Oxygen-sensitive outcomes and gene expression in acute ischemic stroke.
ABSTRACT: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) results in focal deprivation of blood-borne factors, one of them being oxygen. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to identify therapeutic conditions for supplemental oxygen in AIS and (2) to use transcriptome-wide screening toward uncovering oxygen-sensitive mechanisms. Transient MCAO in rodents was used to delineate the therapeutic potential of normobaric (NBO, 100% O(2), 1ATA) and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO, 100% O(2), 2ATA) during ischemia (iNBO, iHBO) and after reperfusion (rNBO, rHBO). Stroke lesion was quantified using 4.7 T MRI at 48 h. Supplemental oxygen during AIS significantly attenuated percent stroke hemisphere lesion volume as compared with that in room air (RA) controls, whereas identical treatment immediately after reperfusion exacerbated lesion volume (RA=22.4+/-1.8, iNBO=9.9+/-3.6, iHBO=6.6+/-4.8, rNBO=29.8+/-3.6, rHBO=35.4+/-7.6). iNBO and iHBO corrected penumbra tissue pO(2) during AIS as measured by EPR oxymetry. Unbiased query of oxygen-sensitive transcriptome in stroke-affected tissue identified 5,769 differentially expressed genes. Candidate genes were verified by real-time PCR using neurons laser-captured from the stroke-affected somatosensory cortex. Directed microarray analysis showed that supplemental oxygen limited leukocyte accumulation to the infarct site by attenuation of stroke-inducible proinflammatory chemokine response. The findings provide key information relevant to understanding oxygen-dependent molecular mechanisms in the AIS-affected brain.
Project description:This work rests on our previous report (J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30: 1275-1287, 2010) recognizing that glutamate (Glu) oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) is induced when brain tissue hypoxia is corrected during acute ischemic stroke (AIS). GOT can metabolize Glu into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and may therefore be useful to harness excess neurotoxic extracellular Glu during AIS as a metabolic substrate. We report that in cultured neural cells challenged with hypoglycemia, extracellular Glu can support cell survival as long as there is sufficient oxygenation. This effect is abrogated by GOT knockdown. In a rodent model of AIS, supplemental oxygen (100% O(2) inhaled) during ischemia significantly increased GOT expression and activity in the stroke-affected brain tissue and prevented loss of ATP. Biochemical analyses and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy during stroke demonstrated that such elevated GOT decreased Glu levels at the stroke-affected site. In vivo lentiviral gene delivery of GOT minimized lesion volume, whereas GOT knockdown worsened stroke outcomes. Thus, brain tissue GOT emerges as a novel target in managing stroke outcomes. This work demonstrates that correction of hypoxia during AIS can help clear extracellular neurotoxic Glu by enabling utilization of this amino acid as a metabolic fuel to support survival of the hypoglycemic brain tissue. Strategies to mitigate extracellular Glu-mediated neurodegeneration via blocking receptor-mediated excitotoxicity have failed in clinical trials. We introduce the concept that under hypoglycemic conditions extracellular Glu can be transformed from a neurotoxin to a survival factor by GOT, provided there is sufficient oxygen to sustain cellular respiration.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Damage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) increases the incidence of neurovascular complications, especially for cerebral hemorrhage after tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) therapy. Currently, there is no effective method to evaluate the extent of BBB damage to guide tPA use. Herein, we investigated whether blood levels of tight junction proteins could serve as biomarker of BBB damages in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in both rats and patients. We examined whether this biomarker could reflect the extent of BBB permeability during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and the effects of normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) on BBB damage. METHODS:Rats were exposed to NBO (100% O2) or normoxia (21% O2) during middle cerebral artery occlusion. BBB permeability was determined. Occludin and claudin-5 in blood and cerebromicrovessels were measured. Patients with AIS were assigned to oxygen therapy or room air for 4 hours, and blood occludin and claudin-5 were measured at different time points after stroke. RESULTS:Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion resulted in the degradation of occludin and claudin-5 in microvessels, leading to increased BBB permeability in rats. In blood samples, occludin increased with 4-hour ischemia and remained elevated during reperfusion, correlating well with its loss from ischemic cerebral microvessels. NBO treatment both prevented occludin degradation in microvessels and reduced occludin levels in blood, leading to improved neurological functions in rats. In patients with AIS receiving intravenous tPA thrombolysis, the blood occludin was already elevated when patients arrived at hospital (within 4.5 hours since symptoms appeared) and remained at a high level for 72 hours. NBO significantly lowered the level of blood occludin and improved neurological functions in patients with AIS. CONCLUSIONS:Blood occludin may be a clinically viable biomarker for evaluating BBB damage during ischemia/reperfusion. NBO therapy has the potential to reduce blood occludin, protect BBB, and improve outcome in AIS patients with intravenous tPA thrombolysis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02974283.
