Permissive secondary mutations enable the evolution of influenza oseltamivir resistance.
ABSTRACT: The His274-->Tyr274 (H274Y) mutation confers oseltamivir resistance on N1 influenza neuraminidase but had long been thought to compromise viral fitness. However, beginning in 2007-2008, viruses containing H274Y rapidly became predominant among human seasonal H1N1 isolates. We show that H274Y decreases the amount of neuraminidase that reaches the cell surface and that this defect can be counteracted by secondary mutations that also restore viral fitness. Two such mutations occurred in seasonal H1N1 shortly before the widespread appearance of H274Y. The evolution of oseltamivir resistance was therefore enabled by "permissive" mutations that allowed the virus to tolerate subsequent occurrences of H274Y. An understanding of this process may provide a basis for predicting the evolution of oseltamivir resistance in other influenza strains.
Project description:The His274?Tyr (H274Y) oseltamivir (Tamiflu) resistance mutation causes a substantial decrease in the total levels of surface-expressed neuraminidase protein and activity in early isolates of human seasonal H1N1 influenza, and in the swine-origin pandemic H1N1. In seasonal H1N1, H274Y only became widespread after the occurrence of secondary mutations that counteracted this decrease. H274Y is currently rare in pandemic H1N1, and it remains unclear whether secondary mutations exist that might similarly counteract the decreased neuraminidase surface expression associated with this resistance mutation in pandemic H1N1. Here we investigate the possibility of predicting such secondary mutations. We first test the ability of several computational approaches to retrospectively identify the secondary mutations that enhanced levels of surface-expressed neuraminidase protein and activity in seasonal H1N1 shortly before the emergence of oseltamivir resistance. We then use the most successful computational approach to predict a set of candidate secondary mutations to the pandemic H1N1 neuraminidase. We experimentally screen these mutations, and find that several of them do indeed partially counteract the decrease in neuraminidase surface expression caused by H274Y. Two of the secondary mutations together restore surface-expressed neuraminidase activity to wildtype levels, and also eliminate the very slight decrease in viral growth in tissue-culture caused by H274Y. Our work therefore demonstrates a combined computational-experimental approach for identifying mutations that enhance neuraminidase surface expression, and describes several specific mutations with the potential to be of relevance to the spread of oseltamivir resistance in pandemic H1N1.
Project description:Influenza viruses resistant to antiviral drugs emerge frequently. Not surprisingly, the widespread treatment in many countries of patients infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses with the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir has led to the emergence of pandemic strains resistant to these drugs. Sporadic cases of pandemic influenza have been associated with mutant viruses possessing a histidine-to-tyrosine substitution at position 274 (H274Y) in the NA, a mutation known to be responsible for oseltamivir resistance. Here, we characterized in vitro and in vivo properties of two pairs of oseltaimivir-sensitive and -resistant (possessing the NA H274Y substitution) 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses isolated in different parts of the world. An in vitro NA inhibition assay confirmed that the NA H274Y substitution confers oseltamivir resistance to 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. In mouse lungs, we found no significant difference in replication between oseltamivir-sensitive and -resistant viruses. In the lungs of mice treated with oseltamivir or even zanamivir, 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses with the NA H274Y substitution replicated efficiently. Pathological analysis revealed that the pathogenicities of the oseltamivir-resistant viruses were comparable to those of their oseltamivir-sensitive counterparts in ferrets. Further, the oseltamivir-resistant viruses transmitted between ferrets as efficiently as their oseltamivir-sensitive counterparts. Collectively, these data indicate that oseltamivir-resistant 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses with the NA H274Y substitution were comparable to their oseltamivir-sensitive counterparts in their pathogenicity and transmissibility in animal models. Our findings highlight the possibility that NA H274Y-possessing oseltamivir-resistant 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses could supersede oseltamivir-sensitive viruses, as occurred with seasonal H1N1 viruses.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Current antiviral therapies include oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor that prevents the release of nascent viral particles from infected cells. However, the IAV genome can evolve rapidly, and oseltamivir resistance mutations have been detected in numerous clinical samples. Using an in vitro evolution platform and whole-genome population sequencing, we investigated the population genomics of IAV during the development of oseltamivir resistance. Strain A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) was grown in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with or without escalating concentrations of oseltamivir over serial passages. Following drug treatment, the H274Y resistance mutation fixed reproducibly within the population. The presence of the H274Y mutation in the viral population, at either a low or a high frequency, led to measurable changes in the neuraminidase inhibition assay. Surprisingly, fixation of the resistance mutation was not accompanied by alterations of viral population diversity or differentiation, and oseltamivir did not alter the selective environment. While the neighboring K248E mutation was also a target of positive selection prior to H274Y fixation, H274Y was the primary beneficial mutation in the population. In addition, once evolved, the H274Y mutation persisted after the withdrawal of the drug, even when not fixed in viral populations. We conclude that only selection of H274Y is required for oseltamivir resistance and that H274Y is not deleterious in the absence of the drug. These collective results could offer an explanation for the recent reproducible rise in oseltamivir resistance in seasonal H1N1 IAV strains in humans.
