Role for hepatic and circulatory ST6Gal-1 sialyltransferase in regulating myelopoiesis.
ABSTRACT: Recent findings have established a role for the ST6Gal-1 sialyltransferase in modulating inflammatory cell production during Th1 and Th2 responses. ST6Gal-1 synthesizes the Sia(alpha2,6) to Gal(beta1,4)GlcNAc linkage on glycoproteins on cell surfaces and in systemic circulation. Engagement of P1, one of six promoter/regulatory regions driving murine ST6Gal-1 gene expression, generates the ST6Gal-1 for myelopoietic regulation. P1 utilization, however, is restricted to the liver and silent in hematopoietic cells. We considered the possibility that myelopoiesis is responsive to the sialylation of liver-derived circulatory glycoproteins, such that reduced alpha2,6-sialylation results in elevated myelopoiesis. However, 2-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis disclosed only minimal alterations in the sialylation of sera glycoproteins of ST6Gal-1-deficient mice when compared with wild-type controls, either at baseline or during an acute phase response when the demand for sialylation is greatest. Furthermore, sera from ST6Gal-1-deficient animals did not enhance myelopoietic activity in ex vivo colony formation assays. Whereas there was only minimal consequence to the alpha2,6-sialylation of circulatory glycoproteins, ablation of the P1 promoter did result in strikingly depressed levels of ST6Gal-1 released into systemic circulation. Therefore, we considered the alternative possibility that myelopoiesis may be regulated not by the hepatic sialyl glycoproteins, but by the ST6Gal-1 that was released directly into circulation. Supporting this, ex vivo colony formation was notably attenuated upon introduction of physiologic levels of ST6Gal-1 into the culture medium. Our data support the idea that circulatory ST6Gal-1, mostly of hepatic origin, limits myelopoiesis by a mechanism independent of hepatic sialylation of serum glycoproteins.
Project description:The anti-inflammatory properties associated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy require the sialic acid modification of the N-glycan of the Fc domain of IgG. Sialylation of the Fc fragment is mediated by ?-galactoside ?2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6Gal-1), acting on the Gal(?4)GlcNAc terminal structure of the biantennary N-glycans on the Fc domain. However, little is known regarding the in vivo regulation of Fc sialylation and its role in the progression of inflammatory processes. Here, we report that decreased Fc sialylation of circulatory IgG accompanies the acute phase response elicited by turpentine exposure or upon acute exposure to either nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae or ovalbumin. However, Fc sialylation was increased 3-fold from the base line upon transition to chronic inflammation by repeated exposure to challenge. The P1 promoter of the ST6Gal-1 gene is critical for Fc sialylation, but P1 does not drive ST6Gal-1 expression in B cells. The Siat1?P1 mouse, with a dysfunctional P1 promoter, was unable to produce sialylated Fc in the systemic circulation, despite the presence of Gal(?4)GlcNAc termini on the Fc glycans. The major contribution of P1 action is to synthesize ST6Gal-1 enzymes that are deposited into the systemic circulation. The data strongly indicate that this pool of extracellular ST6Gal-1 in the blood impacts the sialylation of IgG Fc and that defective Fc sialylation is likely a major contributing mechanism for the proinflammatory tendencies previously noted in Siat1?P1 animals.
Project description:Elevation of serum sialic acid and the ST6Gal-1 sialyltransferase is part of the hepatic system inflammatory response, but the contribution of ST6Gal-1 has remained unclear. Hepatic ST6Gal-1 elevation is mediated by P1, 1 of 6 promoters regulating the ST6Gal1 gene. We report that the P1-ablated mouse, Siat1DeltaP1, and a globally ST6Gal-1-deficient mouse had significantly increased peritoneal leukocytosis after intraperitoneal challenge with thioglycollate. Exaggerated peritonitis was accompanied by only a modest increase in neutrophil viability, and transferred bone marrow-derived neutrophils from Siat1DeltaP1 mice migrated to the peritonea of recipients with normal efficiency after thioglycollate challenge. Siat1DeltaP1 mice exhibited 3-fold greater neutrophilia by thioglycollate, greater pools of epinephrine-releasable marginated neutrophils, greater sensitivity to G-CSF, elevated bone marrow CFU-G and proliferative-stage myeloid cells, and a more robust recovery from cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. Bone marrow leukocytes from Siat1DeltaP1 are indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice in alpha2,6-sialylation, as revealed by the Sambucus nigra lectin, and in the expression of total ST6Gal-1 mRNA. Together, our study demonstrated a role for ST6Gal-1, possibly from extramedullary sources (eg, produced in liver) in regulating inflammation, circulating neutrophil homeostasis, and replenishing granulocyte numbers.