Project description:Following the success of recent endovascular trials, endovascular therapy has emerged as an exciting addition to the arsenal of clinical management of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In this paper, we present an extensive overview of intravenous and endovascular reperfusion strategies, recent advances in AIS neurointervention, limitations of various treatment paradigms, and provide insights on imaging-guided reperfusion therapies. A roadmap for imaging guided reperfusion treatment workflow in AIS is also proposed. Both systemic thrombolysis and endovascular treatment have been incorporated into the standard of care in stroke therapy. Further research on advanced imaging-based approaches to select appropriate patients, may widen the time-window for patient selection and would contribute immensely to early thrombolytic strategies, better recanalization rates, and improved clinical outcomes.
Project description:While several large pivotal clinical trials recently revealed a substantial benefit of endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by large-vessel occlusion, many patients still experience mediocre prognosis. Enlargement of the ischemic core, failed revascularization, incomplete reperfusion, distal embolization, and secondary reperfusion injury substantially impact the salvaging of brain tissue and the functional outcomes of AIS. Here, we propose novel concept of "Multiphase Adjuvant Neuroprotection" as a new paradigm that may help guide our search for adjunctive treatments to be used together with thrombectomy. The premise of multiphase adjuvant neuroprotection is based on the diverse and potentially nonoverlapping pathophysiologic mechanisms that are triggered before, during, and after thrombectomy therapies. Before thrombectomy, strategies should focus on preventing the growth of the ischemic core; during thrombectomy, improving recanalization while reducing distal embolization and maximizing reperfusion are of significant importance; after reperfusion, strategies should focus on seeking targets to reduce secondary reperfusion injury. The concept of multiphase adjuvant neuroprotection, wherein different strategies are employed throughout the various phases of clinical care, might provide a paradigm to minimize the final infarct size and improve functional outcome in AIS patients treated with thrombectomy. With the success of thrombectomy in selected AIS patients, there is now an opportunity to revisit stroke neuroprotection. Notably, if the underlying mechanisms of these neuroprotective strategies are identified, their role in the distinct phases will provide further avenues to improve patient outcomes of AIS.
Project description:Over the past 20?years, clinical research has focused on the development of reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke (AIS), which include the use of systemic intravenous thrombolytics (alteplase, desmoteplase, or tenecteplase), the augmentation of systemic intravenous recanalization with ultrasound, the bridging of intravenous with intra-arterial thrombolysis, the use of multi-modal approaches to reperfusion including thrombectomy and thromboaspiration with different available retrievers. Clinical trials testing these acute reperfusion therapies provided novel insight regarding the comparative safety and efficacy, but also raised new questions and further uncertainty on the field. Intravenous alteplase (tPA) remains the fastest and easiest way to initiate acute stroke reperfusion treatment, and should continue to be the first-line treatment for patients with AIS within 4.5?h from onset. The use of tenecteplase instead of tPA and the augmentation of systemic thrombolysis with ultrasound are both novel therapeutical modalities that may emerge as significant options in AIS treatment. Endovascular treatments for AIS are rapidly evolving due to technological advances in catheter-based interventions and are currently emphasizing speed in order to result in timely restoration of perfusion of still-salvageable, infarcted brain tissue, since delayed recanalization of proximal intracranial occlusions has not been associated with improved clinical outcomes. Comprehensive imaging protocols in AIS may enable better patient selection for endovascular interventions and for testing multi-modal combinatory strategies.
Project description:Background Cerebral edema is frequent in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) who undergo reperfusion therapy and is associated with high mortality. The impact of collateral pial circulation (CPC) status on the development of edema has not yet been determined. Methods We studied consecutive patients with AIS and documented M1-middle cerebral artery (MCA) and/or distal internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion who underwent reperfusion treatment. Edema was graded on the 24-hour non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) scan. CPC was evaluated at the acute phase (≤6 hours) by transcranial color-coded Doppler, angiography and/or CT angiography. We performed an ordinal regression model for the effect of CPC on cerebral edema, adjusting for age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) on admission, NCCT, parenchymal hemorrhagic transformation at 24 hours and complete recanalization at six hours. Results Among the 108 patients included, 49.1% were male and mean age was 74.2 ± 11.6 years. Multivariable analysis showed a significant association between cerebral edema and CPC status (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.59, p = 0.003), initial ASPECTS (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.92, p = 0.007) and parenchymal hemorrhagic transformation (OR 23.67, 95% CI 4.56-122.8, p < 0.001). Conclusions Poor CPC is independently associated with greater cerebral edema 24 hours after AIS in patients who undergo reperfusion treatment.