Project description:Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) is the most widely used drug against influenza infections and is extensively stockpiled worldwide as part of pandemic preparedness plans. However, resistance is a growing problem and in 2008-2009, seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 virus strains in most parts of the world carried the mutation H274Y in the neuraminidase gene which causes resistance to the drug. The active metabolite of oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and surface water and has been detected in aquatic environments where the natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can be exposed to the substance. To assess if resistance can develop under these circumstances, we infected mallards with influenza A/H1N1 virus and exposed the birds to 80 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 80 µg/L of OC through their sole water source. By sequencing the neuraminidase gene from fecal samples, we found that H274Y occurred at 1 µg/L of OC and rapidly dominated the viral population at 80 µg/L. IC?? for OC was increased from 2-4 nM in wild-type viruses to 400-700 nM in H274Y mutants as measured by a neuraminidase inhibition assay. This is consistent with the decrease in sensitivity to OC that has been noted among human clinical isolates carrying H274Y. Environmental OC levels have been measured to 58-293 ng/L during seasonal outbreaks and are expected to reach µg/L-levels during pandemics. Thus, resistance could be induced in influenza viruses circulating among wild ducks. As influenza viruses can cross species barriers, oseltamivir resistance could spread to human-adapted strains with pandemic potential disabling oseltamivir, a cornerstone in pandemic preparedness planning. We propose surveillance in wild birds as a measure to understand the resistance situation in nature and to monitor it over time. Strategies to lower environmental levels of OC include improved sewage treatment and, more importantly, a prudent use of antivirals.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Among Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), oseltamivir corresponds to the most widely used agent to treat influenza disease. However since 2001, several cases of resistance to NAIs have been reported for circulating seasonal A(H1N1) Influenza viruses. A direct resistance mechanism may be invoked, involving critical mutations in the viral NA gene that prevent the drug binding to its target. Same phenomenon is reported for adamantanes drugs and mutations in the M2 channel protein gene of Influenza viruses. METHODS: Reverse-Transcription/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RT-PCR/RFLP) method, phenotypic testing for oseltamivir resistance, and sequencing of NA, HA and M2 genes were used in this study. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using BioEdit and Mega 5 softwares for alignment of sequences and phylogenetic trees building respectively. RESULTS: Using a simple RT-PCR/RFLP method, we found that the 86 seasonal A(H1N1) isolates from 2008 bear the oseltamivir resistance-associated mutation (H274Y) in the NA gene. In contrast all isolates isolated in Senegal in 2007 were sensitive to oseltamivir. These results were first confirmed by finding high IC50 values using a phenotypic testing for oseltamivir resistance, and secondly by sequencing the whole NA gene. Regarding M2 gene, no mutation associated to adamantanes resistance was characterized of the isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The present work provides evidence of circulation of drug-resistant seasonal A(H1N1) viruses during the 2008 influenza season (July to September) in Senegal. The results are in favor of multiple introductions of oseltamivir resistant viruses (ORV) A(H1N1) in Senegal.Phylogenetic analyses of isolates with complete sequences of N1 and HA1 genes showed that they belong to clade 2B and suggest sequential introductions in Africa.
Project description:Compensatory mutations contribute to the appearance of the oseltamivir resistance substitution H274Y in the neuraminidase (NA) gene of H1N1 influenza viruses. Here, we describe a high-throughput screening method utilizing error-prone PCR and next-generation sequencing to comprehensively screen NA genes for H274Y compensatory mutations. We found four mutations that can either fully (R194G, E214D) or partially (L250P, F239Y) compensate for the fitness deficiency of the H274Y mutant. The compensatory effect of E214D is applicable in both seasonal influenza virus strain A/New Caledonia/20/1999 and 2009 pandemic swine influenza virus strain A/California/04/2009. The technique described here has the potential to profile a gene at the single-nucleotide level to comprehend the dynamics of mutation space and fitness and thus offers prediction power for emerging mutant species.
