Ectodomain shedding of EGFR ligands and TNFR1 dictates hepatocyte apoptosis during fulminant hepatitis in mice.
ABSTRACT: The cell death receptor Fas plays a role in the establishment of fulminant hepatitis, a major cause of drug-induced liver failure. Fas activation elicits extrinsic apoptotic and hepatoprotective signals; however, the mechanisms by which these signals are integrated during disease are unknown. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) controls the critical sheddase a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) and may dictate stress signaling. Using mice and cells lacking TIMP3, ADAM17, and ADAM17-regulated cell surface molecules, we have found that ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding of TNF receptors and EGF family ligands controls activation of multiple signaling cascades in Fas-induced hepatitis. We demonstrated that TNF signaling promoted hepatotoxicity, while excessive TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) shedding in Timp3-/- mice was protective. Compound Timp3-/-Tnf-/- and Timp3-/-Tnfr1-/- knockout conferred complete resistance to Fas-induced toxicity. Loss of Timp3 enhanced metalloproteinase-dependent EGFR signaling due to increased release of the EGFR ligands TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, and HB-EGF, while depletion of shed amphiregulin resensitized Timp3-/- hepatocytes to apoptosis. Finally, adenoviral delivery of Adam17 prevented acetaminophen-induced liver failure in a clinically relevant model of Fas-dependent fulminant hepatitis. These findings demonstrate that TIMP3 and ADAM17 cooperatively dictate cytokine signaling during death receptor activation and indicate that regulated metalloproteinase activity integrates survival and death signals during acute hepatotoxic stress.
Project description:ADAM 17 (TNF-? converting enzyme, TACE) is a potential target for cancer therapy, but the small molecule inhibitors reported to date are not specific to this ADAM family member. This membrane-bound metalloproteinase is responsible for ectodomain shedding of pathologically significant substrates including TNF-? and EGFR ligands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and anti-tumour efficacy of the first specific inhibitor, an anti-human ADAM17 IgG antibody, clone D1(A12). We used intraperitoneal xenografts of the human ovarian cancer cell line IGROV1-Luc in Balb/c nude mice, chosen because it was previously reported that growth of these xenografts is inhibited by knock-down of TNF-?. In vitro, 200 nM D1(A12) inhibited shedding of ADAM17 substrates TNF-?, TNFR1-?, TGF-?, amphiregulin (AREG), HB-EGF and IL-6R?, from IGROV1-Luc cells, (4.7 nM IC(50) for TNF-? shedding). In IGROV1-Luc xenografts in vivo, D1(A12) IgG showed pharmacokinetic properties suitable for efficacy studies, with a single i.p. dose of 10 mg/kg D1(A12) sufficient to maintain IgG plasma and ascites fluid concentrations above 100 nM for more than 7 days. The plasma half life was 8.6 days. Next, an efficacy study was performed, dosing D1(A12) or anti-human TNF-? antibody infliximab at 10 mg/kg q7d, quantifying IGROV1-Luc tumour burden by bioluminescence. D1(A12) IgG showed a significant reduction in tumour growth (p?=?0.005), 56% of vehicle control. Surprisingly, D1(A12) did not reduce the concentration of circulating human TNF-?, suggesting that another enzyme may compensate for inhibition of ADAM17 in vivo (but not in vitro). However, D1(A12) did show clear pharmacodynamic effects in the mice, with significant inhibition of shedding from tumour of ADAM17 substrates TNFR1-?, AREG, and TGF-? (4-15-fold reductions, p<0.0001 for all three). Thus, D1(A12) has anti-ADAM17 activity in vivo, inhibits shedding of EGFR ligands and has potential for use in EGF ligand-dependent tumours.
Project description:The purposes were to study the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling in matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression in A549 cells and to investigate the effects of lentivirus-mediated RNAi targeting of the disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) gene on LPS-induced MMP9 expression. MMP9 expression induced by LPS in A549 cells was significantly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p<0.05). Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and a TNFR1 blocking peptide (TNFR1BP) significantly inhibited LPS-induced MMP9 expression in A549 cells (p<0.05). TNFR1BP significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-? production (p<0.05). Both PDTC and TNFR1BP significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of I?B? and expression of phosphorylation p65 protein in response to LPS (p<0.05), and the level of I?B? in the cytoplasm was significantly increased (p<0.05). Lentivirus mediated RNA interference (RNAi) significantly inhibited ADAM17 expression in A549 cells. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi targeting of ADAM17 significantly inhibited TNF-? production in the supernatants (p<0.05), whereas the level of TNF-? in the cells was increased (p<0.05). Lentiviral ADAM17 RNAi inhibited MMP9 expression, I?B? phosphorylation and the expression of phosphorylation p65 protein in response to LPS (p<0.05). PDTC significantly inhibited the expression of MMP9 and the phosphorylation of I?B?, as well as the expression of phosphorylation p65 protein in response to TNF-? (p<0.05). Lentiviral RNAi targeting of ADAM17 down-regulates LPS-induced MMP9 expression in lung epithelial cells via inhibition of TNF-?/NF-?B signaling.