Project description:Background: High systolic blood pressure (BP) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients undergoing reperfusion therapy. However, there are no data from randomized trials to guide BP management after reperfusion following endovascular therapy (EVT) for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with large vessel occlusion (LVO). The objective is to evaluate if BP control with a target of 100-129 mmHg systolic BP ("tight" SBP control) can reduce ICH as compared to 130-185 mmHg ("usual" SBP control) in AIS participants after reperfusion by EVT. Methods: The BP TARGET trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, blinded endpoint clinical trial. AIS participants with LVO experiencing successful reperfusion are randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to have a "tight" SBP control (100-129 mmHg) or a conservative SBP control (130-185 mmHg) during the following 24-36 h. The primary outcome is the rate of ICH (either symptomatic or asymptomatic) on follow-up CT scan at 24-36 h. Secondary outcomes include the rate of the symptomatic ICH, the overall distribution of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days, favorable outcome (90-day mRs 0-2), infarct volume at follow-up CT scan at 24-36 h, change in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale at 24 h, and all-cause mortality at 90 days. Conclusion: This is the first randomized trial directly comparing the efficacy of different SBP targets after EVT reperfusion. This prospective trial aims to determine whether a "tight" SBP control after EVT reperfusion can reduce the risk of ICH.
Project description:Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) accounts for more than 80% of the approximately 610,000 new stroke cases worldwide every year. Both ischemia and reperfusion can cause death, damage, and functional changes of affected nerve cells, and these alterations can result in high rates of disability and mortality. Therefore, therapies aimed at increasing neuroprotection and neurorepair would make significant contributions to AIS management. However, with regard to AIS therapies, there is currently a large gap between experimental achievements and practical clinical solutions (EC-GAP-AIS). Here, by integrating curated disease-gene associations and interactome network known to be related to AIS, we investigated the molecular network mechanisms of multi-module structures underlying AIS, which might be relevant to the time frame subtypes of AIS. In addition, the EC-GAP-AIS phenomenon was confirmed and elucidated by the shortest path lengths and the inconsistencies in the molecular functionalities and overlapping pathways between AIS-related genes and drug targets. Furthermore, we identified 23 potential targets (e.g. ADORA3, which is involved in the regulation of cellular reprogramming and the extracellular matrix) and 46 candidate drugs (e.g. felbamate, methylphenobarbital and memantine) that may have value for the treatment of AIS.
Project description:Delay in cortical vein filling during the late-venous phase (delayed-LCVF) is characterized by opacification of cerebral veins despite contrast clearance from contralateral veins on dynamic computed tomography angiography (dCTA) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of delayed-LCVF with clot location, reperfusion status at 24?hours, and 90-days functional outcome in AIS patients who received reperfusion therapy. A prospective cohort of AIS patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis was studied. Groupwise comparison, univariate, and multivariate regression analyses were used to study the association of delayed-LCVF with clot location and clinical outcomes. Of 93 patients (mean age?=?72?±?12 years) with hemispheric AIS included in the study, 46 (49%) demonstrated delayed-LCVF. Patients with delayed-LCVF demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of proximal occlusion (72% vs 13%, P?=<?0.0001), and poor reperfusion at 24?hours (41% vs 11%, P?=?0.001). The proportion of poor functional outcome at 90 days was not significantly different (22/56 (48%) vs 17/61 (36%), P?=?0.297). The appearance of delayed-LCVF on baseline dCTA may be a surrogate for large vessel occlusion, and an early marker for poor 24-hour angiographic reperfusion.
Project description:We investigated the relationship between the mean blood pressure (BP) at 24-72 h and the clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in patients treated with reperfusion therapy. The primary outcome was measured using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months after AIS, and was based on the mean systolic BP at 24-72 h post-AIS. Favorable outcome was defined as mRS scores of 0-2. A total of 1,540 patients treated with reperfusion therapy were enrolled in the study. Favorable outcomes occurred more frequently in patients with BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg, and the risks of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and early neurological deterioration were lower in this optimal BP group. Multivariable analysis showed a significant association between mean BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg at 24-72 h and favorable outcomes at 3 months after AIS (odds ratio 2.95, 95% confidence interval 2.32-3.77, p < 0.001). Prespecified subgroup analyses showed that BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg had a more significant impact on clinical outcome in patients with recanalization than in those without recanalization. These data indicate that a mean BP of ≤ 130/80 mmHg at 24-72 h post-AIS is independently associated with favorable outcomes in patients treated with reperfusion therapy, particularly in those with recanalization.