center (HDXXY) of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) were identified in VP1 (ORF2) of PPV5, as well as in BPV2, but were not present in PPV4. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PPV5, PPV4 and BPV2 form a separate clade different from the genera Parvovirus and Bocavirus. Further epidemiologic investigations of PPV4 and PPV5 in U.S. pigs of different ages indicated a slightly higher prevalence for PPV5 (6.6%; 32/483) compared to PPV4 (4.1%; 20/483), with detection of concurrent PPV4 and PPV5 in 15.6% (7/45) of lungs of infected pigs. Evidence for potential vertical transmission or association with reproductive failure was minimal for both PPV4 and PPV5. The high similarity to PPV4 and the lack of ORF3 may suggest PPV5 is an intermediate of PPV4 during the evolution of parvoviruses in pigs.
Project description:Tocilizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody showing high-affinity binding to both soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and membrane bound IL-6R (mIL-6R), thereby preventing pro-inflammatory effects of IL-6. However, therapeutic antibodies still have practical limitations. To overcome these limitations, we generated Tocilizumab specific epitope mimics by using the phage display technology and tested whether the peptide mimics could induce similar humoral responses in mice immunized with the peptides.Seven phage mimics were obtained by using phage display peptide library. Four phage mimics (YHTTDKLFYMMR, YSAYEFEYILSS, KTMSAEEFDNWL and LTSHTYRSQADT) were shown to mimic Tocilizumab epitope using immunoassays. The mimotopes were conjugated to immunogenic carrier proteins and used to intraperitoneally immunize BALB/c mice. Sera from the mimotopes immunized mice not only showed specific binding to recombinant IL-6R, but can also IL-6R expressed in Hela, U-937, Jurkat cell lines and in fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with RA (FLS-RA). Furthermore, sera from mice immunized with mimotopes-KLH conjugate could reduce the level of phosphorylated- signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT3), STAT3, phosphorylated- extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2 and Erk1/2 in HeLa and Jurkat cells. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay showed that antibodies induced by mimotopes-KLH conjugate could elicit specific lysis in Hela and U-937 cells.From phage display library, we successfully isolated four Tocilizumab mimotopes which induced specific humoral and cellular reponses in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Nuclear targeting of capsid proteins (VPs) is important for genome delivery and precedes assembly in the replication cycle of porcine parvovirus (PPV). Clusters of basic amino acids, corresponding to potential nuclear localization signals (NLS), were found only in the unique region of VP1 (VP1up, for VP1 unique part). Of the five identified basic regions (BR), three were important for nuclear localization of VP1up: BR1 was a classic Pat7 NLS, and the combination of BR4 and BR5 was a classic bipartite NLS. These NLS were essential for viral replication. VP2, the major capsid protein, lacked these NLS and contained no region with more than two basic amino acids in proximity. However, three regions of basic clusters were identified in the folded protein, assembled into a trimeric structure. Mutagenesis experiments showed that only one of these three regions was involved in VP2 transport to the nucleus. This structural NLS, termed the nuclear localization motif (NLM), is located inside the assembled capsid and thus can be used to transport trimers to the nucleus in late steps of infection but not for virions in initial infection steps. The two NLS of VP1up are located in the N-terminal part of the protein, externalized from the capsid during endosomal transit, exposing them for nuclear targeting during early steps of infection. Globally, the determinants of nuclear transport of structural proteins of PPV were different from those of closely related parvoviruses. Importance: Most DNA viruses use the nucleus for their replication cycle. Thus, structural proteins need to be targeted to this cellular compartment at two distinct steps of the infection: in early steps to deliver viral genomes to the nucleus and in late steps to assemble new viruses. Nuclear targeting of proteins depends on the recognition of a stretch of basic amino acids by cellular transport proteins. This study reports the identification of two classic nuclear localization signals in the minor capsid protein (VP1) of porcine parvovirus. The major protein (VP2) nuclear localization was shown to depend on a complex structural motif. This motif can be used as a strategy by the virus to avoid transport of incorrectly folded proteins and to selectively import assembled trimers into the nucleus. Structural nuclear localization motifs can also be important for nuclear proteins without a classic basic amino acid stretch, including multimeric cellular proteins.
Project description:Background. Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a common finding in endomyocardial biopsy specimens from myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy patients. However, current understanding of how B19V is contributing to cardiac damage is rather limited due to the lack of appropriate mice models. In this work we demonstrate that immunization of BALB/c mice with the major immunogenic determinant of B19V located in the unique sequence of capsid protein VP1 (VP1u) is an adequate model to study B19V associated heart damage. Methods and Results. We immunized mice in the experimental group with recombinant VP1u; immunization with cardiac myosin derived peptide served as a positive reference and phosphate buffered saline served as negative control. Cardiac function and dimensions were followed echocardiographically 69 days after immunization. Progressive dilatation of left ventricle and decline of ejection fraction were observed in VP1u- and myosin-immunized mice. Histologically, severe cardiac fibrosis and accumulation of heart failure cells in lungs were observed 69 days after immunization. Transcriptomic profiling revealed ongoing cardiac remodeling and immune process in VP1u- and myosin-immunized mice. Conclusions. Immunization of BALB/c mice with VP1u induces dilated cardiomyopathy in BALB/c mice and it could be used as a model to study clinically relevant B19V associated cardiac damage.