Project description:Glycans occupy the critical cell surface interface between hematopoietic cells and their marrow niches. Typically, glycosyltransferases reside within the intracellular secretory apparatus, and each cell autonomously generates its own cell surface glycans. In this study, we report an alternate pathway to generate cell surface glycans where remotely produced glycosyltransferases remodel surfaces of target cells and for which endogenous expression of the cognate enzymes is not required. Our data show that extracellular ST6Gal-1 sialyltransferase, originating mostly from the liver and released into circulation, targets marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mediates the formation of cell surface ?2,6-linked sialic acids on HSPCs as assessed by binding to the specific lectins Sambucus nigra agglutinin and Polysporus squamosus lectin and confirmed by mass spectrometry. Marrow HSPCs, operationally defined as the Lin-c-Kit+ and Lin-Sca-1+c-Kit+ populations, express negligible endogenous ST6Gal-1. Animals with reduced circulatory ST6Gal-1 have marrow Lin-Sca-1+c-Kit+ cells with reduced S. nigra agglutinin reactivity. Bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that ?2,6-sialylation of HSPCs is profoundly dependent on circulatory ST6Gal-1 status of the recipients and independent of the ability of HSPCs to express endogenous ST6Gal-1. Biologically, HSPC abundance in the marrow is inversely related to circulatory ST6Gal-1 status, and this relationship is recapitulated in the bone marrow chimeras. We propose that remotely produced, rather than the endogenously expressed, ST6Gal-1 is the principal modifier of HSPC glycans for ?2,6-sialic acids. In so doing, liver-produced ST6Gal-1 may be a potent systemic regulator of hematopoiesis.
Project description:Recent reports have documented that extracellular sialyltransferases can remodel both cell-surface and secreted glycans by a process other than the canonical cell-autonomous glycosylation that occurs within the intracellular secretory apparatus. Despite association of the abundance of these extracellular sialyltransferases, particularly ST6Gal-1, with disease states such as cancer and a variety of inflammatory conditions, the prevalence of this extrinsic glycosylation pathway <i>in vivo</i> remains unknown. Here we observed no significant extrinsic sialylation in resting mice, suggesting that extrinsic sialylation is not a constitutive process. However, extrinsic sialylation in the periphery could be triggered by inflammatory challenges, such as exposure to ionizing radiation or to bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Sialic acids from circulating platelets were used <i>in vivo</i> to remodel target cell surfaces. Platelet activation was minimally sufficient to elicit extrinsic sialylation, as demonstrated with the FeCl<sub>3</sub> model of mesenteric artery thrombosis. Although extracellular ST6Gal-1 supports extrinsic sialylation, other sialyltransferases are present in systemic circulation. We also observed <i>in vivo</i> extrinsic sialylation in animals deficient in ST6Gal-1, demonstrating that extrinsic sialylation is not mediated exclusively by ST6Gal-1. Together, these observations form an emerging picture of glycans biosynthesized by the canonical cell-autonomous glycosylation pathway, but subjected to remodeling by extracellular glycan-modifying enzymes.
Project description:A number of alterations to the normal glycomic profile have been previously described for a number of diseases and disorders, thus underscoring the medical importance of studying the glycans associated with proteins present in biological samples. An important alteration in cancer progression is an increased level of alpha2,6-sialylation, which aids in increasing the metastatic potential of tumor cells. Here we report a glycomic method that selectively amidates alpha2,6-linked sialic acids, while those that are alpha2,3-linked undergo spontaneous lactonization. Following subsequent permethylation, MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that many sialylated glycans present on glycoproteins found in blood serum featured increased levels of alpha2,6-sialylation in breast cancer samples. On the basis of the altered ratios of alpha2,3-linked to alpha2,6-linked sialic acids, many of these glycans became diagnostically relevant when they did not act as such indicators when based on traditional glycomic profiling alone.