Project description:Ectodomain shedding mediated by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-converting enzyme [TACE; also known as ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17)] provides an important switch in regulating cell proliferation, inflammation, and cancer progression. TACE-mediated ectodomain cleavage is activated by signaling of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Here, we found that under basal conditions, TACE was predominantly present as dimers at the cell surface, which required its cytoplasmic domain and enabled efficient association with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) and silencing of TACE activity. Upon activation of the ERK or p38 MAPK pathway, the balance shifted from TACE dimers to monomers, and this shift was associated with increased cell surface presentation of TACE and decreased TIMP3 association, which relieved the inhibition of TACE by TIMP3 and increased TACE-mediated proteolysis of transforming growth factor-?. Thus, cell signaling altered the dimer-monomer equilibrium and inhibitor association to promote activation of TACE-mediated ectodomain shedding, a regulatory mechanism that may extend to other ADAM proteases.
Project description:Timp3 is commonly silenced in breast cancer, but mechanistic studies have identified both tumor promotion and suppression effects of this gene. We have taken a genetic approach to determine the impact of Timp3 loss on two mouse models of breast cancer. Interestingly, MMTV-PyMT Timp3-?- mice have delayed tumor onset and 36% of MMTV-Neu Timp3-?- mice remain tumor free. TIMP3 is a regulator of TNF signaling and similar to Timp3, Tnf or Tnfr1 loss delays early tumorigenesis. The tumor suppression in Timp3 null mice requires Tnfr1, but does not result in alterations in the local immune compartment. In the mammary gland, Timps are highly expressed in the stroma and through the transplantation of tumor cells we observe that Timp3 deficiency in the host is sufficient to delay the growth of early, but not advanced tumor cells. Together our data is the first to identify a tumor promoting role of endogenous Timp3 in vivo, the spatial and temporal windows of this effect, and its dependence on Tnfr1.
Project description:Protein ectodomain shedding is crucial for cell-cell interactions because it controls the bioavailability of soluble tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) and ligands of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, and the release of many other membrane proteins. Various stimuli can rapidly trigger ectodomain shedding, yet much remains to be learned about the identity of the enzymes that respond to these stimuli and the mechanisms underlying their activation. Here, we demonstrate that the membrane-anchored metalloproteinase ADAM17, but not ADAM10, is the sheddase that rapidly responds to the physiological signaling pathways stimulated by thrombin, EGF, lysophosphatidic acid and TNF?. Stimulation of ADAM17 is swift and quickly reversible, and does not depend on removal of its inhibitory pro-domain by pro-protein convertases, or on dissociation of an endogenous inhibitor, TIMP3. Moreover, activation of ADAM17 by physiological stimuli requires its transmembrane domain, but not its cytoplasmic domain, arguing against inside-out signaling via cytoplasmic phosphorylation as the underlying mechanism. Finally, experiments with the tight binding hydroxamate inhibitor DPC333, used here to probe the accessibility of the active site of ADAM17, demonstrate that this inhibitor can quickly bind to ADAM17 in stimulated, but not quiescent cells. These findings support the concept that activation of ADAM17 involves a rapid and reversible exposure of its catalytic site.
Project description:TNF-alpha levels are increased in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The regulation of TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) and its inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), in human type 2 diabetes is unknown.We examined TACE/TIMP3 regulation: (1) in lean and obese normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals and in type 2 diabetes patients; (2) following 6 h of lipid/saline infusion in NGT individuals; and (3) in cultured human myotubes from lean NGT individuals incubated with palmitate. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by a euglycaemic clamp and TACE/TIMP3 was evaluated by confocal microscopy, RT-PCR, western blotting and an in vitro activity assay. Circulating TNF-alpha, TNF-alpha-receptor 1 (TNFR1), TNF-alpha-receptor 2 (TNFR2), IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) levels were evaluated.TIMP3 levels were reduced and TACE enzymatic activity was increased in type 2 diabetes skeletal muscle. TACE expression, and TACE, TNF-alpha, TNFR1 and IL-6R levels were increased in type 2 diabetes, and positively correlated with insulin resistance. A 6 h lipid infusion into NGT individuals decreased insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism by 25% with increased TACE, decreased expression of the gene encoding TIMP3 and increased IL-6R release. Palmitate induced a dramatic reduction of TIMP3 and increased the TACE/TIMP3 ratio in cultured myotubes.TACE activity was increased in skeletal muscle of obese type 2 diabetes patients and in lipid-induced insulin resistance. We propose that dysregulation of membrane proteolysis by TACE/TIMP3 of TNF-alpha and IL-6R is an important factor for the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetes patients by a novel autocrine/paracrine mechanism.