Project description:Oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 influenza viruses emerged in 2007 to 2008 and have subsequently circulated widely. However, prior to 2007 to 2008, viruses possessing the neuraminidase (NA) H274Y mutation, which confers oseltamivir resistance, generally had low growth capability. NA mutations that compensate for the deleterious effect of the NA H274Y mutation have since been identified. Given the importance of the functional balance between hemagglutinin (HA) and NA, we focused on amino acid changes in HA. Reverse genetic analysis showed that a mutation at residue 82, 141, or 189 of the HA protein promotes virus replication in the presence of the NA H274Y mutation. Our findings thus identify HA mutations that contributed to the replacement of the oseltamivir-sensitive viruses of 2007 to 2008.
Project description:Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) play a key role in the management of influenza epidemics and pandemics. Given the novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1) virus and the restricted number of approved anti-influenza drugs, evaluation of potential drug-resistant variants is of high priority.Recombinant pH1N1 viruses were generated by reverse genetics, expressing either the wild-type or any of 9 mutant neuraminidase (NA) proteins (N2 numbering: E119G, E119V, D198G, I222V, H274Y, N294S, S334N, I222V-H274Y, and H274Y-S334N). We evaluated these recombinant viruses for their resistance phenotype to 4 NAIs (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, and A-315675), NA enzymatic activity, and replicative capacity.The E119G and E119V mutations conferred a multidrug resistance phenotype to many NAIs but severely compromised viral fitness. The oseltamivir- and peramivir-resistance phenotype was confirmed for the H274Y and N294S mutants, although both viruses remained susceptible to zanamivir. Remarkably, the I222V mutation had a synergistic effect on the oseltamivir- and peramivir-resistance phenotype of H274Y and compensated for reduced viral fitness, raising concerns about the potential emergence and dissemination of this double-mutant virus.This study highlights the importance of continuous monitoring of antiviral drug resistance in clinical samples as well as the need to develop new agents and combination strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In Spring 2009, a novel reassortant strain of H1N1 influenza A emerged as a lineage distinct from seasonal H1N1. On June 11, the World Heath Organization declared a pandemic - the first since 1968. There are currently two main branches of H1N1 circulating in humans, a seasonal branch and a pandemic branch. The primary treatment method for pandemic and seasonal H1N1 is the antiviral drug Tamiflu (oseltamivir). Although many seasonal H1N1 strains around the world are resistant to oseltamivir, initially, pandemic H1N1 strains have been susceptible to oseltamivir. As of February 3, 2010, there have been reports of resistance to oseltamivir in 225 cases of H1N1 pandemic influenza. The evolution of resistance to oseltamivir in pandemic H1N1 could be due to point mutations in the neuraminidase or a reassortment event between seasonal H1N1 and pandemic H1N1 viruses that provide a neuraminidase carrying an oseltamivir-resistant genotype to pandemic H1N1. RESULTS: Using phylogenetic analysis of neuraminidase sequences, we show that both seasonal and pandemic lineages of H1N1 are evolving to direct selective pressure for resistance to oseltamivir. Moreover, seasonal lineages of H1N1 that are resistant to oseltamivir co-circulate with pandemic H1N1 throughout the globe. By combining phylogenetic and geographic data we have thus far identified 53 areas of co-circulation where reassortment can occur. At our website POINTMAP, http://pointmap.osu.edu we make available a visualization and an application for updating these results as more data are released. CONCLUSIONS: As oseltamivir is a keystone of preparedness and treatment for pandemic H1N1, the potential for resistance to oseltamivir is an ongoing concern. Reassortment and, more likely, point mutation have the potential to create a strain of pandemic H1N1 against which we have a reduced number of treatment options.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) is an important pharmaceutical intervention against the influenza virus. The importance of surveillance for resistance to oseltamivir has been highlighted by two global events: the emergence of an oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus in 2008, and emergence of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. Oseltamivir is a prescription medicine in New Zealand, but more timely access has been provided since 2007 by allowing pharmacies to directly dispense oseltamivir to patients with influenza-like illness. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of oseltamivir-resistance in the context of a medicine reclassification in 2007, the importation of an oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza virus in 2008, and the emergence of a pandemic in 2009. METHODS: A total of 1795 influenza viruses were tested for oseltamivir-resistance using a fluorometric neuraminidase inhibition assay. Viruses were collected as part of a sentinel influenza surveillance programme between the years 2006 and 2010. RESULTS: All influenza B, influenza A(H3N2) and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses tested between 2006 and 2010 were shown to be sensitive to oseltamivir. Seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses from 2008 and 2009 were resistant to oseltamivir. Sequencing of the neuraminidase gene showed that the resistant viruses contained an H275Y mutation, and S247N was also identified in the neuraminidase gene of one seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus that exhibited enhanced resistance. DISCUSSION: No evidence was found to suggest that increased access to oseltamivir has promoted resistance. A probable importation event was documented for the global 2008 oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1) virus nine months after it was first reported in Europe in January 2008.