Project description:Humoral immunity depends on intrinsic B cell developmental programs guided by systemic signals that convey physiologic needs. Aberrant cues or their improper interpretation can lead to immune insufficiency or a failure of tolerance and autoimmunity. The means by which such systemic signals are conveyed remain poorly understood. Hence, further insight is essential to understanding and treating autoimmune diseases and to the development of improved vaccines. ST6Gal-1 is a sialyltransferase that constructs the ?2,6-sialyl linkage on cell surface and extracellular glycans. The requirement for functional ST6Gal-1 in the development of humoral immunity is well documented. Canonically, ST6Gal-1 resides within the intracellular ER-Golgi secretory apparatus and participates in cell-autonomous glycosylation. However, a significant pool of extracellular ST6Gal-1 exists in circulation. Here, we segregate the contributions of B cell intrinsic and extrinsic ST6Gal-1 to B cell development. We observed that B cell-intrinsic ST6Gal-1 is required for marginal zone B cell development, while B cell non-autonomous ST6Gal-1 modulates B cell development and survival at the early transitional stages of the marrow and spleen. Exposure to extracellular ST6Gal-1 <i>ex vivo</i> enhanced the formation of IgM-high B cells from immature precursors, and increased CD23 and IgM expression. Extrinsic sialylation by extracellular ST6Gal-1 augmented BAFF-mediated activation of the non-canonical NF-kB, p38 MAPK, and PI3K/AKT pathways, and accelerated tyrosine phosphorylation after B cell receptor stimulation. <i>in vivo</i>, systemic ST6Gal-1 did not influence homing of B cells to the spleen but was critical for their long-term survival and systemic IgG levels. Circulatory ST6Gal-1 levels respond to inflammation, infection, and malignancy in mammals, including humans. In turn, we have shown previously that systemic ST6Gal-1 regulates inflammatory cell production by modifying bone marrow myeloid progenitors. Our data here point to an additional role of systemic ST6Gal-1 in guiding B cell development, which supports the concept that circulating ST6Gal-1 is a conveyor of systemic cues to guide the development of multiple branches of immune cells.
Project description:Klotho is a mammalian senescence-suppression protein that has homology with glycosidases. The extracellular domain of Klotho is secreted into urine and blood and may function as a humoral factor. Klotho-deficient mice have accelerated aging and imbalance of ion homeostasis. Klotho treatment increases cell-surface abundance of the renal epithelial Ca(2+) channel TRPV5 by modifying its N-linked glycans. However, the precise sugar substrate and mechanism for regulation by Klotho is not known. Here, we report that the extracellular domain of Klotho activates plasma-membrane resident TRPV5 through removing terminal sialic acids from their glycan chains. Removal of sialic acids exposes underlying disaccharide galactose-N-acetylglucosamine, a ligand for a ubiquitous galactoside-binding lectin galectin-1. Binding to galectin-1 lattice at the extracellular surface leads to accumulation of functional TRPV5 on the plasma membrane. Knockdown of beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-1) by RNA interference, but not other sialyltransferases, in a human cell line prevents the regulation by Klotho. Moreover, the regulation by Klotho is absent in a hamster cell line that lacks endogenous ST6Gal-1, but is restored by forced expression of recombinant ST6Gal-1. Thus, Klotho participates in specific removal of alpha2,6-linked sialic acids and regulates cell surface retention of TRPV5 through this activity. This action of Klotho represents a novel mechanism for regulation of the activity of cell-surface glycoproteins and likely contributes to maintenance of calcium balance by Klotho.
Project description:Cumulative evidence indicates that the sialyltransferase ST6Gal-1 and the sialyl-glycans, which it constructs, are functionally pleiotropic. Expression of the ST6Gal-1 gene is mediated by six distinct promoter/regulatory regions, and we hypothesized that these promoters may be used differentially to produce ST6Gal-1 for different biologic purposes. To examine this hypothesis, we compared a mouse with a complete deficiency in ST6Gal-1 (Siat1 null) with another mouse that we have created previously with a disruption only in the P1 promoter (Siat1DeltaP1). We noted previously greater neutrophilic inflammation associated with ST6Gal-1 deficiency. Here, we report that ST6Gal-1-deficient mice also have significantly elevated eosinophilic responses. Upon i.p. thioglycollate elicitation, eosinophils accounted for over 20% of the total peritoneal inflammatory cell pool in ST6Gal-1-deficient animals, which was threefold greater than in corresponding wild-type animals. A principal feature of allergic respiratory inflammation is pulmonary eosinophilia, we evaluated the role of ST6Gal-1 in allergic lung inflammation. Using OVA and ABPA experimental models of allergic airways, we showed that ST6Gal-1 deficiency led to greater airway inflammation characterized by excessive airway eosinophilia. The severity of airway inflammation was similar between Siat1DeltaP1 and Siat1 null mice, indicating a role for P1-generated ST6Gal-1 in regulating eosinophilic inflammation. Colony-forming assays suggested greater IL-5-dependent eosinophil progenitor numbers in the marrow of ST6Gal-1-deficient animals. Moreover, allergen provocation of wild-type mice led to a significant reduction in P1-mediated ST6Gal-1 mRNA and accompanied decline in circulatory ST6Gal-1 levels. Taken together, the data implicate ST6Gal-1 as a participant in regulating not only Th1 but also Th2 responses, and ST6Gal-1 deficiency can lead to the development of more severe allergic inflammation with excessive eosinophil production.