Project description:ADAM17, a prominent member of the "Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase" (ADAM) family, is an important regulator of endothelial cell proliferation and cell survival. The protease controls vital cellular functions through cleavage of growth factors, cytokines and their receptors including transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and TNF-? receptor 1 (TNFR1). TNF-? is the major inducer of endothelial cell death in cardiovascular diseases. The latter are also characterized by elevated plasma and tissue levels of extracellular sphingomyelinase (SMase). Whether the SMase affects ADAM activity and thus endothelial cell function has not been addressed to date. Here, we analyzed the effect of SMase on ADAM17-mediated shedding in COS7 cells and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure to SMase significantly increased ADAM17-mediated release of alkaline-phosphatase (AP)-tagged TGF-? in COS7 cells and shedding of endogenously expressed TNFR1 in HUVECs. We previously presented evidence that surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) is pivotal for ADAM17 to exert sheddase function. We found that SMase treatment led to PS externalization in both cell types. Transient non-apoptotic PS exposure is often mediated by Ca<sup>2+</sup>-dependent phospholipid scramblases. Accordingly, the Ca<sup>2+</sup>-chelator EGTA markedly reduced the breakdown of phospholipid asymmetry and shedding of TGF-? and TNFR1. Moreover, sheddase activity was significantly diminished in the presence of the competing PS-headgroup OPLS. SMase-stimulated TNFR1 shedding strikingly diminished TNF-?-induced signalling cascades and endothelial cell death. Taken together, our data suggest that SMase activity might act as protective factor for endothelial cells in cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Death receptor-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis is implicated in a wide range of liver diseases including viral and alcoholic hepatitis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, fulminant hepatic failure, cholestatic liver injury, as well as cancer. Deletion of NF-?B essential modulator in hepatocytes (IKK?/Nemo) causes spontaneous progression of TNF-mediated chronic hepatitis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, we analyzed the role of death receptors including TNFR1 and TRAIL in the regulation of cell death and the progression of liver injury in IKK?/Nemo-deleted livers. We crossed hepatocyte-specific IKK?/Nemo knockout mice (Nemo(?hepa)) with constitutive TNFR1(-/-) and TRAIL(-/-) mice. Deletion of TNFR1, but not TRAIL, decreased apoptotic cell death, compensatory proliferation, liver fibrogenesis, infiltration of immune cells as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, and indicators of tumor growth during the progression of chronic liver injury. These events were associated with diminished JNK activation. In contrast, deletion of TNFR1 in bone-marrow-derived cells promoted chronic liver injury. Our data demonstrate that TNF- and not TRAIL signaling determines the progression of IKK?/Nemo-dependent chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we show that TNFR1 in hepatocytes and immune cells have different roles in chronic liver injury-a finding that has direct implications for treating chronic liver disease.
Project description:The protease ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17) catalyzes the shedding of various transmembrane proteins from the surface of cells, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors. Liberation of TNF receptors (TNFRs) from cell surfaces can dampen the cellular response to TNF, a cytokine that is critical in the innate immune response and promotes programmed cell death but can also promote sepsis. Catalytically inactive members of the rhomboid family of proteases, iRhom1 and iRhom2, mediate the intracellular transport and maturation of ADAM17. Using a genetic screen, we found that the presence of either iRhom1 or iRhom2 lacking part of their extended amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain (herein referred to as ?N) increases ADAM17 activity, TNFR shedding, and resistance to TNF-induced cell death in fibrosarcoma cells. Inhibitors of ADAM17, but not of other ADAM family members, prevented the effects of iRhom-?N expression. iRhom1 and iRhom2 were functionally redundant, suggesting a conserved role for the iRhom amino termini. Cells from patients with a dominantly inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome called tylosis with esophageal cancer (TOC) have amino-terminal mutations in iRhom2. Keratinocytes from TOC patients exhibited increased TNFR1 shedding compared with cells from healthy donors. Our results explain how loss of the amino terminus in iRhom1 and iRhom2 impairs TNF signaling, despite enhancing ADAM17 activity, and may explain how mutations in the amino-terminal region contribute to the cancer predisposition syndrome TOC.
Project description:Uptake of bacteria by phagocytes is a crucial step in innate immune defence. Members of the disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family critically control the immune response by limited proteolysis of surface expressed mediator molecules. Here, we investigated the significance of ADAM17 and its regulatory adapter molecule iRhom2 for bacterial uptake by phagocytes. Inhibition of metalloproteinase activity led to increased phagocytosis of pHrodo labelled Gram-negative and -positive bacteria (E. coli and S. aureus, respectively) by human and murine monocytic cell lines or primary phagocytes. Bone marrow-derived macrophages showed enhanced uptake of heat-inactivated and living E. coli when they lacked either ADAM17 or iRhom2 but not upon ADAM10-deficiency. In monocytic THP-1 cells, corresponding short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown confirmed that ADAM17, but not ADAM10, promoted phagocytosis of E. coli. The augmented bacterial uptake occurred in a cell autonomous manner and was accompanied by increased release of the chemokine CXCL8, less TNF? release and only minimal changes in the surface expression of the receptors TNFR1, TLR6 and CD36. Inhibition experiments indicated that the enhanced bacterial phagocytosis after ADAM17 knockdown was partially dependent on TNF?-activity but not on CXCL8. This novel role of ADAM17 in bacterial uptake needs to be considered in the development of ADAM17 inhibitors as therapeutics.