Project description:The ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase, an enzyme that adds ?2-6-linked sialic acids to N-glycosylated proteins, regulates multiple immunological processes. However, the contribution of receptor sialylation to inflammatory signaling has been under-investigated. In the current study, we uncovered a role for ST6Gal-I in promoting sustained signaling through two prominent inflammatory pathways, NF?B and JAK/STAT. Using the U937 monocytic cell model, we determined that knockdown (KD) of ST6Gal-I expression had no effect on the rapid activation of NF?B by TNF (? 30 min), whereas long-term TNF-induced NF?B activation (2-6 hr) was diminished in ST6Gal-I-KD cells. These data align with prior work in epithelial cells showing that ?2-6 sialylation of TNFR1 prolongs TNF-dependent NF?B activation. Similar to TNF, long-term, but not short-term, LPS-induced activation of NF?B was suppressed by ST6Gal-I KD. ST6Gal-I KD cells also exhibited reduced long-term IRF3 and STAT3 activation by LPS. Given that ST6Gal-I activity modulated LPS-dependent signaling, we conducted pull-down assays using SNA (a lectin specific for ?2-6 sialic acids) to show that the LPS receptor, TLR4, is a substrate for sialylation by ST6Gal-I. We next assessed signaling by IFN?, IL-6 and GM-CSF, and found that ST6Gal-I-KD had a limited effect on STAT activation induced by these cytokines. To corroborate these findings, signaling was monitored in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) from mice with myeloid-specific deletion of ST6Gal-I (LysMCre/ST6Gal-Ifl/fl). In agreement with data from U937 cells, BMDMs with ST6Gal-I knockout displayed reduced long-term activation of NF?B by both TNF and LPS, and diminished long-term LPS-dependent STAT3 activation. However, STAT activation induced by IFN?, IL-6 and GM-CSF was comparable in wild-type and ST6Gal-I knockout BMDMs. These results implicate ST6Gal-I-mediated receptor sialylation in prolonging the activity of select signaling cascades including TNF/NF?B, LPS/NF?B, and LPS/STAT3, providing new insights into ST6Gal-I's role in modulating the inflammatory phenotype of monocytic cells.
Project description:Sialyltransferases transfer sialic acid from cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) to an acceptor molecule. Trans-sialidases of parasites transfer alpha2,3-linked sialic acid from one molecule to another without the involvement of CMP-NeuAc. Here we report another type of sialylation, termed reverse sialylation, catalyzed by mammalian sialyltransferase ST3Gal-II. This enzyme synthesizes CMP-NeuAc by transferring NeuAc from the NeuAcalpha2,3Galbeta1,3GalNAcalpha unit of O-glycans, 3-sialyl globo unit of glycolipids, and sialylated macromolecules to 5'-CMP. CMP-NeuAc produced in situ is utilized by the same enzyme to sialylate other O-glycans and by other sialyltransferases such as ST6Gal-I and ST6GalNAc-I, forming alpha2,6-sialylated compounds. ST3Gal-II also catalyzed the conversion of 5'-uridine monophosphate (UMP) to UMP-NeuAc, which was found to be an inactive sialyl donor. Reverse sialylation proceeded without the need for free sialic acid, divalent metal ions, or energy. Direct sialylation with CMP-NeuAc as well as the formation of CMP-NeuAc from 5'-CMP had a wide optimum range (pH 5.2-7.2 and 4.8-6.4, respectively), whereas the entire reaction comprising in situ production of CMP-NeuAc and sialylation of acceptor had a sharp optimum at pH 5.6 (activity level 50% at pH 5.2 and 6.8, 25% at pH 4.8 and 7.2). Several properties distinguish forward/conventional versus reverse sialylation: (i) sodium citrate inhibited forward sialylation but not reverse sialylation; (ii) 5'-CDP, a potent forward sialyltransferase inhibitor, did not inhibit the conversion of 5'-CMP to CMP-NeuAc; and (iii) the mucin core 2 compound 3-O-sulfoGalbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,6(Galbeta1,3)GalNAcalpha-O-benzyl, an efficient acceptor for ST3Gal-II, inhibited the conversion of 5'-CMP to CMP-NeuAc. A significant level of reverse sialylation activity is noted in human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3. Overall, the study demonstrates that the sialyltransferase reaction is readily reversible in the case of ST3Gal-II and can be exploited for the enzymatic synthesis of diverse sialyl products.